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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 11 Jul, 2012
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That anthropocentric definitions is definitions of caves or parts of caves that include accessibility by human explorers as one of their limiting conditions. most well known among these is the definition published by the international speleological union, that 'a cave is a natural underground opening in rock that is large enough for human entry' (see proto-caves) [9].?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

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SAZU, Ljubljana
Acta carsologica, 2007, Vol 36, Issue 1, p. 173-182
How long does evolution of the troglomorphic form take? Estimating divergence times in Astyanax mexicanus
Abstract:

Features including colonization routes (stream capture) and the existence of both epigean and cave-adapted hypogean popula­tions make Astyanax mexicanus an attractive system for investi­gating the subterranean evolutionary time necessary for acqui­sition of the troglomorphic form. Using published sequences, we have estimated divergence times for A. mexicanus using: 1) two different population-level mitochondrial datasets (cyto­chrome b and NADH dehydrogenase 2) with both strict and relaxed molecular clock methods, and 2) broad phylogenetic approaches combining fossil calibrations and with four nuclear (recombination activating gene, seven in absentia, forkhead, and α-tropomyosin) and two mitochondrial (16S rDNA and cytochrome b) genes. Using these datasets, we have estimated divergence times for three events in the evolutionary history of troglomorphic A. mexicanus populations. First, divergence among cave haplotypes occurred in the Pleistocene, possibly correlating with fluctuating water levels allowing the coloni­zation and subsequent isolation of new subterranean habitats. Second, in one lineage, A. mexicanus cave populations expe­rienced introgressive hybridization events with recent surface populations (0.26-2.0 Ma), possibly also correlated with Pleis­tocene events. Finally, using divergence times from surface populations in the lineage without evidence of introgression as an estimate, the acquisition of the troglomorphic form in A. mexicanus is younger than 2.2 (fossil calibration estimates) – 5.2 (cytb estimate) Ma (Pliocene).