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Enviroscan Ukrainian Institute of Speleology and Karstology


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Community news

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That specific surface is the ratio of grain particle surface to the volume of grain particles [16].?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms


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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
See all featured articles from other geoscience journals


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Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 2006, Vol 31, Issue 2, p. 221-234

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Correlating specific conductivity with total hardness in limestone and dolomite karst waters

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Abstract:
Under field conditions modern digital conductivity meters give standardized, rapid and reproducible measurements. Here we investigate the accuracy of their estimates of the composition of karst waters, as total hardness (TH, as mg/L CaCO3) for limestone and dolomite. These are the fundamental measures of process in carbonate karst geomorphology. PHREEQC theoretical curves for the dissolution of pure calcite/aragonite and dolomite in water at 25 degrees C are compared with water analyses from karst studies worldwide. Other principal ions encountered are sulphates, nitrates and chlorides (the 'SNC' group). From carbonate karsts, 2309 spring, well and stream samples were divided into uncontaminated (SNC < 10%), moderately contaminated (10 < SNC < 20%), and contaminated (SNC > 20%) classes. Where specific conductivity (SpC) is less than 600 mu S/cm, a clear statistical distinction can be drawn between waters having little contamination and substantially contaminated waters with SNC > 20%. As sometimes claimed in manufacturers' literature, in 'clean' limestone waters TH is close to 1/2SpC, with a standard error of 2-3 mg/L. The slope of the best-fit line for 1949 samples covering all SNC classes where SpC < 600 mu S/cm is 1.86, very close to the 1.88 obtained for clean limestone waters; however, the value of the intercept is ten times higher. The regression line for clean limestone waters where SpC > 600 mu S/cm helps to distinguish polluted waters from clean waters with possible endogenic sources of CO2. In the range 250 < SpC < 600 mu S/cm, dolomite waters can be readily distinguished from limestone waters. Copyright (C) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

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Keywords: c, canada, carbonate, chloride, co2, conductivity, contamination, curves, dissolution, dolomite, error, field, field conditions, geomorphology, ions, karst, karst geomorphology, karst water, karst waters, karsts, limestone, nitrate, nitrates, poland, range, regression, sample, slope, source, spring, stream, time, times, water, waters,

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