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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 11 Jul, 2012
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

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That formation temperature is the prevailing temperature in a given subsurface formation [16].?

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Karst environment, Culver D.C.
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Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
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Your search for accretion (Keyword) returned 26 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 26
A note on the occurrence of a crayback stalagmite at Niah Caves, Borneo, , Lundberg Joyce, Mcfarlane Donald A.

Crayback stalagmites have mainly been reported from New South Wales, Australia. Here we document a small crayback in the entrance of Painted Cave (Kain Hitam), part of the Niah Caves complex in Sarawak, Borneo. Measuring some 65 cm in length and 18 cm in height, this deposit is elongate in the direction of the dominant wind and thus oriented towards the natural tunnel entrance. It shows the classic humpbacked long profile, made up of small transverse segments or plates, in this case the tail extending towards the entrance. The dark blue-green colour down the centre suggests that cyanobacterial growth follows the track of the wind-deflected roof drip. The dry silty cave sediment provides material for accretion onto the biological mat. This is the only example known from Borneo and one of the very few known from outside of Australia


Loose Carbonate Accretions from Carlsbad Caverns, New Mexico, 1951, Black Dm,

Moonmilk, Cave Pearls and Pool Accretions from Fulford Cave, Colorado, 1963, Thrailkill, John V.

Donnees geomorphologiques sur la region de Fresh Creek, Ile Andros (Bahama), 1974, Bourrouilh F,
A geomorphological study of the east coast of Andros (Fresh Creek area) shows the existence of a paleotopography represented by low-altitude hills (few metres). This paleotopography is protected by the presence of a calcitic Quaternary crust which covers Pleistocene calcarenite.In the western part of the area, there are long woody axes, oriented NE-SW, parallel to the channels of the creek. They end at two kilometres from the coast, along which is a second kind of lower hills, orthogonal to the first.The first axes can be interpreted as megaripples as seen at the present time on modern deposits (on the Great Bahama Bank) and fossilized by the upper crust. The second direction is made by accretion ripples along the coast.The surface of the Bahamian calcarenite has been studied. The Bahamian karst presents two topographical forms: “blue holes” like those outside the island, which are 60-80 m in diameter and both sparse and deep; and “washtub” dolines; these are numerous and shallow, and, from low altitude, exhibit a honeycombed aspect on the surface. This karstic topography with dolines and blue holes is also seen through the water of the Creek the hard bottom of which is covered only here and there with a few centimetres of sediments. Hence, there is a submerged karstic topography, made of the same elements as the aerial karst, but submerged by the Holocene transgression. The present karstic relief, in relation with the different eustatic levels of the Quaternary, has begun 120,000 years ago, according to the isotopic ages, and might be composed by different steps, difficult to show now, in the topography.The blue holes in the interior of the island of young and little evolved karst, were formed more by solution than by collapse of the karstic caves, because of the absence of a real river to drain the Andros shelf at the time of low sea levels. Blue holes of the inside of the island, as they are called, with submarine openings, have the same salinity as the water of the creek (17.5 g/l). The dolines with very low salinity (0.7 g/l to 3.8 g/l) are filled with stromatolites and charophytes, slowly forming sediments made up essentially of high-magnesian calcite.It seems that the Andros Island karst can be compared with that of the Yucatan, where there are round and deep open pits, called cenote, of which the Bahamian equivalent would be the blue holes which were drowned by the Holocene transgression.ResumeSur l'ile Andros, zone emergee du Grand Banc de Bahama, l'auteur montre l'existence d'une paleotopographie comprenant deux categories de rides d'orientation differente et semblant fossilisee par une croute calcitique recente et l'existence d'un karst aux formes jeunes, bien qu'heritage d'un karst holocene en voie de submersion. Ces formes sont des “blue holes” ou trous bleus circulaires (60 a 80 m de diametre) et peu nombreux, et des dolines, dites en baquet. Dans ces dolines se deposent actuellement des croutes stromatolithiques calcitiques dont l'etude est faite par diffractometrie de rayons X et microscopie electronique a balayage

Shallow-marine carbonate facies and facies models, 1985, Tucker M. E. ,
Shallow-marine carbonate sediments occur in three settings: platforms, shelves and ramps. The facies patterns and sequences in these settings are distinctive. However, one type of setting can develop into another through sedimentational or tectonic processes and, in the geologic record, intermediate cases are common. Five major depositional mechanisms affect carbonate sediments, giving predictable facies sequences: (1) tidal flat progradation, (2) shelf-marginal reef progradation, (3) vertical accretion of subtidal carbonates, (4) migration of carbonate sand bodies and (5) resedimentation processes, especially shoreface sands to deeper subtidal environments by storms and off-shelf transport by slumps, debris flows and turbidity currents. Carbonate platforms are regionally extensive environments of shallow subtidal and intertidal sedimentation. Storms are the most important source of energy, moving sediment on to shoreline tidal flats, reworking shoreface sands and transporting them into areas of deeper water. Progradation of tidal flats, producing shallowing upward sequences is the dominant depositional process on platforms. Two basic types of tidal flat are distinguished: an active type, typical of shorelines of low sediment production rates and high meteorologic tidal range, characterized by tidal channels which rework the flats producing grainstone lenses and beds and shell lags, and prominent storm layers; and a passive type in areas of lower meteorologic tidal range and higher sediment production rates, characterized by an absence of channel deposits, much fenestral and cryptalgal peloidal micrite, few storm layers and possibly extensive mixing-zone dolomite. Fluctuations in sea-level strongly affect platform sedimentation. Shelves are relatively narrow depositional environments, characterized by a distinct break of slope at the shelf margin. Reefs and carbonate sand bodies typify the turbulent shelf margin and give way to a shelf lagoon, bordered by tidal flats and/or a beach-barrier system along the shoreline. Marginal reef complexes show a fore-reef--reef core--back reef facies arrangement, where there were organisms capable of producing a solid framework. There have been seven such phases through the Phanerozoic. Reef mounds, equivalent to modern patch reefs, are very variable in faunal composition, size and shape. They occur at shelf margins, but also within shelf lagoons and on platforms and ramps. Four stages of development can be distinguished, from little-solid reef with much skeletal debris through to an evolved reef-lagoon-debris halo system. Shelf-marginal carbonate sand bodies consist of skeletal and oolite grainstones. Windward, leeward and tide-dominated shelf margins have different types of carbonate sand body, giving distinctive facies models. Ramps slope gently from intertidal to basinal depths, with no major change in gradient. Nearshore, inner ramp carbonate sands of beach-barrier-tidal delta complexes and subtidal shoals give way to muddy sands and sandy muds of the outer ramp. The major depositional processes are seaward progradation of the inner sand belt and storm transport of shoreface sand out to the deep ramp. Most shallow-marine carbonate facies are represented throughout the geologic record. However, variations do occur and these are most clearly seen in shelf-margin facies, through the evolutionary pattern of frame-building organisms causing the erratic development of barrier reef complexes. There have been significant variations in the mineralogy of carbonate skeletons, ooids and syn-sedimentary cements through time, reflecting fluctuations in seawater chemistry, but the effect of these is largely in terms of diagenesis rather than facies

230Th dating of the speleothems from the ''Grotta del Fiume-Grotta Grande del Vento'' karst system in Frasassi (Ancona, Italy) and paleoenvironmental implications., 1994, Taddeucci Adriano, Tuccimei Paola, Voltaggio Mario
Chronological measurements have been carried out on speleothems from the Grotta del Fiume-Grotta Grande del Vento karst system in Frasassi (Ancona, Italy) by means of the 230Th radiometric method in order to date hypogean karst levels and related geological events. Higher levels were found to be older than the lower ones according to standstills and sinkings of the water table. The dated speleothems from the first and second level formed less than 10,000 years ago; the minimum ages of the third and fifth levels, which are respectively 130,000 and 200,000 years old, were correlated to climatic events. Dating different portions of a speleothem allows the measurements of the radial and vertical accretion rates and their variation over time. Such data together with the 234U/238U activity ratio and the uranium content of the speleothems have been correlated with the climatic variations connected to the glacial cycles. The same data have been used to fit a hydrogeological model.

Les glaciers de marbre de Patagonie, Chili : un karst subpolaire ocanique de la zone australe, 1999, Maire Richard, Ultima_esperanza_team
The karst areas of Chilean Patagonia have remained virtually unknown until now because of their remoteness and very inhospitable climate. They are mainly located in two islands, Diego de Almagro and Madre de Dios, between latitude 52 and 50 South, with a subpolar and stormy climate "tempered" by heavy oceanic precipitations (7 m/ year). In Diego de Almagro the Permian and Carboniferous limestones and dolomites have been transformed into marbles with lamprophyre dikes through contact metamorphism. Situated in the outer part of the archipelagoes, these long and narrow outcrops (0.5-2km wide) are located between volcano-sedimentary formations of Upper Paleozoic (West) and the Mesozoic Patagonian batholit (East). The corallian paleoreefs are part of an accretionary prism of the Gondwana paleo-continent. The surficial and underground karstification is one of the most spectacular ones in the world. The Karren (lapies) caused by the heavy rains can be 1-4 meter(s) wide and several hundred meters long for the solution runnels. Moreover, we can often observe solution karrens both due to rain and wind direction: flat karren (horizontal laminar flow), cascading ripples (sloping laminar flow) and profiled solution forms. The surficial solution velocity is about 3 mm/50 years (from old painting traces near the quarry of Guarello, Madre de Dios); and the lamprophyres dikes (Diego de Almagro) put in relief through corrosion indicate a 40-60 cm surficial solution since the melting of pleistocene glaciers.

Growth and demise of an Archean carbonate platform, Steep Rock Lake, Ontario, Canada, 1999, Kusky T. P. , Hudleston P. J. ,
The Steep Rock Group of northwest Ontario's Wabigoon subprovince is one of the world's thickest Archean carbonate platform successions. It was deposited unconformably over a 3001-2928 Ma gneissic terrane, and contains a remarkable group of biogenic and oolitic limestones, dolostones, micrites, and karat breccias capped by a thick paleosol developed between and over karst towers. The presence of aragonite fans, herringbone calcite, and rare gypsum molds suggests that the carbonate platform experienced at least local anaerobic and hypersaline depositional conditions. This sequence shows that a combination of chemical and biological processes was able to build a carbonate platform 500 m thick by 3 billion years ago. The carbonate platform is structurally overlain by a mixture of complexly deformed rocks of the Dismal Ashrock forming a melange with blocks of ultramafic volcaniclastic rocks, mafic volcanics, carbonate, tonalite, lenses of Fe-ore rock, and metasedimentary rocks, in a shaly, serpentinitic, and fragmental ultramafic volcaniclastic matrix. The melange shows evidence of polyphase deformation, with early high-strain fabrics formed at amphibolite facies, and later superimposed brittle fabrics related to the final emplacement of the melange over the carbonate platform. An amphibolite- through greenschist-grade shear zone marks the upper contact of the melange with overlying mafic volcanic and tuffaceous rocks of the ca. 2932 Ma Witch Bay allochthon, interpreted as a primitive island are sequence. We suggest an evolutionary model for the area that begins with rifting of an are sequence (Marmion Complex of the Wabigoon are) that initiated subsidence and sedimentation on the Steep Rock platform and its correlatives that extend for a restored strike length exceeding 1000 km. Shallow water carbonate sedimentation continued until the platform was uplifted on the flanks of a flexural bulge related to the approach of the Witch Bay allochthon, representing collision of the rifted are margin of the Wabigoon subprovince with the Witch Bay are. Melange of the Dismal Ashrock was formed as off-axis volcanic rocks were accreted to the base of the Witch Bay allochthon prior to its collision with the Steep Rock platform

Upper Miocene karst collapse structures of the east coast, Mallorca, Spain, 2000, Ardila Pedro Robledo, Pomar Luis

In the sea cliffs on the Mallorca Island, Western Mediterranean there are extensive outcrops of Upper Miocene carbonate rocks. On the Eastern coast of Mallorca, the reefal complex is overlain by a Messinian shallow-water carbonate complex. There are abundant Paleokarst collapse structures. The Santanyí Limestone beds are affected by V-incasion structures produced by roof collapse of caverns developed in the underlying reefal complex. According to the model, the origin of some of these karst-collapse structures may be related to early diagenetic processes controlled by high-frequency sea-level fluctuations. During lowstands of sea level, fresh-water flow might have create a cave system near the water table by dissolution of aragonite in the reef front facies and coral patches existing in the lagoonal beds. This cave system developed near the subaerial erosion surface. During subsequent rise of sea level inner-shelf beds overlaid the previously karstified reef-core and outer-lagoonal beds. Increase of loading by subsequent accretion of the shallow-water carbonates might have produced V-incasion structures by gravitational collapse of cave roofs when these beds were still not completely consolidated.


Miocene phreatomagmatic volcanism at Tihany (Pannonian Basin, Hungary), 2001, Nemeth K. , Martin U. , Harangi S. ,
A late Miocene (7.56 Ma) maar volcanic complex (Tihany Maar Volcanic Complex - TMVC) is preserved in the Pannonian Basin and is part of the Bakony-Balaton Highland Volcanic Field. Base surge and fallout deposits were formed around maars by phreatomagmatic explosions, caused by interactions between water-saturated sediments and alkali basalt magma carrying peridotite Iherzolite xenoliths as well as pyroxene and olivine megacrysts. Subsequently, nested maars functioned as a sediment trap where deposition built up Gilbert-type delta sequences. At the onset of eruption, magma began to interact with a moderate amount of groundwater in the water-saturated sand. As eruption continued phreatomagmatic blasts excavated downward into limestones, providing access to abundant karst water and deeper to sandstones and schist both providing large amount of fracture-filling water, At the surface, this 'wet' eruption led to the emplacement of massive tuff breccias by fall, surge, mudflow and gravity flow deposition. The nature of the TMVC maar eruptions and their deposits appears to depend on the hydrological condition of the karst and/or fracture-filling aquifer, which varies seasonally with rainfall and spring runoff. The West and East Maar volcanoes of TMVC are interpreted to represent low water input from the karst and/or fracture-filling aquifer ('summer vent'), whereas the East Maar is interpreted to have formed when abundant karst and/or fracture-filling water was available ('spring vent'). (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

Growth of hematite and boehmite in concretions from ancient karst bauxite: clue for past climate, 2002, Mongelli G. ,
In the Peri-Adriatic Apulia Carbonate Platform (southern Italy), late Cretaceous karst bauxites mark an emergence period during a wet tropical climate. Bauxite formed through clay accumulation in the karst, 'in situ' bauxitization and late formation of iron-rich concretions in a water-unsaturated pedogenic environment. The concretions, which are geochemical recorders of the environment of formation, have a large core of Al-hematite surrounded by a cortex of alternating M-hematite and boehmite. Boehmite forms instead of Al-hematite at lower water activity values. Using a model of molecular diffusion and assuming the fluid flow negligible, the time necessary for growth of the concretions has been calculated. The average-sized core grew in similar to180 ka. The Al-hematite accretionary band grew in similar to180 ka whereas the boehmite accretionary band grew in similar to4.5 ka. The average bulk concretions possibly formed in 300-400 ka. The growth of the concretions is assumed to be a two-stage process. In the first stage, the core grew in a relatively long period of wet tropical climate. In the second stage, drier conditions favouring boehmite stability alternated to a wetter climate favouring Al-hematite stability. The growth of the bulk concretions is consistent with the Earth's long eccentricity cycle. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

Regional Quaternary submarine geomorphology in the Florida Keys, 2003, Lidz Barbara H. , Reich Christopher D. , Shinn Eugene A. ,
High-quality seismic reflection profiles fill a major gap in geophysical data along the south Florida shelf, allowing updated interpretations of the history of the Quaternary coral reef system. Incorporation of the new and existing data sets provides the basis for detailed color maps of the Pleistocene surface and thickness of overlying Holocene accretions. The maps cover the Florida Keys to a margin-wide upper-slope terrace (30 to 40 m deep) and extend from The Elbow Reef (north Key Largo) to Rebecca Shoal (Gulf of Mexico). The data indicate that Pleistocene bedrock is several meters deeper to the southwest than to the north east, yet in general, Holocene sediments are [~]3 to 4 m thick shelf-wide. The Pleistocene map demonstrates the significance of a westward-dipping bedrock surface to Holocene flooding history and coral reef evolution. Seismic facies show evidence for two possible Holocene stillstands. Aerial photographs provide information on the seabed surface, much of which is below seismic resolution. The photographs define a prominent, regional nearshore rock ledge that extends [~]2.5 km seaward from the keys' shoreline. They show that bands of rock ridges exist along the outer shelf and on the upper-slope terrace. The photographs also reveal four tracts of outlier reefs on the terrace, one more than had been documented seismically. Seismic and photographic data indicate the tracts are >200 km long, nearly four times longer than previously thought. New interpretations provide insights into a youngest possible terrace age (ca. 175 ka?) and the likelihood that precise ages of oxygen isotope substage 5e ooid tidal-bar and coral reef components may differ. The tidal-bar/reef complex forms the Florida Keys

Paleocollapse structures as geological record for reconstruction of past karst processes during the upper miocene of Mallorca Island, 2004, Robledo Ardila P. A. , Durn J. J. , Pomar L.
Paleocollapse structures and collapse breccias are one of the major features for paleokarst analysis and paleoclimate record. These are affecting the Llucmajor and Santany carbonate platforms. These platforms, of southern and eastern Mallorca respectively, are a good example of progradation reef platform in the western Mediterranean. The Santany platform is constituted of two sedimentary units, both affected by paleocollapse structures: (1) The Reef Complex attributed to the upper Tortonian-lower Messinian; (2) Santany Limestone attributed to the Messinian. There are abundant paleocollapse outcropping in the Reef Complex and Santany Limestone units. These structures have been produced by roof collapse of caverns developed in the underlying reefal complex. According to the genetic model, the origin of same paleocollapse structures may be related to early diagenetic processes controlled by high-frequency sea-level fluctuations. During the lowstands of sea level, fresh water flow or mixing zone might have created a cave system near the water table by dissolution of aragonite in the reef front facies and coral patches existing in the lagoonal beds. During subsequent rise and highstands of sea level, inner-shelf beds overlaid the previously karstified reef-core and outer-lagoonal beds. Increase of loading by subsequent accretion of the shallow-water carbonate might have produced paleocollapse structures by gravitational collapse of cave roof. Morphometric and structural classification of paleocollapse is based on geometric and structural criteria according to the type of deformed strata and strata dip. Paleocollapse structures can be classified according to geometric section, size of the paleocave and lithification degree of the host rock when collapsed. Breccias are classified as crackle, mosaic and chaotic types. In same paleocollapse the type of breccias present a vertical and lateral gradation, from crackle in the upper part, to chaotic in the lower part of the paleocollapse. Chaotic breccias grade from matrix-free, clasts-supported breccias to matrix-supported breccias. Relationship with high frequency of sea-level fluctuation, facies architecture, classification features and products permit to enhance a general paleoclimatic framework.

The Great Barrier Reef: The Chronological Record from a New Borehole, 2004, Braithwaite Cjr, Dalmasso H, Gilmour M, Harkness Dd, Henderson Gm, Kay Rl, Kroon D, Montaggioni Lf, Wilson Pa,
A new borehole, 210 mbsf (meters below sea floor) deep, drilled in Ribbon Reef 5 on the Great Barrier Reef off Cooktown, NE Australia, reveals a shallowing-upwards succession, the younger part of which is punctuated by a series of erosion surfaces. Nine depositional units have been defined by lithological changes and are numbered sequentially from the base of the hole upwards. Aminostratigraphy, magnetostratigraphy, radiocarbon dating, uranium series dating, and modeling together with strontium ratios have been applied in an attempt to establish a chronology of accumulation. Carbonate deposition began about 770 ka ago in a relatively deep-water slope environment and is represented by a series of debris flows. Lithoclasts within these rocks, indicate that older limestones already existed in the area. Subsequent accretion involved the downslope accumulation of grainstones and wackestones, sometimes cross-laminated, characterized by intervals with abundant rhodoliths and scattered, probably reworked, corals. Four units at the base of the hole reflect deposition that probably began during isotope stage 16 and continued through stage 15 from about 770 to about 564 ka. Unit 5 probably extended to stage 11 (about 400 ka), and unit 6 to stage 9 ([~] 330 ka). Typical reefal associations of corals and calcareous algae were established in this area only above depths of about 100 m in the borehole, units 5-4. The succession is apparently unbroken to an erosion surface at 36 mbsf indicating subaerial emergence. The lack of evidence of emergence below this surface reflects progressive accretion or progradation or both. Two younger erosion surfaces define further periods of lowered sea level. Unit 7 is attributed to deposition during isotope stage 7, but erosion during stage 8 resulted in the preservation of only 8 m of unit 7 limestones. Unit 8 is correlated with stage 5 ([~]125 ka), and unit 9 is interpreted as Holocene (post 7,700 ka). The limited thicknesses of units 7, 8, and 9 are considered to reflect erosion. The progressive shallowing brought the depositional surface within the zone exposed during lowstands, and there is no sedimentological evidence that aggradation was restricted by a lack of accommodation

Tertiary-Quaternary faulting and uplift in the northern Oman Hajar Mountains, 2005, Kusky Timothy, Robinson Cordula, Elbaz Farouk,
Field mapping and remote sensing investigations reveal two new major fault sets cutting through Tertiary rocks, Quaternary terraces and a several-hundred-year-old irrigation canal system in the Hajar Mountains of northern Oman. They extend for tens of kilometres, forming fracture intensification zones several hundred metres wide. WNW- to NW-oriented faults run parallel to the mountain fronts in the plains adjoining the central Hajar range then obliquely crosscut the mountains in the north. Motion along these faults explains how Quaternary marine terraces became elevated 190 m above sea level. A second fault set strikes north to NNE. The associated juvenile topography suggests that they also accommodate recent uplift, subsidiary to the WNW-striking faults, with minor strike-slip and differential movement between various segments of the Hajar Mountains. Both fault systems, and the amount of Quaternary uplift (between 100 and 500 m), are similar to those in other active and ancient forebulge environments. Using the fracture patterns observed, it is proposed here that the Hajar range lies on the active forebulge of a collision zone between the NE margins of the Arabian plate, the Zagros fold belt and the Makran accretionary prism, which resulted in the recent uplift

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