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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 11 Jul, 2012
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That permeability is see hydraulic conductivity; permeability, intrinsic .?

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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

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SAZU, Ljubljana
Acta carsologica, 2003, Vol 32, Issue 1, p. 157-172
The origine and evolution of coastal and submarine springs in Bakar Bay
Abstract:

The paper presents coastal and submarine springs in Bakar Bay. The northeastern coast of Bakar Bay is abound in springs, since there is the lowest placed contact between large karst aquifer and flysch lithogenetic complex which forms hydrogeological barrier. Studied area is situated between rno and Žminjca locations, where water flows out in series of concentrated coastal and submarine springs as well as on the places of a diffuse outflow. A rapid raise of sea-level from the end of the Pleistocene changed the hydrogeological conditions so that coastal springs were submerged and new ones, at higher levels appeared. Some of submerged springs continued to throw out water, that is, they started to function as submarine springs (vrulja) due to a strong inflow from the background and high pressures. Some of them were not registered, although according to water balance analyses of wider area, widespread evidences of groundwater outflow could be expected. Their position reflects geological fabric of the area. Groundwaters have intensive flowing gradient. Their flowing out in hydraulically unstable zone have facilitated mixing of sea- water and fresh-water and as a result spring-water is usually brackish.