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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 11 Jul, 2012
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That hydrogeologic unit is 1. any soil or rock unit or zone which by virtue of its hydraulic properties has a distinct influence on the storage or movement of ground water [22]. 2. means a soil or rock unit or zone which by virtue of its porosity or permeability, or lack thereof, has a distinct influence on the storage or movement of ground water [22].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for architecture (Keyword) returned 32 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 32
Grottes fortifies du Sabarths (Arige) : une architecture castrale originale, xiie-xiiie sicles, 1998, Guillot, Florence
Among the fortresses built in the county of Foix in the Middle Ages, some fortified caves were built like castles. These isolated fortifications belonged to the counts of Foix. They are evidence of the dynamic period of castle building in the 12th and 13th centuries in the context of a geopolitical move toward space appropriation by the local counts. Such power tended to become greater than that of the local noblemen. These fortifications belonged to a spectacular defensive system, which remained in place until the end of the 13th century.

Radon Hazards, Geology, and Exposure of Cave Users: A Case Study and Some Theoretical, 2000, Gillmore Gavin K. , Sperrin Malcom, Phillips Paul, Denman Antony
The concerns over the risks to human health from radon in underground caves are poorly documented, unlike in workplace or domestic environments where exposures are relatively well known. In U.K. caves, radon has been identified as occurring at elevated levels; but with the exception of major show caves, its impact and risk to the many groups who use the caves have thus far received inadequate attention. This paper presents a survey performed in a relatively ?low-risk? geographical area of the United Kingdom and quantifies the risk of exposure in this cave environment. Radon levels up to 12,552 Bq m−3 were measured: Such concentrations are very high but are likely to underestimate the levels in many other parts of the cave system, for reasons associated with cave architecture and meteorology. This study confirms previous workers' conclusions that long-term users of deep caves, as opposed to rock shelters, are at risk. Annual doses to certain groups of cave users have been calculated to be as high as 120 mSv, a very high value. The study also demonstrates that there is variation both within and between caves as a result of subtleties of the bedrock geology, fault patterns, and weathering. This paper sets out a theoretical model.

Karst collapse mechanism and criterion for its stability, 2001, He K. Q. , Liu C. L. , Wang S. J. ,
Karst collapse, caused by natural or artificial abstraction of groundwater, has been a focus of environmental geological problems for its ever-increasing hazardousness. The potential erosion theory and vacuum suction erosion theory, which reveal the origin of karst collapse macroscopically, are popularly accepted. However, a mathematic prediction criterion for karst collapse cannot be established only by these two theories. From a new perspective, this paper attempts to explain the microcosmic mechanism of karst collapse on the basis of these two theories. When the shear stress surpasses the shear strength of soil, a certain point or a certain plane in the unconsolidated soil covering karst caves will fail under the mechanical effects of water and air as well as its load-pressure, and with the increase of damaged points, a breaking plane appears and the soil on karst caves is completely damaged; as a result, the karst ground collapses. On the basis of the Mohr-Coulomb failure theory and previous studies, the paper presents a prediction criterion of karst collapse. Finally, by taking, for example, nine typical cases of collapse caused by pumping tests in Guizhou, the paper gives the calculation process of the model and proves its reliability

Sequence stratigraphy of the type Dinantian of Belgium and its correlation with northern France (Boulonnais, Avesnois), 2001, Hance L. , Poty E. , Devuyst F. X. ,
The relative influences of local tectonics and global eustasy in the architecture of the sedimentary units of the Namur-Dinant Basin (southern Belgium) are determined. Nine third-order sequences are recognised. During the Lower Tournaisian (Hastarian and lower Ivorian) a homoclinal ramp extended from southern Belgium through southern England (Mendips) and into southern Ireland. From the upper Ivorian to the lower Visean rapid facies changes occurred due to progradation and increasing prominence of Waulsortian mudmounds. Progradation gradually produced a situation in which inner shelf facies covered the Namur (NSA), Condroz (CSA) and southern Avesnes (ASA) sedimentation areas, whereas outer shelf facies were restricted to the Dinant sedimentation area (DSA). During the middle and late Viscan a broad shelf was established from western Germany to southern Ireland. Because the shelf built up mainly by aggradation, parasequences can be followed over a large area. An early phase of Variscan shortening is perceptible during the Livian. The stratigraphic gap between the first Namurian sediments (E2 Goniatite Zone) and the underlying Visean varies from place to place, but is more important in the north. Sequence 1 straddles the Devonian-Carboniferous boundary. It starts with a transgressive system tract (TST) corresponding to the Etroeungt Formation (Fm.) and its lateral equivalent (the upper part of the Comb lain-au-Pont Fin.), and to the lower member of the Hastiere Fin. The highstand system tract (HST) is represented by the middle member of the Hastiere Fin. which directly overlies Famennian silicielastics in the northern part of the NSA. Sequence 2 starts abruptly, in the DSA and CSA, with the upper member of the Hastiere Fin. as the TST. The maximum flooding surface (MFS) lies within the shales of the Pont d'Arcole Fin., whereas the thick-bedded crinoidal limestones of the Landelies Fm. form the HST. Sequence 3 can clearly be recognised in the DSA and CSA. Its TST is formed by the Maurenne Fm. and the Yvoir Fm. in the northern part of the DSA and by the Maurenne Fm. and the Bayard Fin. in the southern part of the DSA. The Ourthe Fin. represents the HST. Growth of the Waulsortian mudmounds started during the TST. Sequence 4 shows a significant change of architecture. The TST is represented by the Martinrive Fm. in the CSA and the lower part of the Leffe Fin. in the DSA. The HST is marked by the crinoidal rudstones of the Flemalle Member (Mbr.) and the overlying oolitic limestones of the Avins Mbr. (respectively lower and upper parts of the Longpre Fin.). These latter units prograded far southwards, producing a clinoform profile. Sequence 5 is only present in the DSA and in the Vise sedimentation area (VSA). The TST and the HST form most of the Sovet Fm. and its equivalents to the south, namely, the upper part of the Leffe Fm. and the overlying Molignee Fm. In the VSA, the HST is locally represented by massive grainstones. Sequence 6 filled the topographic irregularities inherited from previous sedimentation. In the CSA, NSA and ASA the TST is formed by the peritidal limestones of the Terwagne Fm. which rests abruptly on the underlying Avins Nibr. (sequence 4) with local karst development. In the DSA, the TST corresponds to the Salet Fin. and, further south, to the black limestones of the strongly diachronous Molignee Fin. Over the whole Namur-Dinant Basin, the sequence ends with the thick-bedded packstones and grainstones of the Neffe Frn. as the HST. Sequence 7 includes the Lives Fm. and the lower part of the Grands-Malades Fm. (Seilles Mbr. and its lateral equivalents), corresponding respectively to the TST and HST. Sequence 8 corresponds to the Bay-Bonnet Mbr. (TST), characterised by stromatolitic limestones. The HST corresponds to the Thon-Samson Mbr. Sequence 9 is the youngest sequence of the Belgian Dinantian in the CSA and DSA. It includes the Poilvache Nibr. (TST, Bonne Fm.) and the Anhee Fm. (HST). These units are composed of shallowing-upward parasequences. The uppermost Visean and basal Namurian are lacking in southern Belgium where sequence 9 is directly capped by Namurian E2 silicielastics. In the VSA, sequence 9 is well developed

Seismic stratigraphy of Late Quaternary deposits from the southwestern Black Sea shelf: evidence for non-catastrophic variations in sea-level during the last ~10[punctuation space]000 yr, 2002, Aksu Ae, Hiscott Rn, Yasar D, Isler Fi, Marsh S,
Detailed interpretation of single channel seismic reflection and Huntec deep-tow boomer and sparker profiles demonstrates that the southwestern Black Sea shelf formed by a protracted shelf-edge progradation since the Miocene-Pliocene. Five seismic-stratigraphic units are recognized. Unit 1 represents the last phase of the progradational history, and was deposited during the last glacial lowstand and Holocene. It is divided into four subunits: Subunit 1A is interpreted as a lowstand systems tract, 1B and 1C are interpreted as a transgressive systems tract, and Subunit 1D is interpreted as a highstand systems tract. The lowstand systems tract deposits consist of overlapping and seaward-prograding shelf-edge wedges deposited during the lowstand and the subsequent initial rise of sea level. These shelf-edge wedges are best developed along the westernmost and easternmost segments of the study area, off the mouths of rivers. The transgressive systems tract deposits consist of a set of shingled, shore-parallel, back-stepping parasequences, deposited during a phase of relatively rapid sea-level rise, and include a number of prograded sediment bodies (including barrier islands, beach deposits) and thin veneers of seismically transparent muds showing onlap onto the flanks of older sedimentary features. A number of radiocarbon dates from gravity cores show that the sedimentary architecture of Unit 1 contain a detailed sedimentary record for the post-glacial sea-level rise along the southwestern Black Sea shelf. These data do not support the catastrophic refilling of the Black Sea by waters from the Mediterranean Sea at 7.1 ka postulated by [Ryan, Pitman, Major, Shimkus, Maskalenko, Jones, Dimitrov, Gorur, Sakinc, Yuce, Mar. Geol. 138 (1997) 119-126], [Ryan, Pitman, Touchstone Book (1999) 319 pp.], and [Ballard, Coleman, Rosenberg, Mar. Geol. 170 (2000) 253-261]

Karst collapse related to over-pumping and a criterion for its stability, 2003, He K. Q. , Liu C. L. , Wang S. J. ,
Karst collapse, caused by natural or artificial abstraction of groundwater, has been an environmental geological problem. The origin of karst collapse has been described by the potential erosion theory and the vacuum absorption erosion theory. However, a mathematical prediction criterion for karst collapse cannot be established by these two theories. This paper, from a new perspective, attempts to explain the microcosmic mechanism of karst collapse on the basis of these two theories. At a certain point in the unconsolidated soil covered on karst caves, when shearing stress surpasses shear strength of the soil, it fails under the mechanic effects of water and gas as well as gravity pressure. With an increase in damage points, a break plane appears and the soil overlying the karst caves is completely damaged and, thus, the ground surface collapses. On the basis of Mohr-Coulomb damage theory and previous studies, a prediction criterion of karst collapse is presented. An example displays the calculating process of the model and proves its reliability by analyzing nine typical collapses caused by a pumping test in Guizhou Province, China

Fallen arches: Dispelling myths concerning Cambrian and Ordovician paleogeography of the Rocky Mountain region, 2003, Myrow Paul M. , Taylor John F. , Miller James F. , Ethington Raymond L. , Ripperdan Robert L. , Allen Joseph,
High-resolution sedimentologic, biostratigraphic, and stable isotope data from numerous measured sections across Colorado reveal a complex architecture for lower Paleozoic strata in the central Cordilleran region. A lack of precise age control in previous studies had resulted in misidentification and miscorrelation of units between separate ranges. Corrections of these errors made possible by our improved data set indicate the following depositional history. The quartz-rich sandstone of the Sawatch Formation was deposited during onlap of the Precambrian erosion surface in the early Late Cambrian. The overlying Dotsero Formation, a regionally extensive carbonate- and shale-rich succession records blanket-like deposition with only minor facies changes across the state. An extremely widespread, meter-scale stromatolite bed, the Clinetop Bed, caps the Dotsero Formation in most areas. However, a latest Cambrian erosional episode removed 9-11 m of the upper Dotsero Formation, including the Clinetop Bed, from just east of the Homestake shear zone in the Sawatch Range eastward to the Mosquito Range. The overlying Manitou Formation differs in character, and thus in member stratigraphy, on the east vs. west sides of the state. These differences were previously interpreted as the result of deposition on either side of a basement high that existed within the Central Colorado Embayment or Colorado 'Sag,' a region of major breaching across the Transcontinental Arch. This paleogeographic reconstruction is shown herein to be an artifact of miscorrelation. Biostratigraphic data show that the northwestern members of the Manitou Formation are older than the members exposed in the southeastern part of the state and that there is little or no overlap in age between the two areas. This circumstance is the result of (1) removal of older Manitou Formation strata in the southeast by an unconformity developed during the Rossodus manitouensis conodont Zone, and (2) erosion of younger Manitou strata in central and western Colorado along Middle Ordovician and Devonian unconformities. Deciphering these complex stratal geometries has led to invalidation of long-held views on western Laurentian paleogeography during the Cambrian and earliest Ordovician, specifically the existence of the Colorado Sag and a northeast-trending high within the sag that controlled depositional patterns on either side. The mid- Rossodus uplift and resultant unconformity eliminated any and all Upper Cambrian and Lower Ordovician deposits in southern Colorado and northern New Mexico, and thus their absence should not be misconstrued as evidence for earlier nondeposition in this region. Lithofacies distribution patterns and isopach maps provide no evidence that highlands of the Transcontinental Arch existed in Colorado prior to the mid-Rossodus age uplift event. In fact, regional reconstructions of earliest Paleozoic paleogeography along the entire length of the purported Transcontinental Arch should be reevaluated with similarly precise biostratigraphic data to reconsider all potential causes for missing strata and to eliminate topographic elements not supported by multiple stratigraphic techniques. This study illustrates how seriously paleogeographic reconstructions can be biased by the presumption that missing strata represent periods of nondeposition rather than subsequent episodes of erosion, particularly in thin cratonic successions where stratigraphic gaps are common and often inconspicuous

The Barremian-Aptian Evolution of The Eastern Arabian Carbonate Platform Margin (Northern Oman), 2003, Hillgartner Heiko, Van Buchem Frans S. P. , Gaumet Fabrice, Razin Philippe, Pittet Bernard, Grotsch Jurgen, Droste Henk,
Carbonate platform margins are sensitive recorders of changes in sea level and climate and can reveal the relative importance of global and regional controls on platform evolution. This paper focuses on the Barremian to Aptian interval (mid Cretaceous), which is known for climatic and environmental changes towards more intensified greenhouse conditions. The study area in the northern Oman mountains offers one of the very few locations where the Cretaceous carbonate margin of the Arabian Plate can be studied along continuous outcrops. Our detailed sedimentological and sequence stratigraphic model of the platform margin demonstrates how major environmental and ecological changes controlled the stratigraphic architecture. The Early Cretaceous platform margin shows high rates of progradation in Berriasian to Hauterivian times followed by lower rates and some aggradation in the Late Hauterivian to Barremian. High-energy bioclastic and oolitic sands were the dominant deposits at the margin. Turbidites were deposited at the slope and in the basin. The Early Aptian platform margin shows a marked change to purely aggradational geometries and a welldeveloped platform barrier that was formed mainly by microbial buildups. The sudden dominance in microbial activity led to cementation and stabilization of the margin and slope and, therefore, a decrease of downslope sediment transport by turbidites. In the Late Aptian, large parts of the Arabian craton were subaerially exposed and a fringing carbonate platform formed. Seven Barremian to Early Albian large-scale depositional sequences reflecting relative sea-level changes are identified on the basis of time lines constrained by physical correlation and biostratigraphy. The reconstruction of the margin geometries suggests that tectonic activity played an important role in the Early Aptian. This was most likely related to global plate reorganization that was accompanied by increased volcanic activity in many parts of the world. Along the northeastern Arabian platform the associated global changes in atmospheric and oceanic circulation are recorded with a change in platform-margin ecology from an ooid-bioclast dominated to a microbial dominated margin. Time-equivalent argillaceous deposits suggest an increase in rainfall and elevated input of nutrients onto the platform. This process contributed to the strongly diminished carbonate production by other organisms and favored microbial activity. The platform margin may thus represent a shallow-marine response to the Early Aptian global changes, commonly associated with an oceanic anoxic event in basinal environments

Sequence Stratigraphy and Carbonate-Siliciclastic Mixing in a Terminal Proterozoic Foreland Basin, Urusis Formation, Nama Group, Namibia, 2003, Saylor Beverly Z. ,
Superb three-dimensional exposures of mixed carbonate and siliciclastic strata of the terminal Proterozoic Urusis Formation in Namibia make it possible to reconstruct cross-basin facies relations and high-resolution sequence stratigraphic architecture in a tectonically active foreland basin. Six siliciclastic facies associations are represented: coastal plain; upper shoreface; middle shoreface; lower shoreface; storm-influenced shelf; and pebble conglomerate. Siliciclastic shoreface facies pass seaward into and interfinger with facies of an open carbonate shelf. Four carbonate facies associations are present: mid-shelf; shelf crest; outer shelf; and slope. Facies are arranged hierarchically into three scales of unconformity-bounded sequences. Small-scale sequences are one to tens of meters thick and span a few thousand years. They consist of shelf carbonate with or without shoreface siliciclastic facies near the bottom. Medium-scale sequences are tens of meters thick and span a few hundred thousand years. They consist of shoreface siliciclastic facies in their lower parts, which grade upward and pass seaward into shelf carbonate. Large-scale sequences are tens to hundreds of meters thick and span 1 to 2 million years. They are identified by widespread surfaces of exposure, abrupt seaward shifts in shoreface sandstone, patterns of facies progradation and retrogradation, and shoreline onlap by medium-scale sequences. Patterns of carbonate-siliciclastic mixing distinguish tectonic from eustatic controls on the evolution of large-scale sequences. Characteristics of eustatically controlled large-scale sequences include: (1) basal unconformities and shoreface sandstone that extend across the shelf to the seaward margin; (2) retrograde carbonate and siliciclastic facies belts that onlap the shoreline together, symmetrically, during transgression; and (3) upper shoreface sandstone that progrades seaward during highstand. In contrast, tectonically controlled sequences feature: (1) basal erosion surfaces and upper shoreface sandstone that are restricted to near the landward margin and pass seaward into zones of maximum flooding; and (2) asymmetric stratigraphic development characterized by landward progradation of carbonate from the seaward margin coincident with backstepping and onlap of the shoreline by siliciclastic facies. A two-phase tectonic model is proposed to account for the stratigraphic asymmetry of tectonically controlled sequences. Increased flexural bending during periods of active thrust loading caused submergence of the seaward margin and uplift of the landward margin. Rebound between thrusting episodes flattened the basin gradient and submerged the landward margin, causing expansion of carbonate facies from the seaward margin and simultaneous transgression of the landward margin. Although the two-phase model should apply to single-lithology successions deposited in active foreland basins, the mixing of carbonate and siliciclastic facies provides a particularly sensitive record of tectonic forcing. The sensitivity may be sufficient for medium- and small-scale sequences to record higher-frequency variations in flexural warping

Paleocollapse structures as geological record for reconstruction of past karst processes during the upper miocene of Mallorca Island, 2004, Robledo Ardila P. A. , Durn J. J. , Pomar L.
Paleocollapse structures and collapse breccias are one of the major features for paleokarst analysis and paleoclimate record. These are affecting the Llucmajor and Santany carbonate platforms. These platforms, of southern and eastern Mallorca respectively, are a good example of progradation reef platform in the western Mediterranean. The Santany platform is constituted of two sedimentary units, both affected by paleocollapse structures: (1) The Reef Complex attributed to the upper Tortonian-lower Messinian; (2) Santany Limestone attributed to the Messinian. There are abundant paleocollapse outcropping in the Reef Complex and Santany Limestone units. These structures have been produced by roof collapse of caverns developed in the underlying reefal complex. According to the genetic model, the origin of same paleocollapse structures may be related to early diagenetic processes controlled by high-frequency sea-level fluctuations. During the lowstands of sea level, fresh water flow or mixing zone might have created a cave system near the water table by dissolution of aragonite in the reef front facies and coral patches existing in the lagoonal beds. During subsequent rise and highstands of sea level, inner-shelf beds overlaid the previously karstified reef-core and outer-lagoonal beds. Increase of loading by subsequent accretion of the shallow-water carbonate might have produced paleocollapse structures by gravitational collapse of cave roof. Morphometric and structural classification of paleocollapse is based on geometric and structural criteria according to the type of deformed strata and strata dip. Paleocollapse structures can be classified according to geometric section, size of the paleocave and lithification degree of the host rock when collapsed. Breccias are classified as crackle, mosaic and chaotic types. In same paleocollapse the type of breccias present a vertical and lateral gradation, from crackle in the upper part, to chaotic in the lower part of the paleocollapse. Chaotic breccias grade from matrix-free, clasts-supported breccias to matrix-supported breccias. Relationship with high frequency of sea-level fluctuation, facies architecture, classification features and products permit to enhance a general paleoclimatic framework.

Mechanism and mechanical model of karst collapse in an over-pumping area, 2004, He K. Q. , Wang B. , Zhou D. Y. ,
Through geological investigation of karst collapses at Zaozhuang City, China, it was found that the mechanism of karst collapse in areas of excess water extraction is characterized by a seepage effect and that the seepage-pressure effect is the initial factor that induces karst collapse. The causation mechanisms for karst collapse can be divided into two phases: the inter-collapse phase and the surface-collapse phase. Therefore, based on the limit-equilibrium theory, this paper has established mechanical models for the surface-collapse phase and determined values for the stability of the arch formed by the soil hole in an inter-collapse phase. In addition, an evaluation of a karst collapses at Zaozhuang City, China, was completed using mechanical models. The results show that the mechanical models agree with the theory of karst collapse at Zaozhuang City. Thus, it is proved that the karst collapse models can be used for the evaluation of karst collapse in areas that are over-pumped

Structural framework of the Edwards Aquifer recharge zone in south-central Texas, 2004, Ferrill Da, Sims Dw, Waiting Dj, Morris Ap, Franklin Nm, Schultz Al,
The Edwards Aquifer, the major source of water for many communities in central Texas, is threatened by population growth and development over its recharge zone. The location of the recharge and confined zones and the flow paths of the aquifer are controlled by the structure of and deformation processes within the Balcones fault system, a major system of predominantly down-to-the-southeast normal faults. We investigate the geologic structure of the Edwards Aquifer to assess the large-scale aquifer architecture, analyze fault offset and stratigraphic juxtaposition relationships, evaluate fault-zone deformation and dissolution and fault-system architecture, and investigate fault-block deformation and scaling of small-scale (intrablock) normal faults. Characterization of fault displacement shows a pattern of aquifer thinning that is likely to influence fault-block communication and flow paths. Flow-path constriction may be exacerbated by increased fault-segment connectivity associated with large fault displacements. Also, increased fault-zone deformation associated with larger-displacement faults is likely to further influence hydrologic properties. Overall, faulting is expected to produce strong permeability anisotropy such that maximum permeability is subhorizontal and parallel to fault-bedding intersections. At all scales, aquifer permeability is either unchanged or enhanced parallel to faults and in many cases decreased perpendicular to faults

Matrix permeability of the confined Floridan Aquifer, Florida, USA, 2004, Budd Da, Vacher Hl,
The Upper Floridan Aquifer of peninsular Florida retains most of its depositional porosity and, as a result, is a multi-porosity aquifer: double porosity (fractured porous aquifer) downdip where the aquifer is confined, and triple porosity (karstic, fractured porous aquifer) in the updip, unconfined region. Matrix permeability in the confined region varies in the range <10(-14.41)-10(-11.1) m(2), as determined by 12,000 minipermeameter measurements on 1,210 m of slabbed core. Limestones divide into 13 textural classes and dolomites into two. Depositional facies (textural class) strongly correlates with matrix permeability. As a result, the facies architecture of the Eocene and Oligocene carbonates that compose the confined portion of the aquifer controls the lateral and vertical distribution of its matrix transmissivity. The most-permeable facies are grainstones (median k, 10(-12.4) m(2)) and sucrosic dolomites (median k, 10(-12.0) m(2)). Together, they are responsible for &SIM;73% of the matrix transmissivity of the logged cores, although they constitute only &SIM;24% of the thickness. Examination of the flow equations of fractured porous aquifers suggests that the permeability of these two facies is large enough that matrix permeability cannot be discounted in modeling the hydraulics of the double-porosity system. This conclusion likely applies to most, if not all, Cenozoic double-porosity carbonate aquifers, as average matrix and fracture permeabilities in the Floridan Aquifer are similar to other Cenozoic carbonates from around the world

How types of carbonate rock assemblages constrain the distribution of karst rocky desertified land in Guizhou Province, PR China: Phenomena and mechanisms, 2004, Wang S. J. , Li R. L. , Sun C. X. , Zhang D. F. , Li F. Q. , Zhou D. Q. , Xiong K. N. , Zhou Z. F. ,
In Southwestern China karst rocky desertification (a process of land degradation involving serious soil erosion, extensive exposure of basement rocks, drastic decrease of soil productivity and the appearance of a desert-like landscape) results from irrational land use on the fragile, thin karst soil. Soil particles in the Guizhou karst plateau were accumulated predominantly from residues left behind after the dissolution of carbonate rocks, and the thickness of the soil layer is related to the amount of argillaceous substances in the lost carbonate rock. This paper examines the spatial distribution of karst rocky desertified (KRD) land in Guizhou Province, and relates it to the different assemblages of basement carbonate rocks. Types of carbonate rock assemblages are discussed using a 1 : 500000 scale digital-distribution map. Their distribution and sensitivity to erosion are analysed, demonstrating that the occurrence of KRD land is positively correlated to homogeneous carbonate rocks. Differences in physical and chemical properties of limestone and dolomite rocks lead to differences in dissolution, accumulation rate of soil particles and relief on the surface, and these factors influence land-use potential.

Karst rocky desertification in southwestern China: Geomorphology, landuse, impact and rehabilitation, 2004, Wang S. J. , Liu Q. M. , Zhang D. F. ,
Karst rocky desertification is a process of land degradation involving serious soil erosion, extensive exposure of basement rocks, drastic decrease in soil productivity, and the appearance of a desert-like landscape. It is caused by irrational, intensive land use on a fragile karst geo-ecological environment. The process is expanding rapidly, and it is daily reducing the living space of residents and is the root of disasters and poverty in the karst areas of southwestern China. The tectonic, geomorphic and environmental background to karst rocky desertification is analysed. Population pressure and the intensive land use that have led to this serious land degradation are described. Although the problem concerns the Chinese Government and some profitable experience in the partial restoration or reconstruction of the ecological environment has been gained, effective remedial action has not been achieved on a large scale.

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