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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 11 Jul, 2012
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That bedding joint is a joint in rocks that runs parallel to or on a bedding plane [16].?

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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Geochemical and mineralogical fingerprints to distinguish the exploited ferruginous mineralisations of Grotta della Monaca (Calabria, Italy), Dimuccio, L.A.; Rodrigues, N.; Larocca, F.; Pratas, J.; Amado, A.M.; Batista de Carvalho, L.A.
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
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Your search for abundance (Keyword) returned 112 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 112
The Discovery, Exploration and Scientific Investigation of the Wellington Caves, New South Wales, 1963, Lane Edward A. , Richards Aola M.

Although research has been unable to establish a definite date of discovery for the limestone caves at Wellington, New South Wales, documentary evidence has placed it as 1828. The actual discovery could have been made earlier by soldiers or convicts from the Wellington Settlement, which dated from 1823. Whether the aborigines knew of the cave's existence before 1828 is uncertain, but likely, as in 1830 they referred to them as "Mulwang". A number of very small limestone caves were also discovered about the same time in the nearby Molong area. The Bungonia Caves, in the Marulan district near Goulburn, were first written about a short time later. On all the evidence available at present, the Wellington Caves can be considered to be the first of any size discovered on the mainland of Australia. The Wellington Caves are situated in a low, limestone outcrop about six miles south by road from the present town of Wellington, and approximately 190 miles west-north-west of Sydney. They are at an altitude of 1000 feet, about half a mile from the present bed of the Bell River, a tributary of the Macquarie River. One large cave and several small caves exist in the outcrop, and range in size from simple shafts to passages 200 to 300 feet long. Mining for phosphate has been carried out, resulting in extensive galleries, often unstable, at several levels. Two caves have been lit by electricity for the tourist trades; the Cathedral Cave, 400 feet long, maximum width 100 feet, and up to 50 feet high; and the smaller Gaden Cave. The Cathedral Cave contains what is believed to be the largest stalagmite in the world, "The Altar", which stands on a flat floor, is 100 feet round the base and almost touches the roof about 40 feet above. It appears that the name Cathedral was not applied to the cave until this century. The original names were "The Great Cave", "The Large Cave" or "The Main Cave". The Altar was named by Thomas Mitchell in 1830. See map of cave and Plate. Extensive Pleistocene bone deposits - a veritable mine of bone fragments - were found in 1830, and have been studied by palaeontologists almost continually ever since. These bone deposits introduced to the world the extinct marsupials of Australia, and have a special importance in view of the peculiar features of the living fauna of the continent. The names of many famous explorers and scientists are associated with this history, among the most prominent being Sir Thomas Mitchell and Sir Richard Owen. Anderson (1933) gives a brief outline of why the Wellington Caves fossil bone beds so rapidly attracted world-wide interest. During the 18th and early 19th Century, the great palaeontologist, Baron Georges Cuvier, and others, supposed that the earth had suffered a series of catastrophic changes in prehistoric times. As a result of each of these, the animals living in a certain area were destroyed, the area being repopulated from isolated portions of the earth that had escaped the catastrophe. The Bilical Deluge was believed to have been the most recent. Darwin, during the voyage of the Beagle around the world (1832-37), was struck by the abundance of Pleistocene mammalian fossils in South America, and also by the fact that, while these differed from living forms, and were in part of gigantic dimensions, they were closely related to present-day forms in that continent. Darwin's theory of descent with modification did not reconcile with the ideas of Cuvier and others. As the living mammalian fauna of Australia was even more distinctive than that of South America, it was a matter of importance and excitement to discover the nature of the mammals which had lived in Australia in the late Tertiary and Pleistocene.

Studies on the Biology of Oligochaetes from the phreatic water of an exposeds gravel bed., 1971, Ladle Michael.
More than twenty species of oligochaeta belonging to the families Enchytraeidae, Naididae, Tubificidae and Lumbriculidae were found in the phreatic water of the river bank gravels. Psammoryctes barbatus, Rhyacodrilus coccineus and Styludrilus heringianus were found throughout the year, attaining maturity in the spring. These three species may be univoltine under these conditions. The family Naididae and a few species of Tubificidae show well marked seasons of abundance, chiefly in the summer and autumn.

Studies on the Biology of Oligochaetes from the phreatic water of an exposeds gravel bed., 1971, Ladle Michael.
More than twenty species of oligochaeta belonging to the families Enchytraeidae, Naididae, Tubificidae and Lumbriculidae were found in the phreatic water of the river bank gravels. Psammoryctes barbatus, Rhyacodrilus coccineus and Styludrilus heringianus were found throughout the year, attaining maturity in the spring. These three species may be univoltine under these conditions. The family Naididae and a few species of Tubificidae show well marked seasons of abundance, chiefly in the summer and autumn.

Biology and ecology of the El Convento cave-spring system (Puerto Rico)., 1974, Nicholas Brother G.
The El Convento Cave-Spring System is located at the head of the Quebrada de Los Cedros, approximately 20 km. west of Ponce, southwestern Puerto Rico. Although situated in an arid environment, the gorge receives sufficient moisture from the cave-spring system to support an abundant flora, with Bucida buceras and Bursera simaruba as the dominant trees. The cave is frequently flooded and possesses a rich nutrient substrate in the form of bat guano. Numerous orthopterans (Aspiduchus cavernicola and Amphiacusta annulipes), decapoda (Macrobrachium carcinus and Epilobocera sinuatifrons), and chiroptera (Brachyphylla cavernarum and Artebius jamaicensis) are present. In addition, approximately a dozen other species of invertebrates are found in lesser abundance throughout the system. None of the forms collected demonstrated specific cavernicolous adaptations. Because of the numerous entrances and frequent flooding the possibility of the presence of troglobites is minimal.

The ecology of a predaceous troglobitic beetle, Neaphaenops tellkampfii (Coleoptera: Carabidae, Trechinae). II Adult seasonality, feeding and recruitment., 1975, Kane Thomas C. , Norton Russell M. , Poulson Thomas L.
In deep cave areas with loose substrate and sufficient moisture, the life history of Neaphaenops tellkampfii (Coleoptera: Carabidae, Trechinae) is synchronized with the seasonal pattern of its primary food sources, the eggs and first instar nymphs of the cave cricket Hadenoecus subterraneus (Orthoptera Gryllacridoidea, Rhaphidophoridae). Neaphaenops reproduction coincides with an order of magnitude increase in Hadenoecus egg input in the spring. Our 46 observations of predation by Neaphaenops suggest some switching to other cave animals as cricket egg and first instar nymph densities decrease during the summer. Neaphaenops life history in areas of Hadenoecus egg input is as follows: (1) female Neaphaenops reach maximum fecundity at the time of the maximum density of frst instar Hadenoecus nymphs; (2) early instar Neaphaenops larvae appear in late summer and fall; (3) last instar Neaphaenops larvae appear in early spring and pupation occurs shortly thereafter; (4) lightly coloured teneral adults emerge two to three months later, a time consistent with laboratory estimates of the length of the pupal stage. Seasonal changes in sex ratio due to differential mortality appear to be consistent with this seasonal pattern. A comparison of Neaphaenops with two other species of carabid cricket egg predators suggests the importance of seasonal food abundance in determining life history seasonality. Darlingtonea kentuckensis has a food resource pattern which appears identical to that of Neaphaenops, and the life history seasonality is also parallel. Rhadine subterranea, however, seems to have a much more equitable food input throughout the year, and appears to have an aseasonal life history.

Seasonal changes in a population of Pseudanopthalmus tenuis (Coleoptera, Carabidae) in Murray Spring cave, Indiana: a preliminary report., 1975, Keith James H.
A study of a population of Pseudanophthalmus tenuis is being conducted in Murray Spring Cave, Orange County, Indiana as one facet of a larger research project encompassing the entire terrestrial community of that cave. Changes in behaviour and abundance determined by census and mark-recapture methods and physiological changes determined from field-collected beetles indicates that these animals exhibit a seasonal reproductive rhythm probably mediated or controlled by winter and spring flooding of the cave.

Karstic Fills in the Clusette Tunnel (Jura of Neuchatel Switzerland)., 1975, Meia Jean, Pochon Michel
The piercing of a road tunnel in the flank of a limestone (Malm) anticline in the Neuchatel Jura uncovered karstic forms transformed for the most part, by decarbonated soils. Mineralogical analysis of these latter, through the use of X-ray diffraction, reveals a great analogy with the surface soils. At more than 200 meters depth, the same allochtone mineralogical suite of aeolian origin which constitutes the largest part of the soils of the High Jura Mountains in Switzerland, is found: an abundance of ferriferous chlorite, and of quartz, plagioclase and potassic feldspar. The various factors favouring this deep infiltration are discussed.

The vertical distribution of stygorhithral ciliates in the Fulda-River (Contribution to the knowledge of mesopsammal ciliates in running freshwater)., 1976, Lupkes Gunther
19 species of ciliates were found in interstitial biotopes of the Fulda Headwater. Two of these were new: Haplocaulus hengsti, n.sp. and Epistylis rotti, n.sp. (Peritrichida). The number of ciliate species decreases from the surface down so deeper layers; in a depth of 50 cm, only three species were found: Haplocaulus hengsti and Epistylis rotti and another small ciliate Trachelophyllum apiculatum. There was little detritus in this layer, and so, the abundance of the ciliates was low. On the other hand, there is little predation in deeper layers of stygorhithral sand and gravel. Small, long and thin ciliates seem so be specially adapted to life in deeper regions of the stygornithral Stygorhithral ciliates are related to custygal species with respect to several characteristics of their morphology and general biology.

The effect of cave entrances on the distribution of cave-inhabiting terrestrial Arthropods., 1976, Peck Stewart B.
Populations of cave invertebrates are generally considered to be food-limited. The cave entrance is a major source of food input into the community in the form of decaying organic matter. Thus, the densities of scavenging terrestrial cave invertebrates should be related to the distance from the cave entrance because this represents a measure of food abundance. A test showed this expectation to be true in Crossings Cave, Alabama. A population density peak occurred 10 m inside the cave where the dark zone and detritus infall regions meet. The greatest population peak occurred at 100 m where densities of crickets and their guano are highest. The pattern should hold for most caves, but the actual distances will vary in each site depending on its circumstances. When the fauna was removed from the cave, the remnant had not regained community equilibrium a year later. Removal of the dominant scavenger, a milliped, allowed other species populations to expand because of decreased competitions.

Microflora and activity of functional groups in the sediments of three caves of Central Italy., 1978, Fumanti B. , Pasqualini A. , Vison L.
A comparative study is presented of the microflora of sediments in three caves with different trophic characteristics. Quantitative and qualitative variations of microflora were investigated for one year by studying the total microflora and the activity of the nitrogen cycle functional groups. Data were compared with those of other works of previous authors. Results show that the quantity and kind of organic matter of sediment are most important factors regulating the abundance and activity of cavernicolous microflora. The experimental part of this paper is prefaced by a digest of investigations previously carried out on cavernicolous microflora and by a report of topographic, geomorphologic, hydrologic and trophic characteristics of the caves examined.

Mayan Urbanism: Impact on a Tropical Karst Environment, 1979, Deevey Es, Rice Ds, Rice Pm, Vaughan Hh, Brenner M, Flannery Ms,
From the first millennium B.C. through the 9th-century A.D. Classic Maya collapse, nonurban populations grew exponentially, doubling every 408 years, in the twin-lake (Yaxha-Sacnab) basin that contained the Classic urban center of Yaxha. Pollen data show that forests were essentially cleared by Early Classic time. Sharply accelerated slopewash and colluviation, amplified in the Yaxha subbasin by urban construction, transferred nutrients plus calcareous, silty clay to both lakes. Except for the urban silt, colluvium appearing as lake sediments has a mean total phosphorus concentration close to that of basin soils. From this fact, from abundance and distribution of soil phosphorus, and from continuing post-Maya influxes (80 to 86 milligrams of phosphorus per square meter each year), which have no other apparent source, we conclude that riparian soils are anthrosols and that the mechanism of long-term phosphorus loading in lakes is mass transport of soil. Per capita deliveries of phosphorus match physiological outputs, approximately 0.5 kilogram of phosphorus per capita per year. Smaller apparent deliveries reflect the nonphosphatic composition of urban silt; larger societal outputs, expressing excess phosphorus from deforestation and from food waste and mortuary disposal, are probable but cannot be evaluated from our data. Eutrophication is not demonstrable and was probably impeded, even in less-impacted lakes, by suspended Maya silt. Environmental strain, the product of accelerating agroengineering demand and sequestering of nutrients in colluvium, developed too slowly to act as a servomechanism, damping population growth, at least until Late Classic time

Some Implications of Competition for Cave Stream Communities., 1981, Culver David C.
Based on recent theoretical work by Robert May and Richard Levins, two hypotheses about time fluctuations in abundance of competing species were generated. Data for isopods and amphipods from four cave stream communities in Virginia and West Virginia were used to test the predictions. First, variance of total abundance should be less than the sum of the variances of individual species' abundances. In three of four communities studied, the prediction was confirmed, but none were statistically significant. Positive correlations among carrying capacities of competing species may explain the poor agreement with predictions. Second, the signs of 19 correlations and partial correlations of species abundances were predicted on the basis of relative magnitudes of direct and indirect effects of competition, and of these predictions, 16 were confirmed by the data, including 5 statistically significant ones. Most interesting was the finding that competitors can be positively correlated.

Phreatische Fauna in Ljubljansko polje (Ljubljana-Ebene, Jugoslavien); ihre oekologische Verteilung und zoogeographische Beziehungen., 1981, Sket Boris, Velkovrh Franci
The phreatic basin of Ljubljansko polje (polje = plain, field) recharges its water supply mainly from the Sava river-bed and at a few other locations where connections with karstic subterranean waters might exist and only up to 15% from precipitation. An important zone of infiltration in the river-bed is the bottom and not the bank which is to a large extent watertight due to organic debris (rests of Sphaerotilus e.g.). The main water-body moves about 10 m/day, there are however some local jets with far higher speeds. Yearly amplitudes of water temperatures are high near the river but in the centre of the plain only a couple of centigrades. Oxygen saturation is in the open river-water 100%, dropping to 40-60% just 1 m into the phreatic. True stygopsammal animals are represented here only by a few species and specimen in spite of the fact, that the interstices in the gravel are mostly filled with finer sediments. Remarkable is also the scarcity of Nematodes and the near absence of Acarina (compare with Danielopol 1976). Only a few specimen of the river benthos (Chironomidae, Tipulidae, Leuctra supp., Baets spp.) penetrate the interstitial water (compare with Ruffo 1961, Danielopol 1976) and only Naididae are more frequent there. However, many epigean animals occur in interstitial waters in the periodically flooded gravel-banks; one can explain this with oscillations of the water level. Some epigean animals (creno- and troglophilic) are quite regularly represented in the phreatic near the river, but have not been found in the river-bed. The distribution of phreatic species within the studied water-body seems to be controlled mainly by the presence of food supplies and the consequent competition among species. The same is true for the speed of the water current and some other factors which are less easily defined. The characteristics of the substratum as well as O2-saturation and other characteristics of the water seem to have little influence on the fauna. The energetically (food-) rich neighbourhood of the river is inhabited by a number of species in quite dense populations while the central parts of the phreatic water body exhibit a great poverty of species and of specimen. However, some species live here, which don't occur in the presence of larger food supplies and of greater competition (Niphargus serbicus). The higher current speed seems to prevent settlement of some species (Cyclopoida, Proasellus deminutus) while some are bound to such habitats (Proasellus vulgaris). Some species exhibit a high degree of euryvalency inside the stygopsephale habitats (Niphargus longidactylus e.g.), while some are highly specialized. Some of them form dense populations (comparatively dense even in energetically poor places) while others exhibit even in most favourable conditions very low densities (Niphargus jovanovici multipennatus). The present fauna is zoogeographically very diverse. Some species are distributed throughout Europe; some reach from Central Europe to the borders of Dinaride Karst (Bogidiella albertimagni) and some even penetrate it (Trichodrilus pragensis, Acanthocyclops kiefer). Bogidiella semidenticulata. Niphargus pectinicauda, Hadziella deminuta seem to be limited to the higher reaches of the Sava River. All of the above mentioned animals live regularly in interstitial waters and only sporadically in karstic hypogean waters. Niphargus stygius is here the only animal of a certainly karstic provenience; inside the plain it is limited to a completely special habitat. It is very likely that the entire Proasellus-deminutusgroup has developed in interstitial waters of larger plains which are in contact with karstic areas; some species penetrated from the plains into the karst rather than the reverse. To the contrary (judging from the distribution of the genera) karstic waters seem to be the cradle of Hauffenia and Hadziella. Such a sharp delimitation between cave- and interstitial fauna resp. in this area is very noteworthy. Both faunas live here in abundance and in close contact. It is very probable that particularly high competition and specialization of both faunas, caused by their richness and diversity, prevent mixing of species.

Uranium-Series Ages of Speleothem from Northwest England: Correlation with Quaternary Climate, 1983, Gascoyne M, Schwarcz Hp, Ford Dc,
Over 180 $^{230}$Th/$^{234}$U ages have been obtained for 87 speleothems from caves in the Craven district of northwest England. Periods of abundant speleothem growth, 0-13, 90-135 and 170 to > 350 ka, are correlated with interglacial isotope stages 1, 5 and 7-9 respectively. Periods of zero growth, 14-35 and 140-165 ka, are correlated with glacial stages 2 and 6 respectively. A prominent break in growth of one speleothem, dated at about 260 ka, may be correlated with glacial stage 8. Lower-frequency growth from 35 to 90 ka is correlated with stages 3 and 4. The results may also be related to the British Quaternary sequence within the range of $^{14}$C determinations, as follows: 0-13 ka. Flandrian plus late Devensian deglaciation; 14-35 ka, late Devensian glaciation; 35-45 ka. Upton Warren interstadial. Low but finite speleothem abundance during the period 45-90 ka correlates with the early Devensian and is in good agreement with evidence indicating the non-glacial, but tundra-like, climate over this period. The Ipswichian interglacial is broadly related to the abundant growth period 90-135 ka, but is more closely defined by the interval 115-135 ka, from results of dating speleothems enclosing remains of Ipswichian fauna in one cave. By analogy with the zero speleothem abundance during the late Devensian glaciation, the period 140-165 ka may be tentatively correlated with the Wolstonian glaciation. Lack of direct stratigraphic relationships with, or absolute ages of, middle to early Pleistocene stages prevents further correlation of speleothem age data. From the frequency of abundance of speleothem basal ages for the period 0-13 ka, it appears that speleothem growth lags ice recession by up to 4 ka

Phnomnes hydro-karstiques dans l'Eocne du pimont nord de la Montagne Noire, 1984, Gazelle, F.
HYDRO-KARSTIC PHENOMENA IN THE EOCENE FORMATIONS OF THE NORTH PIED-MONT OF THE MONTAGNE NOIRE - The presence of limestone formations on the northern slope of the Montagne Noire is extremely discrete but nonetheless sufficient to give significant hydro-karstic phenomena (losses, resurgences, sinkholes...), which disrupt the surface hydrology. The abundance of water supplied by the mountain to the limestone plays a determining role.

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