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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That transmissivity is the rate at which water of the prevailing kinematic viscosity is transmitted through a unit width of an aquifer under a unit hydraulic gradient [6]. though spoken of as a property of the aquifer, it embodies the saturated thickness and the properties of the contained liquid as well. it is equal to an integration of the hydraulic conductivities across the saturated part of the aquifer perpendicular to the flow paths [22].?

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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for atmosphere (Keyword) returned 91 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 91
Cave Microclimate: A Note on Moisture, 1969, Wigley, T. M.

The moisture budget of a cave atmosphere is examined quantitatively. The results indicate that caves can be divided into two distinct classes depending on whether the cave atmosphere is or is not saturated. A further consequence of the theory is that greater climate fluctuations are to be expected in caves in which unsaturated conditions prevail. This generalisation may have significance in studies of cavern breakdown and in ecological studies in caves.


Preference responses and tolerances of the troglobitic Carabid Beetle, Rhadine subterranea., 1971, Mitchell Robert W.
Studies were made on the preference responses and tolerances of the troglobitic carabid beetle Rhadine subterranea to light, temperature, and relative humidity. The beetles are weakly photonegative and appear to have a strong preference far atmospheres of low saturation deficit. Both these responses seem to be orthokineses. They have a strongly developed temperature sense, and their temperature preferendum shifts seasonally. This response seems to be a klinotaxis. They are neither strongly stenothermal nor stenohygrobic. The preference responses, especially that of temperature, are probably mechanisms tending to restrict the beetles to their habitat. The tolerance data suggest that the epigeum could, at times, be used as a dispersal route.

Preference responses and tolerances of the troglobitic Carabid Beetle, Rhadine subterranea., 1971, Mitchell Robert W.
Studies were made on the preference responses and tolerances of the troglobitic carabid beetle Rhadine subterranea to light, temperature, and relative humidity. The beetles are weakly photonegative and appear to have a strong preference far atmospheres of low saturation deficit. Both these responses seem to be orthokineses. They have a strongly developed temperature sense, and their temperature preferendum shifts seasonally. This response seems to be a klinotaxis. They are neither strongly stenothermal nor stenohygrobic. The preference responses, especially that of temperature, are probably mechanisms tending to restrict the beetles to their habitat. The tolerance data suggest that the epigeum could, at times, be used as a dispersal route.

Carbon Dioxide in the Cave Atmosphere [Bungonia, Australia], 1977, James Julia M.

Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere of the unsaturated zone: an important control of groundwater hardness in limestones, 1977, Atkinson T. C.

Hardness Controls of Cave Drips, Murray Cave, Cooleman Plain, Kosciusko National Park, 1979, Jennings, J. N.

Drips in the forward part of the Murray Cave between 5 and 50m below the surface were sampled about once a month for 2 years, carbon dioxide in the soil above and in the cave air being measured also. Mean soil CO2 content was fifteen times atmospheric, summer yeilding higher values than winter though the dry 1972-3 summer had low values. Greater depths in the soil had more CO2 than shallower ones. Cave air had on the average little more CO2 than the atmosphere but river flooding of the cave was followed by large CO2 fluctuations. There was a slight tendency for drips to be warmer and to vary less in temperature inwards. Drip pH was greater in summer than winter because of high CO2 production. The (Ca+Mg)/(Na+K) ratio of the drips was nearly ten times that of the Blue Waterholes, showing that igneous rock weathering around the Plain supplies more of the Na and K in the spring output than was envisaged before. The drip Mg/Ca ratio lies close to that of the Blue Waterholes, underlining the dominance of the limestone in the output hydrochemistry. The mean total hardness of 141 mg.L-1, not significantly different from earlier Murray cave drip measurements, sustains the previous estimate that the superficial zone provides about 2/3 of the limestone solution. The summer value (149 mg.L-1) is significantly greater than the winter mean (132 mg.L-1), including high values in the dry 1972-3 summer when CO2 values were low. Lagged correlation on a weekly and three weekly basis of individual drip hardness on air temperature and precipitation yielded few significant results. Only a weak case for dominance of hardness by temperature through rhizosphere CO2 was evident but neither was the conflicting hypothesis of hardness in such contradictory ways that more detailed observations over equally long time periods are necessary to elucidate their influence.


Towards An Air Quality Standard For Tourist Caves : Studies of Carbon Dioxide Enriched Atmospheres In Gaden - Coral Cave, Wellington Caves, N.S.W., 1981, Osborne, R. Armstrong L.

Carbon dioxide enriched atmospheres are not uncommon in Australian caves and have posed a safety problem for cavers. Carbon dioxide enrichment of a tourist cave's atmosphere is a management problem which can only be approached when standards for air quality are applied. In Gaden - Coral Cave two types of carbon dioxide enrichment are recognised; enrichment by human respiration and enrichment from an external source. Standards for air quality in mines and submersible vehicles are applicable to tourist caves. A maximum allowable concentration of 0.5% carbon dioxide is recommended as the safe, but not the most desirable, air quality standard for tourist caves.


Evaluation of Carbon Dioxide and Oxygen Data in Cave Atmospheres using the Gibbs Triangle and the Cave Air Index, 1982, Halbert, Erik J. M.

Water Vapour determines the volume percentage of component gases in cave atmospheres. This is particularly significant in foul air caves where carbon dioxide and oxygen concentrations are measured and used to diagnose foul air types. The variation in atmospheric composition brought about by systematic change in carbon dioxide and oxygen levels is examined and shown on the Gibbs triangle. The current three foul air types are readily identifiable in this visualisation of data, and the boundaries of these types are mapped. Further, these diverse data can be combined into a Cave Air Index by which foul air atmospheres may be assigned to type in a rapid and objective manner. The use of these concepts in evaluation of published data on Wellington and Bungonia Caves and with mine and soil data is shown.


Carbon dioxide in cave atmospheres. New results in Belgium and comparison with some other countries, 1985, Ek N. , Gewelt M.

The evolution of non-relictual tropical troglobites, 1987, Howarth Francis G.
The discovery of terrestrial troglobites living in caves on young oceanic islands with close epigean relatives living in nearby surface habitats offers unique opportunities to develop and test hypotheses concerning their evolution. Studies comparing the physiological ecology of troglobites with their epigean relatives suggest that troglobites are highly specialized to exploit resources within the system of interconnected medium-sized voids (mesocaverns) and only colonize cave passages (macrocaverns) with a stable, water vapor-saturated atmosphere. Few other animals can live in the mesocaverns. Rather than being relicts isolated in caves by the extinction of their epigean ancestral population, troglobites appear to evolve by a process called adaptive shift from species that are frequent accidentals in the mesocaverns.

Le karst du gypse des Andes de Mendoza-Neuquen (Argentine), 1992, Salomon J. N. , Bustos R.
THE GYPSUM KARST OF MENDOZA-NEUQUEN (ANDES, ARGENTINA) - Gypsum and anhydrite formations are highly developed in the Andes at the latitude of Santiago (Chile) and Mendoza (Argentina), where they have played a fundamental part in the various stages of the Andes orogeny. After a brief description of the geological background of the cordillera and some information on the main gypsum formations (Tabanos, Auquilco, Huitrin, Papol), the authors deal with the specific climatic context of the high cordillera: a cold and dry atmosphere (high altitude) apparently hardly propitious to the appearance of karstic phenomena. The latter nevertheless do exist and are often well-developed (Pozo de las Animas). They come mainly in the shape of domes and dolines whilst in the bottom of the valley numerous ferruginous crusts are noteworthy. Although the endokarst suffers from the fragility of the rock, a number of caves have developed, some of which are outstanding (Cueva del Leon, 1km).

Radiocarbon concentration and origin of thermal Karst waters in the region of the Bukk Mountains, northeastern Hungary, 1995, Hertelendi E. , Veres M. , Futo I. , Svingor E. , Miko L. , Lenart L. , Deak J. , Suveges M. ,
Karst springs are abundant in Hungary, and many are thermal (temperatures >30 degrees C). As thermal springs are a significant part of Hungary's water resources, it is important to quantify their travel times in the karst systems. Thus, we chose to measure T and delta(18)O in the water and delta(13)C and C-14 in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in water from 50 thermal and nonthermal springs and wells in the Bukk Mountains, northeastern Hungary, Environmental isotope data confirm the karst waterflow pattern implied by earlier studies. We found the water in warm springs and boreholes to be mixtures of cold young and old thermal water. We also determined short mean-residence times for some large cold springs. The C-14 activities measured in these springs indicate that the recharge area of the karst aquifer is open to the atmosphere, and atmospheric CO2 contributes to the C-14 activity of these groundwaters. We observed good correlation between C-14 and H-3 activities and we determined negative correlations between C-14 concentration and delta(13)C values and temperature. From the delta(18)O values of the oldest thermal waters, we attribute their origin to precipitation during colder temperatures than at present

Condensation Corrosion in Movile Cave, Romania, 1997, Sarbu, S. M. , Lascu, C.
Condensation corrosion is the dissolution of carbonate by acidic vapors condensing above the water table. This process is rarely noted and receives little attention in the mainstream cave literature. The oolitic limestone walls in Movile Caves upper dry passages are severely altered by a selective corrosion mechanism. Temperature differences between the water in the lower passages and the walls in the upper passages and high concentrations of CO2 in the cave atmosphere create favorable conditions for condensation corrosion to take place. Carbon and oxygen stable isotope data support the hypothesis that condensation corrosion is the major mechanism currently affecting the morphology of Movile Caves upper dry level.

Precipitation kinetics of calcite in the system CaCO3-H2O-CO2: The conversion to CO2 by the slow process H?->CO2? as a rate limiting step, 1997, Dreybrodt W, Eisenlohr L, Madry B, Ringer S,
Precipitation rates of CaCO3 from supersaturated solutions in the H2O - CO2 - CaCO3 system are controlled by three rate-determining processes: the kinetics of precipitation at the mineral surface, mass transport of the reaction species involved to and from the mineral surface, and the slow kinetics of the overall reaction HCO3- H --> CO2 H2O. A theoretical model by Buhmann and Dreybrodt (1985a,b) taking these processes into account predicts that, due to the slow kinetics of this reaction, precipitation rates to the surface of CaCO3 minerals depend critically on the ratio V/A of the volume V of the solution to the surface area A of the mineral in contact with it, for both laminar and turbulent flow. We have performed measurements of precipitation rates in a porous medium of sized particles of marble, limestone, and synthetic calcite, with V/A ratios ranging from 3.10(-4) to 1.2-10(-2) cm at 10 degrees C. Calcite was precipitated from supersaturated solutions with [Ca2] approximate to 4 mmol/L and an initial P-CO2 of 5.10(-3) or 1.10(-3) atm, respectively, using experimental conditions which prevented exchange of CO2 with the atmosphere, i.e., closed system. The results are in qualitative agreement with the theoretical predictions. Agreement with the observed data, however, is obtained by modifying the rate law of Plummer et al. (1978) to take into account surface-controlled inhibition effects. Experiments with supersaturated solutions containing carbonic anhydrase, an enzyme which enhances the conversion of HCO3- into CO2, yield rates increased by a factor of up to 15. This provides for the first time unambiguous experimental evidence that this reaction is rate limiting. We have also measured precipitation rates in batch experiments, stirring sized mineral particles in a solution with V/A ranging from 0.03 to 0.75 cm. These experiments also give clear evidence on the importance of the conversion of HCO3- into CO2 as rate limiting step. Taken together our experiments provide evidence that the theoretical model of Buhmann and Dreybrodt (1985a,b) can be used to predict reliable rates from the composition of CaHCO3- solutions with low ionic strength in many geologically relevant situations. Copyright (C) 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd

Sensitivity of karst process to environmental change along the Pep II transect, 1997, Yuan D. X. ,
It has been known since as early as the last century that karst formation is a geologic process related to chemical reaction, but not until the last couple of decades were karst processes viewed as being sensitive to environmental change. The direction and intensity of karst processes are controlled by environmental factors such as temperature, climate, hydrology, vegetation, geology, and the openness of the system to the atmosphere. Accordingly, karst features, as a product of the carbon cycle, differ in space and time. This is clearly evident from the world karst correlation project, IGCP 299. There is a sharp contrast between karst types on both sides of the Qingling Mountain range of central China. Semi-arid karst is located to the north, and humid subtropical karst to the south. Karst features are capable of recording high resolution paleoclimatic change. AMS C-14, isotope and geochemical studies of thin laminae from a giant stalagmite located near Guilin, in southern China, have clearly identified rapid climate changes during the past 40 ka. In karst areas with active neotectonism, huge deposits of calcareous travertine record the amount of deeply sourced CO2 emitted into the atmosphere and can aid studies on modem tectonism because of the association of calcareous travertine with active faults.

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