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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That irrigation return flow is the part of artificially applied water that is not consumed by evapotranspiration and that migrates to an aquifer or surface water body [22].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for acid (Keyword) returned 258 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 258
Processes of limestone cave development., 1964, Howard Alan D.
Three processes successively predominate in enlarging original fractures within limestone into cavern passages: (I) early dissolving by acid produced by oxidizing reactions within the groundwater as it flows through the limestone; (2) dissolving caused by the initial undersaturation with respect to calcite of the groundwater when it enters the limestone; and (3) increased dissolving which occurs at the transition from laminar to turbulent groundwater flow. Only those original fractures in limestone which are widest and which have a high hydraulic gradient acting across them will be enlarged into cavern passages. Until all available surface drainage has been diverted underground, cavern development takes place under a constant hydraulic head, and the rate of limestone solution increases with time. After all available surface drainage has been diverted underground, the discharge through the cave, rather than the hydraulic head, remains constant, and the rate of limestone solution decreases toward a constant value. These principles apply to caverns formed both by water-table flow and by artesian flow.

Remarks on the significance of experiences in karst geodynamics., 1964, Renault Philippe
Distinction is made between the experiment which "demonstrates" having an argumentative value; and the experiment which "questions" nature by isolating one factor and by determining the mode of its action. The concept of experiment in geology and in geodynamics and the distinctions between geodynamics and geophysics are discussed. Karstic geodynamics considers the action of fluids; mainly liquids; on a soluble rock. It is a science bordering the different branches of geochemistry, hydrology, the mechanics of rocks, and geophysics. Researches in karstic geodynamics are based upon measurements obtained through field surveys, or upon the utilization of a subterranean laboratory. However, in the laboratory this hardly surpasses the stage of experimental demonstration. A series of simple experiments are enumerated to exemplify the above statement, like the one where the attack of a diluted acid on a soluble rock is utilized, in order to enable us to classify the major problems encountered in karstic corrosion. The last chapter discusses the bicarbonate equilibriums of Ca-CO2. Experiment furnishes the empiric criterion on which scientific theory is founded. Each discipline has its own methodology dependent on the object under study having experimental criteria of different nature. This is particularly true in case of such distant phenomena which no longer have a common ground with human dimensions like space for astronomy or time for geology. In such cases the possibilities of "instrumental" experimentations are very limited. After a brief recollection of the principles of experimental procedure and the history of the experiments attempted by geodynamicians (tectonics, geomorphology, etc.) we will analyze several methods of investigation and by relying exactly on the example of karstic corrosion we shall determine those which have a value for the science of karstology.

Laboratory and field evidence for a vadose origin of foibe (domepits)., 1965, Reams Max W.
Foiba (plural, foibe) is a term derived from the northeastern Italian karst region. The word is here suggested for use in preference to other terms referring to vertical cavities in soluble rocks. Foiba is defined as a cavity in relatively soluble rock which is natural, solutional, tends toward a cylindrical shape, and possesses walls which normally approach verticality. In laboratory experiments, limestone blocks were treated with dilute hydrochloric acid, and cavities resembling foibe were produced. Vertical walls developed only when a less soluble layer capped the limestone block or when the acid source was stationary, allowing acid to drip to the area directly below. Water analyses from foibe in central Kentucky and Missouri indicate that the water has had less residence time in the zone of aeration than other waters percolating through the rocks and entering the caves. In central Kentucky, foibe seem to be developed by migrating underground waterfalls held up by less soluble layers or by water moving directly down joints below less soluble layers. In Missouri, foibe are formed by joint enlargement below chert layers. Those foibe in the ceilings of caves are complicated by the enlargement of the lower part of the joints by cave streams during fluctuating water table conditions. In limestone caves of Kansas, foibe are formed in a similar manner as in Missouri. The foibe of the gypsum caves of Kansas are formed mainly on the sides of steep collapse sinkholes and lack joint control although they form beneath less soluble layers in the gypsum. Dripping water is necessary for the development of vertical walls by solution. Less soluble layers seem to be the unique feature which allows water to drip and pour into foibe. The floors of foibe are formed by less soluble layers or near the water table. If foibe intersect previously formed cave passages, no floors may develop.

Cave Development Via the Sulfuric Acid Reaction, 1968, Morehouse, David F.

The Characteristics and Use of Lead-Acid Cap Lamps, 1974, Cowlishaw M. F.

Subterranean Crustacea Decapoda Macrura collected by Mr. L. Botosaneanu during the 1973 Cuban-Romanian biospeleological expedition to Cuba., 1974, Holthuis Lipke B.
During the 1973 Cuban Romanian Biospeleological Expedition to Cuba 5 species of cavernicolous Decapod Crustacea were collected: the Palaemonidae Troglocubanus gibarensis Chace, T. eigenmanni (Hay) and Macrobrachium faustinum lucifugum new subspecies. The second of these species now is reported for the first time from Isla de Pinos. The third form proved to be a new subspecies of Macrobrachium faustinum (De Saussure), a freshwater shrimp which is widely distributed in the West Indies. The new subspecies is not only known from Cuba, but also material from Jamaica, Curacao and Bonaire is reported. A new locality is reported for Barbouria cubensis (Von Martens). The Astacid Procambarus niveus Hobbs & Villalobos was collected near its type locality.

Free amino acids, cave beetle, Darlingtonea kentuckensis, Coleoptera, Carabidae, troglobite., 1974, Sperka R. J.
Free amino acids of Darlingtonea kentuckensis were investigated by two-dimensional, thin-layer chromatography on Silica Gel G. Thirteen amino acids which could be identifed (alanine, glutamic acid, glycine, histidine, isoleucine and/or leucine, lysine, phenylalanine, proline, serine, threonine, tryptophan, tyrosine and valine) and seven unidentified ninhydrin-positive spots were found. Beta-Alanine, alpha-amino-butyric acid, arginine, aspartic acid, cystine, hydroxyproline and methionine were not detected. No difference was observed in the free amino acids with respect to sex of beetle, time after feeding and method of sample preparation.

Karst Geomorphology of the Bruce Peninsula, Ontario, PhD Thesis, 1976, Cowell, Daryl William

This is the first detailed examination of the karst geomorphology of the Bruce Peninsula. It attempts to review all aspects including pavement phenomena and formation (microkarst features), surface and subsurface karst hydrology (meso to macro scale) and water chemistry. The latter is based on over 250 samples collected in 1973 and 1974.
The dolomite pavement is the best example of its kind that has been described in the literature. It covers much of the northern and eastern parts of the peninsula and can be differentiated into three types based on karren assemblages. Two of these are a product of lithology and the third reflects local environmental controls. The Amabel Formation produces characteristic karren such as rundkarren, hohlkarren, meanderkarren, clint and grike, kamentizas and rillenkarren on glacially abraded biohermal structures. The Guelph Formation develops into a very irregular, often cavernous surface with clint and grike and pitkarren as the only common recognizable karren. The third assemblage is characterized by pitkarren and is found only in the Lake Huron littoral zone. Biological factors are believed to have played a major role in the formation of the pavement. Vegetation supplies humic acids which help boost the solution process and helps to maintain a wet surface. This tends to prolong solution and permit the development of karren with rounded lips and bottoms.
Three types of drainage other than normal surface runoff are found on the Bruce. These are partial underground capture of surface streams, complete underground capture (fluvio-karst), and wholly vertical drainage without stream action (holokarst). Holokarst covers most of the northern and eastern edge of the peninsula along the top of the escarpment. Inland it is replaced by fluvial drainage, some of which has been, or is in the process of being captured. Four perennial streams and one lake disappear into sinkholes. These range from very simple channel capture and resurgence, as shown by a creek east of Wiarton, to more mature and complex cave development of the St. Edmunds cave near Tobermory. Partial underground capture represents the first stage of karst drainage. This was found to occur in one major river well inland of the fluvio-karst and probably occurs in other streams as well. This chapter also examines the possible future karst development of the Bruce and other karst feature such as isolated sinks and sea caves.
The water chemistry presented in Chapter 5 represents the most complete data set from southern Ontario. It is examined on a seasonal basis as well as grouped into classes representing water types (streams, Lake Huron and Georgian Bay, inland lakes, swamps, diffuse springs and conduit springs). The spring analyses are also fitted into climatic models of limestone solution based on data from other regions of North America. It was found that solution rates in southern Ontario are very substantial. Total hardness ranges from 150 to 250 ppm (expressed as CaCO3) in most lakes and streams and up to 326 ppm in springs. These rates compare with more southerly latitudes. The theoretical equilibrium partial pressure of CO2 was found to be the most significant chemical variable for comparing solution on different kinds of carbonates and between glaciated and non-glaciated regions. Expect for diffuse flow springs and Lake Huron, the Bruce data do not separate easily into water types using either graphical or statistical (i.e. Linear Discriminant Analysis) analyses. This is partly because of the seasonality of the data and because of the intimate contact all waters have with bedrock.

Locomotor responses of the cave fish Astyanax jordani (Pisces, Characidae) to periodic and aperiodic light and temperature signals., 1978, Thins Georges, Weyers M.
The locomotory activity of adult cave fishes Astyanax jordani was recorded in isolation in the following light and temperature conditions: constant conditions (100 Lx; 200C), in a light cycle (LD:11/11 -10 Lx -100 Lx) and in a temperature cycle (11/11; 17/20, 19/22, 20/23, 27/30 C). All longitudinal time series extended for a minimum of 30 days. Results show: (1) That no circadian regulation appears in constant conditions; (2) that passive entrainment occurs in LD (Amplitude: 90 Lx) and in periodic temperature conditions (Amplitude: 3C). The entrainment effect damps out and varies individually; (3) that the mean activity increases with temperature; (4) The adjustment of activity to periodic signals is individually stable. These results suggest that A. Jordani is devoid of any endogenous oscillator of the circadian type. The observed thermal adaptation could have the following functions: (1) To increase the level of activity in function of the thermal level under the form of passive entrainment; (2) To enhance the exploratory behaviour of the fish in search of a thermal preference allowing the animal to keep inside a well defined zone of the subterranean biotope in relation to small local temperature changes.

Amino acid geochronology: integrity of the carbonate matrix and potential of molluscan fossils, 1980, Miller G. H.

Underground Streams on Acid Igneous Rocks in Victoria, 1981, Finlayson, Brian

Underground streams occur in valley floors on acid igneous rocks over a wide area of eastern Victoria. In some cases the underground passage is capable of accommodating all streamflow levels so that there is no active surface channel. Three of them contain passages accessible to cavers. The literature contains very few references to features of this kind and there is some confusion as to whether they should be called 'pseudokarst'. Detailed descriptions and diagrams are presented for two of the sites, Labertouche and Brittania Creek. At North Maroondah, sinking streams on dacite have caused complications for hydrological experiments. Possible origins of these features are discussed and it is obvious that several mechanisms are feasible. One of the difficulties in determining modes of formation is that a variety of processes could lead to very similar end products. Three main theories on the mode of formation are suggested.

Introgressive Hybridization in the Astyanax fasciatus (Pisces: Characidae) Population at La Cueva Chica, 1983, Romero, Aldemaro

The Evolution of Polygenic Systems, Studied on Epigean and Cave Populations of Astyanax fasciatus (Characidae, Pisces), 1985, Wilkens, Horst

The speleogenetic role of air flow caused by convection. First contribution., 1986, Cigna Arrigo A. , Forti Paolo
In the past some authors described the speleogenetic role of convection in phreatic conditions. Similar effects exist also in the air-fiLled part of vadose passages of caves as a consequence of an air circulation due to a relevant temperature gradient; the effects can be enhanced by the presence of some acids as, e.g., H2S, H2SO4, etc. In this paper the conditions matching convection and condensation which produce typical forms, very similar to those found under phreatic conditions, are discussed both for limestone and gypsum caves.

Genetic analysis of evolutionary processes, 1987, Wilkens Horst
Epigean and cave populations of A. fasciatus (Characidae, Pisces) differ in a series of morphological physiological, and ethological features. The interfertility of these populations made possible a genetic analysis of organs characteristic of interspecific divergence. The study of the regressive organs "eye" and "melanophore system" on the one hand and that of the constructively improved "gustatory equipment and feeding behaviour" on the other yielded identical principles of genetic manifestation: (1) All features have a polygenic basis with an at least di- to hexahybrid inheritance. (2) All polygenes have the same amount of expressivity. (3) After recombination of a minimum number of genes, discontinuous distributions (threshold effects) develop. (4) All features are independently inherited. (5) The genes responsible for a feature are unspecific. In the case of the eye this means that no "lens-" or "retinagenes" are analyzed; due to developmentally physiological interdependence within complex structures, only so-called "eye-genes" have as yet been described. Because of the developmentally physiological interdependence of complex organs, the process of reduction proceeds as a diminution in size, that of constructive evolution as enlargement. In both cases different allometric correlations of the single structures can be found. The convergent reduction of eyes in cave animals is caused by the loss of stabilizing selection which normally keeps the eye in its appropriate adapted form. It is not directional selection pressure, like f. ex. energy economy, but mutation pressure that causes eye reduction. By this, random mutations, which are mostly of deleterious character, are accumulated. The principles of regressive evolution are not restricted to the development of cave species. The absence of stabilizing selection regularly occurs during transitional evolutionary phases. These are f. ex. initial stages of speciation which may be observed when biotopes with little or no interspecific competition are colonized by an invader. Genotypic and phenotypic variability now arise and equilibria become punctuated, because stabilizing selection for a specific ecological niche which has once been acquired by the invading species is no longer acting. Examples include the evolution of species flocks in geologically young lakes or oceanic islands. Rapidly increasing variability now secondarily provides the material for directional selection which radiates such species into vacant niches. Genetic threshold effects as described above may accelerate this process. Variability will finally become lower again under the influence of inter- and intraspecific competition. A new equilibrium is attained.

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