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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 11 Jul, 2012
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That condensation water is atmospheric moisture deposited inside caves when the surface temperature of the exposed rock falls below the dew point of circulating air [19].?

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Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
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Your search for asia (Keyword) returned 115 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 115
The `human revolution' in lowland tropical Southeast Asia: the antiquity and behavior of anatomically modern humans at Niah Cave (Sarawak, Borneo), , Barker G, Barton H, Bird M, Daly P, Datan I, Dykes A, Farr L, Gilbertson D, Harrisson B, Hunt C,
Recent research in Europe, Africa, and Southeast Asia suggests that we can no longer assume a direct and exclusive link between anatomically modern humans and behavioral modernity (the `human revolution'), and assume that the presence of either one implies the presence of the other: discussions of the emergence of cultural complexity have to proceed with greater scrutiny of the evidence on a site-by-site basis to establish secure associations between the archaeology present there and the hominins who created it. This paper presents one such case study: Niah Cave in Sarawak on the island of Borneo, famous for the discovery in 1958 in the West Mouth of the Great Cave of a modern human skull, the `Deep Skull,' controversially associated with radiocarbon dates of ca. 40,000 years before the present. A new chronostratigraphy has been developed through a re-investigation of the lithostratigraphy left by the earlier excavations, AMS-dating using three different comparative pre-treatments including ABOX of charcoal, and U-series using the Diffusion-Absorption model applied to fragments of bones from the Deep Skull itself. Stratigraphic reasons for earlier uncertainties about the antiquity of the skull are examined, and it is shown not to be an `intrusive' artifact. It was probably excavated from fluvial-pond-desiccation deposits that accumulated episodically in a shallow basin immediately behind the cave entrance lip, in a climate that ranged from times of comparative aridity with complete desiccation, to episodes of greater surface wetness, changes attributed to regional climatic fluctuations. Vegetation outside the cave varied significantly over time, including wet lowland forest, montane forest, savannah, and grassland. The new dates and the lithostratigraphy relate the Deep Skull to evidence of episodes of human activity that range in date from ca. 46,000 to ca. 34,000 years ago. Initial investigations of sediment scorching, pollen, palynomorphs, phytoliths, plant macrofossils, and starch grains recovered from existing exposures, and of vertebrates from the current and the earlier excavations, suggest that human foraging during these times was marked by habitat-tailored hunting technologies, the collection and processing of toxic plants for consumption, and, perhaps, the use of fire at some forest-edges. The Niah evidence demonstrates the sophisticated nature of the subsistence behavior developed by modern humans to exploit the tropical environments that they encountered in Southeast Asia, including rainforest

Important Paleolithic Find in Central Asia, 1939, Hrdlicka Ales,

Geologic Dating of Human Evolution in Asia, 1940, Terra Hellmut De,

Caves as Rockshelters in Southwestern Asia, 1951, Field, Henry

Fauna of the brackish underground waters of Central Asia., 1965, Birstein Jakov Avadievich, Ljovuschkin S. I.
In the cave Kaptar-Khana (south-western Turkmenistan) was discovered a lake filled with water with a salinity of 11,68/oo. This lake is inhabited by a fauna of marine origin; Foraminifera (three species), Molluscs (Pseudocaspia ljovuschkini sp.n.), Harpacticoida (genera Ectinosoma, Schizopera and Nitocra), Isopoda (Microcharon halophilus sp.n.) and possibly Nematoda (Oncholaimidae). The majority of the discovered species are related to species of circum-Mediterranean origin. Geological data do not permit to consider this fauna as a relict of any of the Tertiary seas. The same applies to all other cases when animals of marine origin were discovered in subterranean waters of Central Asia (as for instance Microcharon kirghisicus Jank. on the shores of the lake Issyk-Kul). We can either admit a far greater anciennity of this fauna or an ability of its components to disperse very widely beyond the boundaries of marine transgressions.

Biospeologica sovietica. XLIX. The first troglobite representative of Trechinae (Coleoptera, Carabidae) in Ciscaucasia., 1972, Ljovuschkin S. I.
During a recent exploration of caves in western Ciscaucasia there was collected, among others, a new species representing a new genus of Trechini (Coleoptera, Caraboidea), the description of which is given here; it has been named Birsteiniotrechus ciscaucasiens n.gen., n.sp., in memory of Prof. J.A. Birstein, famous Soviet biospeleologist, the founder and promotor of the "Biospeologica sovietica" series who passed away recently (cf. I.J.S., 4, part.2). The interest of Birsteiniotrechus lies in the fact that, until now no troglobite or endemic species of Trechini was known from the Ciscaucasian mountains; this genus belongs to the phyletic series of Neotrechus and is nearly allied to Troglocimmerites, but differs from it by its labial characters.

Biospeologica Sovietica L.: a new cavernicolous species of Harpolithobius (Chilopoda, Lithobiidae) of the Caucasus, Harpolithobius birsteini n.sp., 1972, Zalesskaja N. T.
A new troglobite species belonging to the genus Harpolithobius has been discovered during a recent biological exploration of Caucasian caves; l male and 2 females were collected in Avidzba cave and are described here. Harpolithobius birsteini n.sp. is the second troglobiotic Lithobiid known from URSS caves. The other species collected must be considered as mere troglophilous.

Biospeologica sovietica. XLIX. The first troglobite representative of Trechinae (Coleoptera, Carabidae) in Ciscaucasia., 1972, Ljovuschkin S. I.
During a recent exploration of caves in western Ciscaucasia there was collected, among others, a new species representing a new genus of Trechini (Coleoptera, Caraboidea), the description of which is given here; it has been named Birsteiniotrechus ciscaucasiens n.gen., n.sp., in memory of Prof. J.A. Birstein, famous Soviet biospeleologist, the founder and promotor of the "Biospeologica sovietica" series who passed away recently (cf. I.J.S., 4, part.2). The interest of Birsteiniotrechus lies in the fact that, until now no troglobite or endemic species of Trechini was known from the Ciscaucasian mountains; this genus belongs to the phyletic series of Neotrechus and is nearly allied to Troglocimmerites, but differs from it by its labial characters.

Biospeologica Sovietica L.: a new cavernicolous species of Harpolithobius (Chilopoda, Lithobiidae) of the Caucasus, Harpolithobius birsteini n.sp., 1972, Zalesskaja N. T.
A new troglobite species belonging to the genus Harpolithobius has been discovered during a recent biological exploration of Caucasian caves; l male and 2 females were collected in Avidzba cave and are described here. Harpolithobius birsteini n.sp. is the second troglobiotic Lithobiid known from URSS caves. The other species collected must be considered as mere troglophilous.

Considerations on cavernicolous and endogen Carabids of the Anataloian peninsula (Coleoptera, Carabidae)., 1973, Taglianti Augusto Vigna
The cavernicolous and endogeous Coleoptera Carabidae, actually (1972) known from the Anatolian peninsula (here considered together with Armenia, the Caucasus and the mountains of Lebanon), are examined and discussed. They belong to the tribes of Anillini, Trechini (Neotrechus, Aphaenops and Duvalius lines), Pterostichini, Molopini, Sphodrini. The cavernicolous and endogeous Anillini, Pterostichini and Sphodrini from this region have clear relations with the balkanic groups and may be considered as East-Mediterranean faunistic elements. On the contrary, the Trechini of the Neotrechus line are more related to the Caucasian groups, those of the so-called Aphaenops line are endemic of the Caucasus and of the Crimea, and the Duvalius are partly related to the Caucasian species, partly isolated and with uncertain relationships (perhaps with some Greek species or with the Algerian Trechopsis, and perhaps with some species of the Apennines).

Considerations on cavernicolous and endogen Carabids of the Anataloian peninsula (Coleoptera, Carabidae)., 1973, Taglianti Augusto Vigna
The cavernicolous and endogeous Coleoptera Carabidae, actually (1972) known from the Anatolian peninsula (here considered together with Armenia, the Caucasus and the mountains of Lebanon), are examined and discussed. They belong to the tribes of Anillini, Trechini (Neotrechus, Aphaenops and Duvalius lines), Pterostichini, Molopini, Sphodrini. The cavernicolous and endogeous Anillini, Pterostichini and Sphodrini from this region have clear relations with the balkanic groups and may be considered as East-Mediterranean faunistic elements. On the contrary, the Trechini of the Neotrechus line are more related to the Caucasian groups, those of the so-called Aphaenops line are endemic of the Caucasus and of the Crimea, and the Duvalius are partly related to the Caucasian species, partly isolated and with uncertain relationships (perhaps with some Greek species or with the Algerian Trechopsis, and perhaps with some species of the Apennines).

Ecological and Faunistic Data on the Stenasellidae (Crustacea Isopoda Asellota of Subterranean Waters)., 1974, Magniez Guy
Some important morphological features, which are discussed here, point out that the Stenasellids (Crustacea Isopoda Asellota) must be considered as a true family (Stenasellidae), independent from the Asellidae. A definition and a renewed diagnosis of the Stenasellidae Dudich, 1924, are given. Their relationships must be pursued, especially in the marine Parastenetroidea and in the psammic Microcerberidae. Until 1938, the group was known only from subterranean waters of southern Europe. Now, several genera and many thermophile species from north-tropical underground waters have been discovered in Africa (5 gen., 12 sp.), Asia (1 gen., 2 sp.) and Central America (1 gen., 4 sp.). The Stenasellids are very active burrowers. Such a behaviour explains how their phyletic lines had colonized the continental underground waters, by migrations from the littoral gravels to the underflow of rivers, phreatic alluvial waters and fnally, to the karstic waters. The typical medium for the life of the group is represented by the phreatic zones of African shields arenas. In European phyletic lines, the speciation seems to be linked with tertiary subsidences (within the Tyrrhenian area, for the line of Stenasellus virei). The European species which have survived quaternary glaciations may have diversified themselves (rising of subspecies), recolonizing newly vacant biotopes in postglacial ages.

Stenasellus kenyensis n .sp., Crustacea Isopoda Asellota from subterranean waters of Kenya., 1975, Magniez Guy
Description of the first cavernicolous Stenasellid discovered in Kenya. St. kenyensis n.sp. is related to Somalian and Euasiatic species of the genus.

New data on the Foraminifera of the groundwaters of Middle Asia., 1976, Mikhalevich Valeria I.
New data obtained during the expedition to Middle Asia (1973) essentially enlarge our knowledge of foraminifera living in underground waters. Seven new species were discovered in the wells of the Kara-Kum and Ust-Urt deserts. All of them contain cytoplasma. The wells are situated in the region of bedding of underground waters of the heightened salinity in the zone of balance of runoff and evaporation. The majority of the species described in our work like many of the species recorded from the underground waters earlier (Brodsky, 1928; Nikoljuk, 1968; Jankovskaja and Mikhalevich, 1972) belong to the genera living in coastal brackish parts of tropical seas. This fact confirms the supposition of Brodsky about the transition of the marine coastal foraminiferal fauna to underground habitats after the regression of the sea. This fauna is a part of the underground fauna called by Nalivkin (1965) "the planetar fauna of the new type".

Fossil Man in India: The ''Missing Link'' in Our Knowledge of Human Evolution in Asia, 1977, Kennedy, K. A. R.

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