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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 11 Jul, 2012
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That effective rainfall is effective precipitation when only rainfall is involved [16].?

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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Geochemical and mineralogical fingerprints to distinguish the exploited ferruginous mineralisations of Grotta della Monaca (Calabria, Italy), Dimuccio, L.A.; Rodrigues, N.; Larocca, F.; Pratas, J.; Amado, A.M.; Batista de Carvalho, L.A.
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
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Search in KarstBase

Your search for accumulation (Keyword) returned 131 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 131
Fungal communities on speleothem surfaces in Kartchner Caverns, Arizona, USA, , Vaughan Michael J. , Maier Raina M. , Pryor Barry M.

Kartchner Caverns, located near Benson, Arizona, USA, is an active carbonate cave that serves as the major attraction for Kartchner Caverns State Park. Low-impact development and maintenance have preserved prediscovery macroscopic cavern features and minimized disturbances to biological communities within the cave.. The goal of this study was to examine fungal diversity in Kartchner Caverns on actively-forming speleothem surfaces. Fifteen formations were sampled from five sites across the cave. Richness was assessed using standard culture-based fungal isolation techniques. A culture-independent analysis using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) was used to assay evidence of community homogeneity across the cave through the separation of 18S rDNA amplicons from speleothem community DNA. The culturing effort recovered 53 distinct morphological taxonomic units (MTUs), corresponding to 43 genetic taxonomic units (GTUs) that represented 21 genera. From the observed MTU accumulation curve and the projected total MTU richness curve, it is estimated that 51 percent of the actual MTU richness was recovered. The most commonly isolated fungi belonged to the genera Penicillium, Paecilomyces, Phialophora, and Aspergillus. This culturebased analysis did not reveal significant differences in fungal richness or number of fungi recovered across sites. Cluster analysis using DGGE band profiles did not reveal distinctive groupings of speleothems by sample site. However, canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) analysis of culture-independent DGGE profiles showed a significant effect of sampling site and formation type on fungal community structure. Taken together, these results reveal that diverse fungal communities exist on speleothem surfaces in Kartchner Caverns, and that these communities are not uniformly distributed spatially. Analysis of sample saturation indicated that more sampling depth is required to uncover the full scale of mycological richness across spelothem surfaces.


Karst ore in Yunnan, 1952, Searls Fred,
Discusses factors in the accumulation of detrital lead-silver ores in limestone sinkholes of southwest Yunnan, China

Bermuda--A partially drowned, late mature, Pleistocene karst, 1960, Bretz Jh,
During Pleistocene time, the Bermuda Islands repeatedly underwent partial inundation and re-emergence. The land areas were continuously attacked and reduced by rain and ground water but repeatedly renewed, during times of submergence, by deposition of marine limestone and by contemporaneous additions of shore-born and wind-transported carbonate sand, now eolianite. Soils formed under subaerial conditions are now buried beneath later deposits and constitute important stratigraphic markers. The igneous foundation rock appears to have been exposed during some low marine stands, and the former shorelines seem to be recorded by submerged terraces. The major karst features are largely below sea level, and they must date from times of continental glaciations. Previous writers have assigned eolian accumulation to times of Pleistocene low sea level and soil-making to times of interglacial high sea. Both conclusions are held to be erroneous

A preliminary study on the effects of organic pollution of banners Corner Cave, Virginia., 1966, Holsinger John R.
Four pools were observed in Banners Corner Cave, Russell County, Virginia, over a 28 month period from November, 1961, to February, 1964. Three of these pools were visibly polluted with sewage which had seeped into the cave from septic tanks located on the hill above. All four of these pools, at one time or another during the study, contained large populations of planarians, Phagocata subterranea Hyman and isopods, Asellus recurvatus Steeves. Physicochemical and microbiological analyses of the pool waters indicated that oxygen tension is a low as 2.8 mg./l. in one pool and that coliforms and other forms of bacteria (probably saprophytic) are abundant in the contaminated waters of the cave. Microscopic examination of the pool waters revealed a rich and varied microfauna, especially protozoans and rotifers. In addition, the polluted pools contained large amounts of colloidal materials which are believed to be rich in organic content. The influx and accumulation of sewage rich in organic matter is believed to be the basic trophic input in the contaminated pools. It is suggested that this material serves as an important food source for saprophytic bacteria as well as for much of the aquatic fauna, including both micro- and macroforms. Precise trophic relationships between the larger aquatic organisms have not been worked out but several significant feeding responses have been observed.

The Clastic Sediments of Douglas Cave, Stuart Town, New South Wales, 1969, Frank, R.

Douglas Cave is on the western slopes of central New South Wales about five miles south-west of Stuart Town. The cave was first discovered in 1896 by R. J. Wilson (Leigh, 1897). At the time of discovery, the accumulation of fossil bone in the Bone Room was noted and shortly afterwards some bone was collected by W. S. Leigh. Thylacinus spelaeus, Dasyurus sp. and Macropus sp. were included in the collection (Dun, 1897). The cave was not named when it was discovered, though Trickett does refer to it as "the Stuart Town Caves" in a later report (Trickett, 1898, p. 205). It will be referred to hereafter as the Douglas Cave in honour of the present owner.


Developmental chronology and evolution of calcium storage and urate containing cells in Niphargus schellenbergi Karaman., 1975, Graf Franois, Michaut Philippe.
The intra-marsupial development of Niphargus schellenbergi is divided into three phases: within the chorion, embryonic intermoult and juvenile intermoult. The disappearance of the chorion divides the first phase from the second. A double exuviation exists between the last two. The chronology of the embryonic development and of the beginning of post-embryonic development is established. On hatching the juvenile N. schellenbergi has one pair of hepatopancreatic caeca. During the first post-embryonic intermoults the ventral hepatopancreatic caeca, posterior caeca and anterior caecum are formed. The relation between posterior caeca and the aorta is described. The study of calcium storage before moulting showed that calcareous concretions located in posterior caeca and midgut have the typical form, volume, quantity and distribution of the species. This calcium accumulation process occurs in the midgut following the first posternbryonic exuviation. It is only when the sixth exuviation is attained that storage in the posterior caeca is similar to the one in adults. The urate containing cells located at the lower face of the pericardial septum begin to accumulate urate spherules 15 days before hatching. They vary in form, volume, localization and composition, and so may be considered as storage sites for urate, pigments and various ions (P, K, Ca, S, Cl, Na, Mg) which are returned to circulation.

The invertebrate fauna of tropical American caves, Part III: Jamaica, an introduction., 1975, Peck Stewart B.
The scattered literature on the physical speleology and biospeleology of the West Indian island of Jamaica is brought together. As a result of recent field work, a summary of the Jamaican vertebrate and invertebrate caves is given. The invertebrate fauna is known to include some 150 free-living macroscopic species. These are mostly troglophilic scavengers and predators associated with guano accumulations. However, some 25 species, mostly terrestrial and undescribed, are known to be troglobites. This is one of the largest known assemblages of tropical troglobites. Brief descriptions are given for the 54 cave sites which have been biologically studied.

Potential Gas Accumulation in Caves in Bowling Green, Including Relationship to Water Quality, 1976, Elliott, L. P.

The karst of Transvaal (South Africa)., 1976, Kavalieris I. , Martini Jacques E. J.
The Transvaal Karst is a world important example of a Karst developed on a very old dolomite. Its unique character is due to the composition of the rock and history of development. The dissolution of the dolomite is interesting and has an important effect on the character of the caves developed. The caves preserved in this area include the longest known in South Africa and are perhaps among the largest dolomite systems known in the world. They are very old and in some cases contain important palaeontological deposits (Australopithecine fauna). The caves to various degrees are in a state of de-generation, having been exposed for a very long period above the water-table. For the greater part of the Karst area, aggressive vadose waters, and long exposure has resulted in the accumulation of a thick covering of residual material. The plateau-like geomorphology and low rainfalls has prevented physical erosion and significant removal of this debris from the land surface. The caves themselves are often characterized by collapse and in general lack of formations. Massive calcite formation in the caves is usually partly or nearly completely redissolved and are relics of past colder climatic periods with winter rains. Formations active now are small, usually delicate and often due directly to evaporation. The heavy mantle of residual debris preserved under some of the more ancient of South African landsurface relics (the African Surface) poses a serious economic problem of stability, with mans' utilization of the environment. A greater understanding of the Karst, its evolution and properties is thus of considerable practical importance.

KARST TYPE OF COAL ACCUMULATION IN BYELORUSSIA, 1979, Azhgirevich Lf, Levkov Ea,

Morphology and Origin of Holy Jump Lava Cave, South-Eastern Queensland, 1979, Webb, John A.

Holy Jump Lava Cave consists of portions of lava tubes in two superimposed flows. The upper tube probably connected with the downflow section of the lower tube via a lavafall. A small upflow part of the lower tube is also preserved, and shows the original wall and roof structures. Elsewhere the cave has suffered extensive breakdown, and only small sections of the original walls are still present. The cave has been further modified by secondary silica mineralisation, fine sediment deposition, and guano accumulation. The enclosing lava flows are early Miocene basalts of the Main Range Volcanics, making Holy Jump Lava Cave one of the oldest lava tube caves known.


Caves, Graves and Folklore of Normanby Island, Papua New Guinea, 1980, Pain C. F. , Ollier C. D.

A rock shelter in gneiss and several caves in raised coral limestone are described from Normanby Island. Songs and stories that relate some of the caves to ancestors and to the mythical origin of the island population are recounted. Cave burials are described, which are predominantly accumulations of human skulls.


Distribution of Ostracods in the Groundwater of the North Western Coast of Euboea (Greece)., 1981, Danielopol Dan L.
Freshwater fauna from 20 wells located 15-200 m from the seashore as well as marine interstitial fauna from the coastal zone around the village Aghios Georghios (Cape Likhada) have been investigated. Freshwater hypogean ostracods live mainly in protected wells having clean bottom and little particulate organic matter from which the water is moderately pumped. Epigean freshwater ostracods dominate in unprotected wells with large amounts of organic matter on the bottom. There is a sharp difference between the ostracod fauna living in fresh groundwater (mainly Cypridids) and those living in coastal marine interstitial habitats (marine Cytherids and Polycopids). It is suggested that in the Mediterranean realm the hypogean fauna could be found easily in protected wells with little organic matter accumulation, where water is moderately pumped.

Depositional history of the late Pleistocene limestones of the Kenya coast, 1984, Braithwaite Cjr,
The coastal limestones of Kenya extend approximately 180 km N-S from Malindi to the Tanzanian border. They are at least 20 m thick and may be subdivided into sedimentary units representing major periods of marine deposition punctuated by sub-aerial erosion. Their foundations are formed by thick fluvial and aeolian quartz sands but there is local evidence of marine deposition following these. In the main limestone unit, deposited about 240,000 years ago, initial high energy shallow-shelf deposition was replaced by quiet water sediments with scattered corals. Sea level stood about 8 m higher than at present. Quartzose sands were confined to western areas. A return to shallow water heralded a new phase of emergence and erosion, producing karst surfaces and sub-aerial sediments. These are overlain by herring-bone cross-bedded quartz-rich calcarenites which were the products of a tidally dominated shelf and, at Watamu and Wasini, pass upwards into aeolian dune deposits. However, these were also emersed and subject to karst erosion before deposition of a further widespread marine limestone. Within this, coral knolls are well developed. Much of the sediment accumulated in shallow water, but the ecological succession indicates that knolls were at times in deeper waters. These deposits formed about 125,000 years ago when sea level ultimately stood 15-20 m above its present position. More recently in the area sea level has again fallen. However, the descent was not continuous and pauses were marked by marine terrace formation and subsequent karst erosion with sub-aerial deposition. Brief reversals caused both terraces and sediments to be overlain by thin marine deposits. Sea level paused at its present position about 30,000 years ago when the present reef platform was probably defined. It continued to fall to a maximum of about-120 m before rising to its existing level 7000 years ago and beginning the current cycle of sediment accumulation

A NEW TYPE OF SURFACE MINERAL ACCUMULATION BY METEORIC WEATHERING EPIGENESIS - HALLOYSITIZATION UNDER COVERING IN A KARST ON SILICIFIED LIMESTONE (BELGIUM), 1989, Ertus R, Dupuis C, Trauth N,

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