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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That ground-water travel time is 1. the time-required for ground water to travel between two locations [22]. 2. the time required for a unit volume of ground water to travel between two locations. the travel time is the length of the flow path divided by the velocity, where velocity is the average ground-water flux passing through the cross-sectional area of the geologic medium through which flow occurs, perpendicular to the flow direction, divided by the effective porosity along the flow path. if discrete segments of the flow path have different hydrologic properties, the total travel time will be the sum of the travel times for each discrete segment [22].?

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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for 13c (Keyword) returned 117 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 117
Speleothems and paleoglaciers, , Spotl Christoph, Mangini Augusto,
Ice and speleothems are widely regarded as mutually exclusive as the presence of liquid water is a fundamental prerequisite for speleothem deposition. Here we show that speleothems may form in caves overlain by a glacier, as long as the temperature in the cave is above freezing and the conduits are not completely flooded by melt water. Carbonate dissolution is accomplished via sulfide oxidation and the resultant speleothems show high [delta]13C values approaching and locally exceeding those of the parent host rock (lack of soil-derived biogenic C). The [delta]18O values reflect the isotopic composition of the melt water percolating into the karst fissure network and carry an atmospheric (temperature) signal, which is distinctly lower than those of speleothems formed during periods when soil and vegetation were present above the cave. These `subglacial' speleothems provide a means of identifying and dating the former presence of warm-based paleoglaciers and allow us to place some constraints on paleotemperature changes

A possible mechanism for growth of calcite speleothems without participation of biogenic carbon dioxide, 1982, Dreybrodt W,
Using Plummer et al.'s [11] rate equations on the dissolution and deposition of CaCO3 in H2O---CO2 systems, we have calculated deposition rates of CaCO3 to stalagmites in caves which are covered by glaciers or bare karst. In this case no biogenic CO2 from vegetated soil is available and the deposition of CaCO3 involves only atmospheric CO2. The mechanism of deposition proceeds by a temperature effect. Cold melting waters of about 0[deg]C dissolve CaCO3 under open system conditions at the surface of the rock. When this solution saturated with respect to CaCO3, flows through the limestone rock its temperature increases by several degrees. Therefore, it becomes supersaturated, and CaCO3 is deposited under open system conditions in the warmer cave. Maximal growth rates of about 10-3 cm/year are possible. From the kinetics of the deposition of CaCO3 from the thin water films present at the surface of stalagmites we are able to estimate the isotopic composition of carbon in the CaCO3 deposited on the stalagmites to be approximately [delta]13C = %, which is close to some observed values.From our data we conclude that substantial growth of stalagmites is possible during glacial periods as well as in areas of bare karst, a question which was not resolved up to now

Isotopic Composition of Precipitation, Cave Drips and Actively Forming Speleothems at Three Tasmanian Cave Sites, 1982, Goede A. , Green D. C. , Harmon R. S.

Monthly samples of precipitation and cave drips were collected from three Tasmanian cave sites along a north-south transect and their 18O/16O ratios determined. At one station D/H ratios were also measured and the relationship between delta 18O and delta D values investigated. The 18O/16O and D/H ratios of monthly precipitation show marked seasonality with values correlating strongly with mean monthly temperatures. The effect of temperature on 18O/16O ratios appears to increase as one goes southwards and is at least twice as strong at Hastings (.61 deg /oo SMOW/ deg C) as it is shown at Mole Creek (.28 deg /oo SMOW/ deg C). Irregularities in the seasonal pattern of 18O/16O change are particularly pronounced at Hastings and in the Florentine Valley and can be attributed to the amount effect. For delta 18O values > -5.5 deg /oo the combined data from the three Tasmanian stations show an amount effect of .026 deg /oo SMOW/mm. Cave drips show apparently random, non-seasonal variation in the 18O / 16O isotopic compostion but the weighted mean of the 18O/16O isotope composition of precipitation provides a good approximation to their mean 18O/16O isotopic composition. In contrast to their D/H ratios for a cave drip site in Little Trimmer Cave, Mole Creek, show a distict seasonal pattern. The 18O/16O and 13C/12C ratios have been determined for a number of actively forming speleothems. With respect to 18O/16O it is found that speleothems the three sites are being deposited under conditions approaching isotopic equilibrium. The 13C/12C ratios of these speleothems are highly variable but the generally less negative values found in Frankcombe Cave (Florentine Valley) compared with the other two sites may reflect the effects of recent clearfelling in the area.

Trace-element partition coefficients in the calcite-water system and their paleoclimatic significance in cave studies, 1983, Gascoyne M,
Speleothems (stalactites, stalagmites) formed in limestone caves have been found to contain much information on the timing and intensity of past climates, from analysis of their U, Th, 13C and 18O contents. Because the incorporation of certain trace elements (e.g., Mg, Mn and Zn) in calcite is known to be temperature-dependent, it may be possible to use variations in trace-metal content of fossil speleothems as an alternative paleotem-perature indicator. Using specially developed ion-exchange sampling techniques, analysis of trace-metal content of seepage water and associated fresh calcite deposits in caves in Vancouver Island and Jamaica shows that Mg is distributed between phases in a consistent manner within the temperature regimes of the caves (7[deg] and 23[deg]C, respectively). Average values of the distribution coefficient for Mg are respectively 0.017 and 0.045 at these temperatures. These results indicate that the Mg content of calcite varies directly with temperature and in a sufficiently pronounced manner that a 1[deg]C rise in depositional temperature of a speleothem containing 500 ppm Mg, at ~10[deg]C, would be seen as an increase of ~35ppm Mg -- a readily determinable shift. Other factors affecting Mg content of a speleothem are considered

Formation of 13C/12C isotope ratios in speleothems: a semi-dynamic model, 1990, Dulinski M. , Rosanski K.

Palaeoclimate determination from cave calcite deposits, 1992, Gascoyne M,
Calcite deposits formed in limestone caves have been found to be an excellent repository of palaeoclimatic data for terrestrial environments. The very presence of a relict deposit indicates non-glacial conditions at the time of formation, and both 14C and uranium-series methods can be used to date the deposit and, hence, the age of these climatic conditions. Variations in 13C and 18O content of the calcite, in 2H and 18O content of fluid inclusions, in trace element concentrations and, more recently, in pollen assemblages trapped in the calcite, are all potentially available as synchronous palaeoclimatic indicators. Previous work has tended to concentrate mainly on abundance of deposits as a palaeoclimatic indicator for the last 300,000 years. This literature is briefly reviewed here, together with the theory and methods of analysis of the U-series and stable isotopic techniques. The combined use of U-series ages and 13C and 18O variations in cave calcites illustrates the potential for palaeoclimate determination. Previously unpublished results of stable isotopic variations in dated calcites from caves in northern England indicate the level of detail of stable isotopic variations and time resolution that can be obtained, and the complexity of interpretation that may arise. Tentative palaeoclimatic signals for the periods 90-125 ka and 170-300 ka are presented. More comprehensive studies are needed in future work, especially in view of the difficulty in obtaining suitable deposits and the ethics of cave deposits conservation

A High-Resolution Record of Holocene Climate Change in Speleothem Calcite from Cold Water Cave, Northeast Iowa, 1992, Dorale Ja, Gonzalez La, Reagan Mk, Pickett Da, Murrell Mt, Baker Rg,
High-precision uranium-thorium mass spectrometric chronology and 18O-13C isotopic analysis of speleothem calcite from Cold Water Cave in northeast Iowa have been used to chart mid-Holocene climate change. Significant shifts in [dagger]18O and [dagger]13C isotopic values coincide with well-documented Holocene vegetation changes. Temperature estimates based on 18O/16O ratios suggest that the climate warmed rapidly by about 3{degrees}C at 5900 years before present and then cooled by 4{degrees}C at 3600 years before present. Initiation of a gradual increase in [dagger]13C at 5900 years before present suggests that turnover of the forest soil biomass was slow and that equilibrium with prairie vegetation was not attained by 3600 years before present

Stable Isotope Analysis of Human Remains: A Tool for Cave Archaeology, 1997, Trimble, C. C. , Macko, S. A.
Stable isotope analysis of human remains is a research tool that can provide paleodiet information for archaeological sites, such as caves, where traditional evidence may be missing or out of context. Unlike other lines of evidence, the stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen in human bone reflect the chemistry of the diet and therefore provide a direct measure of the foods consumed. As an example, the data from isotopic analyses of bone from the Mer site (44LE280), a cave in Lee County, Virginia, are presented. Although this site lacks faunal and floral remains to provide basic information about the availability and potential utilization of food resources, the stable isotope data from other sites throughout Virginia and North Carolina provide a basis for comparison. The d13C and d15N values for the cave burials suggest a diet composed of primarily C4 plant proteins and some terrestrial animal proteins.

Elevated and variable values of 13C in speleothems in a British cave system, 1997, Baker A, Ito E, Smart Pl, Mcewan Rf,
[delta] 13C isotope variations in speleothems have been investigated for samples from the British Isles, where plants which use the Hatch-Slack or C4 photosynthetic pathway are not present. The range of [delta] 13C expected in speleothem carbonate formed in isotopic equilibrium with soil CO2 derived from the overlying C3 vegetation should thus fall in the range -12 to -6[per mille sign]. Forty-one actively growing speleothem samples from low-discharge sites were analysed from Stump Cross Caverns, Yorkshire, England. Ten percent have [delta] 13C greater than -6%. In addition, a large range of [delta] 13C was observed (-8.06 1.38[per mille sign], a 1 [sigma] variability of 17%), with adjacent samples having [delta] 13C differing by a maximum of 4.74[per mille sign]. Similar findings were obtained from a review of analyses of late Quaternary speleothem samples from the British Isles, with 75% of flowstone samples and 57% of high-flow stalagmite samples exhibiting elevated [delta] 13C. Three possible processes are proposed as possible causes of elevated [delta] 13C in speleothems. Firstly, fractionation may occur between the stalactite and stalagmite due to evaporation or degassing. Secondly, degassing of the groundwaters may have occurred within the aquifer before reaching the cave void, allowing release of some CO2 from the water whilst remaining saturated in calcium. Finally, the elevated [delta] 13C may be due to short water residence times in the soil, such that equilibrium between soil water and soil CO2 is not reached. Evidence presented here demonstrates that any one of these mechanisms may be important in the karst areas of the British Isles. Caution is needed before interpreting the [delta] 13C signal within speleothems in terms of palaeovegetation

Influence of Pedo-chemical Field on Epi-karstification in Subtropical Humid Region-Field Monitoring and Laboratory Experiment , 1998, Pan Genxing, Tao Yuxiang, Teng Yogzhong, Xu Shenyou, Sun Yuhua, Han Fushun

The influence of pedo-chemical conditions on epi-karstification in a karst hydrogeochemical experiment site near Guilin was studied. The dissolution of limestone, and pH, CO2, HCO3- in soil and karst water under soil cover conditions was monitored by using filter tubes containing reference rock plate, and by using portable pH meter, CO2 gas meter and Aqumerck Kit. Laboratory experiments of dissolution under different soil conditions were also conducted by using leaching cylinders. In addition, 13C tracing was carried out on the samples of plant- litter- SOM-soil CO2-spring water-travertine-rock in the karst system. Soil pH, SOM status (subsequently CO2 concentration) and Ca+2 saturation constitutes a pedo-chemical field vigorously affecting the rock dissolution. The carbon in the form of HCO3- in the spring water and of CaCO3 in the travertine was closely related with the soil CO2 gas. Thus, soil carbon through the transferring pathway of air CO2-plant carbon-SOC-soil CO2 was involved in the epi-karstification process, and interface exchange of soil Ca+2, HCO3- with karst water existed in the karst hydrogeochemical flow. A modified model for epi-karstification in the studied area was suggested.

Isotopic Stratigraphy of a Last Interglacial Stalagmite from Northwestern Romania: Correlation with the Deep-sea Record and Northern-latitude Speleothem, 1999, Lauritzen, S. E. , Onac, B. P.
LFG-2, a 39.5 cm tall stalagmite from northwestern Romania, has been dated by U-series a-spectrometric dating, and analyzed for stable isotope variations (d18O, d13C) along its growth axis. The sample grew all the way through oxygen isotope stage 5(a-e), and perhaps for some time into stage 4. In spite of a rather low uranium content and therefore imprecise chronology, the sample provides an interesting stable isotope record with high temporal resolution that correlates favorably with other speleothems and with the deep-sea record. Termination II is well defined in the record as a rapid shift from light (cold) to heavier (warm) d18O values, when C3 vegetation seemed to dominate. The d13C in a slow growth zone, corresponding to oxygen isotope stage 5d, as well after the stage 5/4 transition, suggests that C4 plants possibly dominated the surface environment. The d18O record also correlate quite well with the a-dated FM-2 record from northern Norway

A Holocene millennial-scale climatic cycle from a speleothem in Nahal Qanah Cave, Israel, 1999, Frumkin A, Carmi I, Gopher A, Ford Dc, Schwarcz Hp, Tsuk T,
Nahal Qanah Cave, located in the east Mediterranean region, has been inhabited by humans during several periods of the Holocene. These well-dated cultures are used here to establish the age of a speleothem growing over archaeological remains. d18O and d13C from a stalagmite through the last 6000 years display a 1000-2000-year cycle. Depleted d18O and d13C value correlate well with high Dead Sea levels and increased arboreal pollen, suggesting common climatic control affecting the entire region

Holocene millenial-scale climatic cycle from Nahal Qanah Cave speleothem, Israel, 1999, Frumkin, A. , Carmi, I. , Gopher, A. , Tsuk, T. , Ford, D. C. And Schwarcz, H. P.
Nahal Qanah Cave, located in the east-Mediterranean region, has been inhabited by humans during several periods of the Holocene. These well-dated cultures are used here to establish the age of a speleothem growing over archaeological remains. d18O and d13C of a stalagmite through the last 6000 years display a 1-2 thousand years cycle. Depleted d18O and d13C values correlate well with high Dead Sea levels and increased arboreal pollen, suggesting common climatic control affecting the entire region.

A 3000-year high-resolution stalagmitebased record of palaeoclimate for northeastern South Africa, 1999, Holmgren K. , Karlen W. , Lauritzen S. E. , Leethorp J. A. , Partridge T. C. , Piketh S. , Repinski P. , Stevenson C. , Svanered O. , Tyson P. D. ,
High-resolution stable isotope variations and growth structure analyses of the last three millennia of a 6600-year stalagmite record at Cold Air Cave, Makapansgat Valley, South Africa, are presented. Growth layers, which are measurable over the last 250 years, are shown to be annual. The correlation between the width of growth layers and precipitation is strongly positive. Changes in{delta}18O and{delta}13C are positively correlated and inversely correlated to changes in the colour of the growth layers in the stalagmite. Variations in colour are directly correlated with mean annual temperature. Dark colouration is the product of increased temperature and mobilization of organic matter from the soil, and is associated with wetter summers and enhanced growth of C4 grasses. Darker colouring and enriched{delta}18O and{delta}13C reflect a warmer, wetter environment, whereas lighter colouring and depleted isotopic values are indicative of cooler, drier conditions. The dominant episode in the 3000-year record is the cool, dry 500-year manifestation of the Little Ice Age', from ad 1300 to about 1800, with the lowest temperatures at around ad 1700. The four centuries from ad 900 to 1300, experiencing above-average warming and high variability, may be the regional expression of the medieval warming. Other cool, dry spells prevailed from around ad 800 to 900 and from about ad 440 to 520. The most prolonged warm, wet period occurred from ad 40 to 400. Some extreme events are shown to correspond well with similar events determined from the Greenland GISP2 ice-core record and elsewhere. Distinct periodicities occur within the record at around 120, 200-300, 500-600 and at about 800 years BP

Speleothems and climate: a special issue of The Holocene, 1999, Lauritzen Stein Erik, Lundberg Joyce,
Speleothems (cave dripstones) are formed as a part of the meteoric water cycle and therefore vari ations in their growth rate and composition reflect environmental changes on the land surface above the cave. Since they are continental deposits, and possess a remarkably accurate dating potential, using TIMS U-series techniques, speleothems are important palaeoclimatic archives for the terrestrial environment, complementing the marine and ice-core records. The climatic proxies that can be deciphered from speleothems are growth rate, stable isotope composition (d18O, d13C), organic (humic) matter and trace element composition, as well as luminescent laminae, which may display annual rhythms. The nine papers in this special issue ofThe Holocene present the latest results in palaeoclimatic analysis from speleothems

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