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Enviroscan Ukrainian Institute of Speleology and Karstology


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Community news

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That compass is an instrument with a magnetic needle which is free to point to magnetic north. for survey the needle is either attached to a graduated card or can be read against a graduated circle to measure the angle in degrees from the north clockwise [25].?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms


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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
See all featured articles from other geoscience journals


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PO BOX 211, 1000 AE AMSTERDAM, NETHERLANDS

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Desalination, 2000, Vol 129, Issue 0, p. 247-259

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Natural water softening processes by waterfall effects in karst areas

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Abstract:
The reduction of water hardness, which occurs at waterfalls on rivers in karst areas, is considered to be a result of the waterfall effects. These consist of aeration, jet-flow and low-pressure effects. Waterfall effects bring about two physical changes in river water: an increase in the air-water interface and turbulence. A series of experiments was designed and implemented in order to investigate whether these effects and associated physical changes may cause a reduction of water hardness. From an experiment involving the enlargement of interface area, the plot of air-water interface areas against conductivity revealed that the higher the air-water interface, the more rapidly conductance declines (and Ca2 is precipitated). A bubble producer was designed and used to simulate bubbles that are produced by aeration and low-pressure effects and a faster decline of water hardness was observed at the location with bubbles in this experiment. When a supersaturated solution was passed through a jet-stream producer, a rapid reduction of water hardness and an increase of pH appeared. Field measurements were used to support the laboratory experiments. Work on the Ya He River and at the Dishuiyan Waterfalls revealed that places with aeration had the quickest hardness reduction and the highest average rate of calcite deposition

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Keywords: aeration, area, areas, caco3 hardness, calcite, calcite precipitation, china, co2, conductance, conductivity, decline, deposition, dissolution, field, field-measurements, interface, ions, karst, karst area, karst areas, kinetics, laboratories, model, people, ph, rates, reduction, river, river water, river-water, rivers, series, solution, support, time, times, turbulence, water, water softening, waterfall effects,

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