Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms
Based on "A Lexicon of Cave and Karst Terminology with Special to Environmental Karst Hydrology" EPA/600/R-02/003, 2002, EPA: Washington, DC., Speleogenesis Glossary includes 2699 cave & karst terms
1. Type of flow that begins to develop in a dissolutional sub-conduit as its diameter increases to the point where differences between flow velocity at the bounding wall (slowed due to friction and adhesion) and the maximum velocity in the tube's center are sufficient to cause development of eddies within the flowing water . 2. The flow condition in which inertial forces predominate over viscous forces and in which head loss is not linearly related to velocity . It is typical of flow in surface-water bodies and subsurface conduits in karst terranes provided that the conduits have a minimum diameter of approximately 2-5mm although some research has suggested that 5-15 mm may be more appropriate. See also laminar flow; Reynolds Number; turbulent threshold.