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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That bolt is a high tensile steel bolt used as an anchor; either a conical bolt screwed into a metal holder in a hole drilled in rock, causing expansion for grip, or a bolt with partially filed thread hammered into a slightly smaller hole [25].?

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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
See all featured articles from other geoscience journals

NSS
Journal of Cave and Karst Studies, 2009, Vol 71, Issue 1, p. 73-80
Limitations of hendy test criteria in judging the paleoclimatic suitability of speleothems and the need for replication
Abstract:
Carbon and oxygen isotopes in calcite speleothems are powerful proxies for understanding past climate change. For calcite deposited under isotopic equilibrium conditions, variations in d18 O values directly reflect changes in cave temperature and the isotopic composition of meteoric water. Speleothem d13 C values have bedrock, atmospheric, and soil gas sources. Soil gases can be traced to the overlying vegetation, which is related to climate. Both d13 C and d18 O values are therefore potentially powerful tracers of climate change. Processes that could alter speleothem d13 C and/or d18 O values, and thereby mask primary environmental signals, fall in the categories of 1) kinetic processes, including deposition of calcite out of isotopic equilibrium, and 2) vadose processes, including evaporation of water at or near the land surface. In truth, there is no absolute test for the absence of these kinetic/vadose-zone processes. However, the Hendy Test is widely used for assessing whether isotopic equilibrium existed during the time of calcite deposition. Criterion (1) of the Hendy Test (i.e., that d18 O values remain constant along a single growth layer) may not be a valid control of equilibrium conditions because isotopic equilibrium could theoretically occur in the center of the speleothem at the same time that kinetic fractionation occurs at the flanks. Moreover, the concept of sampling along a single growth layer is flawed in both theory and practice. Criterion (2) of the Hendy Test (i.e., that there is no relationship between d13 C and d18 O) is based on the assumption that speleothem d13 C values are not linked to climate. However, speleothem d13 C values may well be linked to climate because climate provides a first-order control on soil productivity and the type of vegetation. Therefore, Hendy Test criterion (2) is not a prerequisite to isotopic equilibrium in all cases. We propose instead the Replication Test (i.e., the demonstration of similar isotopic profiles among two or more speleothems) for evaluating the likelihood of calcite deposition under isotopic equilibrium conditions. Replication of isotopic profiles among two or more speleothems is possible only if kinetic/vadose-zone processes are either: 1) absent or 2) have affected spatially separated speleothems in exactly the same way. Because the second scenario is highly unlikely, we propose that the Replication Test is effectively sufficient in ruling out kinetic/vadose- zone overprinting processes. We further suggest that the Replication Test is far more robust in testing for the absence of the wide range of processes described above than is the traditional Hendy Test.