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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 11 Jul, 2012
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That evaporation suppression is the complete prevention of evaporation by mechanical or physico-chemical means (e.g., monomolecular layer) [16].?

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Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Karst environment, Culver D.C.
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Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
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Your search for algae (Keyword) returned 58 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 58
Algae and their mode of life in the Baradla cave at Aggletek II., 1964, Claus George
The author provides additional data to his publication of 1955. In a table he shows his results concerning 81 algal species which were returned to the cave of Aggtelek on June 22, 1954. When carrying out his control tests he found the decrease in the number of species to be 9 after 6 months and 18 after a further 8 months. In December 1957, after culturing on sun light however he was able to show again the presence of 17 species, but in his cultures Synechoccus elongatus, Phormidium dimorphum, Gloecoccus schrterii, Chlorococcum infusionum, Chlorella miniata and Protococcus anulatus, appeared with the largest individual numbers and not the Cyanophyta as could have been expected.

The microvegetation of a small Ice-cave in Hungary., 1964, Kol Erzsebet
The algal flora of a small, artificial, ice-cave located in Northern Hungary is described. In this cave 23 species of algae (see in Table 3) were found of which the Cyanophyta and Chlorophyta occurred with approximately equal number. (9 vers. 11) It was found that the primary limiting factor influencing the penetration of the algae into the cave is the low temperature and not the lack of light.

On the algal world of Hungarian caves., 1964, Palik P.
An account of the researches carried out on the algae living in the caves of Hungary is given. The results of the investigations concerning the algal flora of the Baradla, Peace, Abaliget, Plvlgy, Klyuk caves are enumerated. Theories about the possible energy source utilized by these algae living in the complete darkness of caves such as radiation, symbiosis, chemosynthesis or auxothrophy are discussed. The question of the settling of algae into the caves is debated.

Data on the Algal Flora of Kolyuk cave close to Manfa (Hungary)., 1965, Claus George
The Kolyuk cave lies in the southern part of Hungary in the Mecsek Mountains, about 3 km. in distance from the village of Mnfa. The material accepted for investigation originated from a recently discovered and until now completely entombed part of the cave. It was collected by the geologist Gbor Magyari and consisted of material scraped from the walls and ceiling of a cavity in the cave, which could be reached only by underwater swimming. From these scrapings cultures were installed with sterile Knopp solution and after the algae present in the collection reproduced, a diversified flora developed which consisted of the following: Cyanophyta; 20 species, varietates and formae; Bacillariophyta; 2 species and varietas; Chlorophyta; 7 species. There was a total of 29 different taxa. Since the cave from which the collections were made was completely devoid of light, it is especially significant that a well developed blue-green algal flora was found. We thus have further evidence for our previously advanced theory (Claus, 1955, 1962 a, 1962b) that some algae were present in the caves at the time of their origin. They were able to survive in an actively assimilating vegetative state and not only in the form of cysts or arthrospores.

Algological investigations in Mammoth Cave, Kentucky., 1965, Jones H. J.
Algological investigations carried out in the Mammoth Cave, Kentucky, revealed the presence of twenty-seven taxa representing all divisions of the Algae except the Pyrrhophyta and Phaeophyta; diatoms although observed in the samples were not dealt with in the present paper. One species, Oscillitoria clausiana spec. nov. and a form Lyngbya pusilla fa. tenuior fa. nov., both belonging to the Cyanophyta are new to science. In addition, several other rare and interesting algae were found. A comparison is made between the algal flora of the Mammoth Cave and algae found in several European caves. The ecology of the cavernicole algae is discussed.

Preliminary note on the Algae of Crystal Cave, Kentucky., 1965, Nagy J. P.
Collections of a preliminary type carried out in Crystal Cave, Kentucky, resulted in the identification of seven algal taxa. A Chamaesiphon (Dermocarpales) and an Asterocytis (Bangioidea) are reported for the first time from a speleo-environment. As no correlation could be found among the algae occurring in Crystal Cave and those of nearby Mammoth Cave the conclusion is reached that the cave algal floras do not originate from the algal vegetation of the surface but may have gotten into the caves at the time of the latter's formation.

The world of plants in caves of Lillafured (Hungary)., 1965, Verseghy Klara
The vegetation of the Forrs and Istvn caves at Lillafured in Hungary is composed of algae, micro- and macrofungi and mosses. The algae in both caves are represented by unicellular Cyanophyta and Chlorophyta with small species numbers. The macrofungi are Coprinus and Polyporacea spp. while it was impossible to identify the microfungi. The moss flora is richly developed and it can be supposed to represent a secondary vegetation at the artificially illuminated places of the caves. In Forrs cave 7, and in Istvn cave 15 different mosses were found, only 3 of which proved to be common to both caves: Rhynchostegium murale, Eucladium verticillatum and Pohlia sp. A rare and interesting species: Fissidens minutulus occurred at several localities in Forrs cave.

Algological studies in the cave of Matyas Mount, Budapest, Hungary., 1966, Hajdu Lajos.
Experiments were designed to test the ability of the aphotic speleoenvironment to support algal growth. The first series contained gelatin cultures of Scenedesmus placed in the cave at different localities in order to establish whether or not the microhabitats have any particular effect on the multiplication of the algae. No differences were found in the cultures after a three month incubation period in the cave, which could be traced to influences of microenvironmental conditions. Chlorella cultures in sterile Knop's solution showed measurable growth in the cave whereas if the cultures were installed into sterilized cave water or were shielded by lead against possible radiation effects, no appreciable growth occurred. The presence or absence of magnetic field did not noticeably influence algal development. The experiments seemed to indicate that the algae tested are able to utilize soma kind of radiation in the complete darkness of the cava since, in the absence of organic material, appreciable amounts of molecular hydrogen or symbiotic activity, with iron bacteria, considerable growth occurred in a simple, strictly inorganic medium, whereas the cave waters seam to be deficient in some kind of inorganic salt required for algal nutrition. An investigation of algae living in the cave led to the determination of ten different taxa, the majority of which were Cyanophytes. Besides them, however, the cave may contain a more diversified algal population.

Algae from the cave of Matyas Mount, Budapest, Hungary., 1966, Palik P.
Seven collections containing scrapings of speleoclay or samples from the cave waters were received from L. Hajdu and were cultured in light in a modified Knop's solution. The cultures yielded 21 different algal taxa, of which five species belong to the Cyanophyta four to the Bacillariophycaea class of the Chrysophyta and twelve to the Chlorophyta. From the species distribution the cave shows a similarity to the nearby cave of Plvolgy, namely both of them contained more than 50 per cent Chlorophyta. Among the Cyanophyta the occurrence of Baradlaia speluncaecola Palik is noteworthy. This species seems to be a true troglobitic alga, since the genus is known only from caves.

Bioluminescence in Melosira varians Ag., 1967, Claus George
Bluish green bioluminescence in a diatom, Melosira varians Ag. growing in an abandoned tin mine in Cornwall was observed. Upon microscopic examination the chloroplasts of the algae were found to be very pale but no other feature was seen which could be correlated with the luminescence.

Algal growth experiments in the Baradla cave at Aggletek (Biospeleologica hungarica XXI)., 1967, Kol Erzsebet
The author kept 108 algal strains (Cyanophyta 53, Chlorophyta 35, Chrysophyta 20), of axenic cultures from the Kol-Algotheca in the Botanical Division of the Hungarian National Sciences Museum in the Baradla Cave, at Aggletek (Hungary) in darkness for 204-420 days under different environmental conditions. The experiments have proven that several algal strains can tolerate well the complete absence of light. Furthermore, that some algal strains show intensive development even under such conditions. These axenic cultures kept in the cave in metal boxes on inorganic medium have shown that the energy source used by these green coloured algae is not some by-product of chemotrophic bacteria, nor is it available organic material, but that it must be some kind of radiation which is able to penetrate even the metal boxes. The ability to adapt to the conditions existing in a cave is not a general characteristic of algal species, but is the capability of individual algal strains within that species. Most probably the algae living in the caves are aerophytes, terrestrial forms, and also some belonging to the edaphon. The cells were found to be smaller in the algae kept in the cave, there was almost no starch deposition in the cells, the pyrenoids were barely discernible, but the development of carotenes was more intense. Whether there are specific cave dwelling algal strains must be determined by future algological research conducted in caves. The composition of the algal floras of the caves may be equally dependent upon the chemical and physical characteristics of the biotope, as is the case in every other biotope.

Further investigations into Bacterial and Algal populations of caves in South Wales., 1967, Williams Mary Ann Mason
Some physical data collected over a period of a year in seven locations of the Ogof Ffynnon Ddu cave system in South Wales are reported, including humidity, air and water temperature, pH of the water, as well as the organic oxygen demand of the water. It is shown that seasonal variations in the physical constant in this particular cave system are not well marked. Algae and bacteria were isolated from the soil samples and from calcareous deposits. A total of 30 algal species, of which 13 belong to the Cyanophyta, 22 to the Chlorophyta, and 7 to the Chrysophyta~Baccilariophyceae were found. Thirty-eight heterotrophic and 7 autotrophic bacteria were isolated. The thin films on water surfaces, besides diatoms, contained several flagellates and some ostracods, while some protozoa were found associated with the bacteria and algae in the soft calcite deposits.

Lithophagic Snail from Southern British Honduras, 1967, Craig Ak,
A freshwater gastropod, Pachycheilus glaphyrus, responsible for unusual erosion in limestone has been located in southern British Honduras where it is abundant in streams flowing through areas of karst topography. These snails ingest algae that proliferate in solution grooves formed at the fluctuating air-water interface. Rasping action of the radula results in deepening of these grooves and appears to improve the algal habitat

Bioluminescence in Melosira varians Ag., 1967, Claus George
Bluish green bioluminescence in a diatom, Melosira varians Ag. growing in an abandoned tin mine in Cornwall was observed. Upon microscopic examination the chloroplasts of the algae were found to be very pale but no other feature was seen which could be correlated with the luminescence.

Algal growth experiments in the Baradla cave at Aggletek (Biospeleologica hungarica XXI)., 1967, Kol Erzsebet
The author kept 108 algal strains (Cyanophyta 53, Chlorophyta 35, Chrysophyta 20), of axenic cultures from the Kol-Algotheca in the Botanical Division of the Hungarian National Sciences Museum in the Baradla Cave, at Aggletek (Hungary) in darkness for 204-420 days under different environmental conditions. The experiments have proven that several algal strains can tolerate well the complete absence of light. Furthermore, that some algal strains show intensive development even under such conditions. These axenic cultures kept in the cave in metal boxes on inorganic medium have shown that the energy source used by these green coloured algae is not some by-product of chemotrophic bacteria, nor is it available organic material, but that it must be some kind of radiation which is able to penetrate even the metal boxes. The ability to adapt to the conditions existing in a cave is not a general characteristic of algal species, but is the capability of individual algal strains within that species. Most probably the algae living in the caves are aerophytes, terrestrial forms, and also some belonging to the edaphon. The cells were found to be smaller in the algae kept in the cave, there was almost no starch deposition in the cells, the pyrenoids were barely discernible, but the development of carotenes was more intense. Whether there are specific cave dwelling algal strains must be determined by future algological research conducted in caves. The composition of the algal floras of the caves may be equally dependent upon the chemical and physical characteristics of the biotope, as is the case in every other biotope.

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