Definition of travertine: 1. Hard calcareous mineral deposited by flowing water, that is the same as the calcareous variety of sinter and to the ... " />
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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That mechanical dispersion is the process whereby solutes are mechanically mixed during advective transport caused by the velocity variations at the microscopic level. synonymous with hydraulic dispersion [22].?

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Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

Based on "A Lexicon of Cave and Karst Terminology with Special to Environmental Karst Hydrology" EPA/600/R-02/003, 2002, EPA: Washington, DC., Speleogenesis Glossary includes 2699 cave & karst terms

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travertine

1. Hard calcareous mineral deposited by flowing water, that is the same as the calcareous variety of sinter and comparable to the softer tufa. The term is normally used only for deposits formed outside caves, where plants and algae cause the precipitation by extracting carbon dioxide from the water and give travertine its porous structure. Travertine forms most commonly on waterfalls that build up like gour dams. Famous examples include those at Plitvice in Croatia, Dunn's River Falls in Jamaica, and, largest of all, Band-I-Amir in Afghanistan [9]. 2. Calcium carbonate, CaCO3, light in color and generally concretionary and compact, deposited from solution in ground and surface waters. Extremely porous or cellular varieties are known as calcareous tufa, calcareous sinter, or spring deposit. Compact banded varieties, capable of taking a polish, are called onyx marble or cave onyx [10]. 3. Generally compact calcium carbonate rock formed by precipitation of soluble bicarbonates when equilibrium is lost due to changes in temperature and chemical characteristics. Soft, porous variety is called calcareous tufa [20]. Synonyms: (French.) travertin; (German.) Kalktuff, Sinter, Travertin; (Greek.) travertinis/asvestolithikos toffos; (Italian.) travertino; (Russian.) travertin; (Spanish.) travertino, toba; (Turkish.) traverten, sutasi; (Yugoslavian.) sedra, travertin, bigar, lehnjak. Related to sinter and tufa.

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