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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That Meinzer unit is a measure of hydraulic conductivity as gpd/ft2 under a unit hydraulic gradient [16].?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms


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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for barriers (Keyword) returned 24 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 24
Notulae Orthopterologicae XXI The Dolichopoda of France and Spain., 1966,
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Baccio Baccetti.
parallelism at great distance are but apparent exceptions: for instance Dolichopoda baccettii and Dolichopoda graeca. As when there are no conditions of insularity causing a particularly remarkable differentiation specific to many entities the geographic barriers among the elements of each group are often very scanty, we can consider possible that after the two great immigrations from the East, by which two suhgenera, one after the other, were imported during the Tertiary period (Baccetti, 1960), the phenomena of speciation were largely favoured, in the Quaternary, by the acquisition of troglophilia which has greatly hindered any possible migration.

On the Composition, the Origin and the Formation of the Cave Fauna of Western Stara Planina (Bulgaria)., 1978,
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Beron Petar
The karstic area between the rivers Timok and Vit has about 500 caves and pot-holes, more than 300 of them being the subject of the present study. In this area (called here Western Stara Planina) we have noted 63 species and subspecies of terrestrial troglobites and 17 species and subspecies of aquatic troglobites. The two Regions into which we split the area (region of Ogosta and Region of Iskar) are the richest in cave fauna of Bulgaria. This study deals with the particularities in the composition and the distribution of the different groups of terrestrial troglobites, and especially of such groups as Diplopoda, Isopoda, Coleoptera and others. According to the paleogeographic development of the area conclusions are made concerning the age of certain troglobites and the barriers determining their present distribution.

Hydrogologie karstique du polj d'lrmene, Bodrum (Turquie), 1985,
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Canik, B.
KARSTIC HYDROGEOLOGY OF THE IRMENE POLJE - BODRUM (TURKEY) - The Irmene polje (25 km2) is located in the Bodrum peninsula, Turkey. The formation exposed, are coloured argilaceous schists, blackish shales and sandstones of a paleozoic age. They are overlapped by unconformable carbonate formations of Early Triassic to Late Jurassic. The karstification is mostly developed on the non-dolomitic parts of the fissured limestones. The groundwater flow is generally northwards, towards coastal or submarine springs. Thus, it is calculated that a discharge of about 40 l/s can be obtained from possible wells to supply water for the Irmene village. We propose to increase the infiltration rate within the karstic aquifer by building barriers, which would favour runoff towards natural wells or sinks not active for the moment.

Mating behaviour and barriers to hybridization in the cave beetle of the Speonomus delarouzeei complex (Coleoptera, Catopidae, Bathysciinae), 1988,
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Juberthiejupeau Lysiane
The complex Speonomus delarouzeei combines 6 species which were previously synonymized. Using behavioural data, based on 12 populations, the author assesses the validity of 4 species and points out the occurrence of 2 species as yet undescribed. Constant and important differences during the mating appear between these different species. They concern the number of behavioural steps, the duration, the number of clappings of antennae, the abdominal male movements and the rubbing of female abdomen. The results of crossing experiments between different species indicate a prezygotic reproductive isolation with atypical matings and no sperm deposit. Between the populations of S. delarouzeei s. str., having the same mating pattern some small differences observed do not represent barriers to hybridization and they may represent a speciation event at a very early stage.

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FRACTURES AND KARSTIFICATION - THE OIL-BEARING PALEOKARST OF ROSPO MARE (ITALY), 1994,
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Soudet H. J. , Sorriaux P. , Rolando J. P. ,
The Rospo Mare oil field is located in the Adriatic Sea, 20 km off the Italian coast. The reservoir lies at a depth of 1300 m and consists of a paleokarst oi Oligocene to Miocene age which developed within Cretaceous limestones, now covered by 1200 m of Mio-Pliocene sequences. The oil column is about 140 m 8 high. The karstic nature of the reservoir was identified through vertical, cored drill holes which allowed us to analyse the various solution features and the sedimentary infilling (speleothems, terra rossa, marine clays), as well as their vertical distribution. Erosion morphology at the top of the karst is highly irregular, including in particular paleovalleys as well as many pit-shaped sink holes. Detailed geophysical knowledge of that morphology helped to optimize the development of the field through horizontal drilling. Observations concerning the upper part of the reservoir were compared to a palaeokarst of the same age, outcropping widely onshore, in quarries located nearby. The Rospo Mare paleokarst is an integral part of the ante Miocene paleokarst assemblages of the periphery of the Mediterranean which were formed in tropical conditions. Only the fractures enhanced by meteoric water during the formation of the karat are important for reservoir connectivity. During the formation of the karst there were several phases of dissolution and infilling which modified the geometry of the open fissures and only these fractures play an important role in the reservoir drainage. Vertically we can distinguish three very different zones from top to bottom: at the top the epikarst (0-35 m) in a zone of extension. All the fractures have been enlarged by dissolution but the amount of infilling by clay is substantial. The clays are derived either from alteration of the karat fabric or by deposition during the Miocene transgression; the percolation zone (15-45 m) is characterized by its network of large fractures vertically enlarged by dissolution which corresponds to the relict absorption zones in the paleokarst. These fractures, which usually have a pluridecametric spacing, connect the epi-karst with the former sub-horizontal river system. This zone has been intersected by the horizontal wells during the field development. In this zone there are local, horizontal barriers oi impermeable clay which can block vertical transmissibility. In these low permeability zones the vertical fractures have not been enlarged due to dissolution hence the horizontal barrier; the zone of underground rivers (35-70 m) is characterized by numerous horizontal galleries which housed the subterranean ground water circulation. When these fissures are plurimetric in extent this can lead to gallery collapse with the associated fill by rock fall breccia. This can partly block the river system but always leaves a higher zone of free circulation with high permeabilities of several hundreds of Darcys. These galleries form along the natural fracture system relative to the paleohydraulic gradient which in some cases has been preserved. The zone below permanent ground water level with no circulation of fluids is characterized by dissolution limited to non-connected vugs. Very locally these fissures can be enlarged by tectonic fractures which are non-connected and unimportant for reservoir drainage. Laterally, only the uppermost zone can be resolved by seismic imaging linked with horizontal well data (the wells are located at the top of the percolation zone). The Rospo Mare reservoir shows three distinct horizontal zones: a relict paleokarst plateau with a high index of open connected fractures, (area around the A and B platforms); a zone bordering the plateau (to the north-east of the plateau zone) very karstified but intensely infilled by cap rock shales (Miocene - Oligocene age); a zone of intensely disturbed and irregular karst paleotopography which has been totally infilled by shales. The performance of the production wells is dependent on their position with respect to the three zones noted above and their distance from local irregularities in the karst paleotopography (dolines, paleovalleys)

Thermodinamic equilibrium, kinetics, activation barriers, and reaction mechanisms for chemical reactions in karst terrains., 1997,
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White W.

Thermodynamic equilibrium, kinetics, activation barriers, and reaction mechanisms for chemical reactions in Karst Terrains, 1997,
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White W. B. ,
Chemical reactions pertinent to karst systems divide broadly into (a) speciation reactions within aqueous solutions, (b) dissolution/precipitation and other acid/base reactions between aqueous solutions and solid minerals, and (c) redox reactions involving various carbon and sulfur-bearing species. As a backdrop against which other chemistry can be evaluated, selected phase diagrams and equilibrium speciation diagrams were calculated for the system Ca--Mg--O--H--C--S. The kinetics of reactions within this system span time scales from milliseconds for homogeneous reactions in solution through hundreds of hours for carbonate mineral dissolution reactions, to geologic time scales for reactions such as the aragonite/calcite inversion or the oxidation/reduction of native sulfur. In purely inorganic systems, kinetic barriers, typically on the order of tens of kJ/mole, are set by nucleation processes and by activated complex formation. Biological processes impact the purely inorganic chemistry by the following mechanisms: (a) Secretions and waste products from biological activity or consumption of CO2 by organisms changes the chemistry in the microenvironments of reaction surfaces. Oxidation potentials, pH, and ion activities may be modified, thus shifting equilibria. (b) Reaction rates may be increased due to modification of activated complexes and thus the activation barriers to reaction. (c) Organic compounds or microorganisms may act as substrates, thus lowering nucleation barriers. The preservation of microorganisms in cave deposits does not necessarily prove a cause and effect relationship

Platform-top and ramp deposits of the Tonasa Carbonate Platform, Sulawesi, Indonesia, 1997,
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Wilson M. E. J. , Bosence D. W. J. ,
This study presents a detailed facies analysis of shallow-water platform and ramp deposits of an extensive Tertiary carbonate platform. Temporal and spatial variations have been used to construct a palaeogeographic reconstruction of the platform and to evaluate controls on carbonate sedimentation The late Eocene to mid-Miocene shallow-water and outer ramp/basinal deposits of the Tonasa Carbonate Platform, from the Pangkajene and Jeneponto areas of South Sulawesi respectively, formed initially as a transgressive sequence in a probable backarc setting. The platform was dominated by foraminifera and had a ramp-type southern margin. Facies belts on the platform trend east-west and their position remained remarkably stable through time indicating aggradation of the platform-top. In comparison outer ramp deposits prograded southwards at intervals into basinal marls. Tectonics, in the form of subsidence, was the dominant control on accommodation space on the Tonasa Carbonate Platform. The location of barriers' and the resultant deflection of cross-platform currents, together with the nature of carbonate producing organisms also affected sedimentation, whilst eustatic or autocyclic effects are difficult to differentiate from the affects of tectonic tilting. Moderate- to high-energy platform top or redeposited carbonate facies may form effective hydrocarbon reservoirs in otherwise tight foraminifera dominated carbonates, which occur widely in SE Asia, and have not been affected by extensive porosity occlusion

Experimental design, technique and protocol in fluorometric tracing of ground water, 1997,
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Smart C. C. , Zabo L.
Detector-spectrofluorometer and water-filter fluorometry provide two complementary tools in tracer testing. Current practice largely relies on the former technique, despite some limitations in quality assurance. A set of technical enhancements have been undertaken on the Turner Designs Model 10 Series filter fluorometer to redress this imbalance by improving efficiency. In addition, improvements in protocol are suggested. A preliminary framework for optimal design of tracer tests is presented. Nevertheless, there remain barriers to wider deployment of filter fluorometers, notably in complex traces and borehole tests.

Modeling of the complex karstic system in Saint-Chaptes (Gard, France): A tool for the synthesis of geological and hydrogeological data, 2000,
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Josnin J. Y. , Pistre S. , Drogue C. ,
Numerous software packages allow the efficient modeling of the hydrodynamic behaviour of aquifers in continuous media. To study pressure transfer in discontinuous media like karsts, the black-box models are restrictive and the models that consider discrete conduit networks are unsuitable for reservoir scale. We show that the utilization of a continuous media model can lead to useful results, even in the case of complex systems, but needs to be adapted to karst specificity. The problem is approached by studying a hydrogeological system located in the Mediterranean Languedoc region: the S-t-Chaptes basin. This system consists of three superposed aquifers included in four different stratigraphic series. The main aquifer is a karst formation in contact with two other karst formations that belong to different hydrogeologic systems. Considering geological data in addition to hydrological data and with the hypothesis of a relative homogenization of the karst's hydraulic behaviour on a large spatial scale for daily to monthly increments, the model that takes into account the relations with the other aquifers allows (i) a preliminary identification of the main heterogeneities inside the reservoir; (ii) the location of barriers and low-permeability zones that isolate some parts of the aquifer; (iii) the observation of a curious behaviour of the piezometric levels in the confined zones of the aquifer; and (iv) the characterization of the exchanges with the other low-volume but existing aquifers

Ochtina Aragonite Cave (Western Carpathians, Slovakia): Morphology, mineralogy of the fill and genesis, 2002,
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Bosak P, Bella P, Cilek V, Ford Dc, Hercman H, Kadlec J, Osborne A, Pruner P,
Ochtina Aragonite Cave is a 300 m long cryptokarstic cavity with simple linear sections linked to a geometrically irregular spongework labyrinth. The metalimestones, partly metasomatically altered to ankerite and siderite, occur as isolated lenses in insoluble rocks. Oxygen-enriched meteoric water seeping along the faults caused siderite/ankerite weathering and transformation to ochres that were later removed by mechanical erosion. Corrosion was enhanced by sulphide weathering of gangue minerals and by carbon dioxide released from decomposition of siderite/ankerite. The initial phreatic speleogens, older than 780 ka, were created by dissolution in density-derived convectional cellular circulation conditions of very slow flow. Thermohaline convection cells operating in the flooded cave might also have influenced its morphology. Later vadose corrosional events have altered the original form to a large extent. Water levels have fluctuated many times during its history as the cave filled during wet periods and then slowly drained. Mn-rich loams with Ni-bearing asbolane and bimessite were formed by microbial precipitation in the ponds remaining after the floods. Allophane was produced in the acidic environment of sulphide weathering. La-Nd-phosphate and REE enriched Mn-oxide precipitated on geochemical barriers in the asbolane layers. Ochres containing about 50 wt.% of water influence the cave microclimate and the precipitation of secondary aragonite. An oldest aragonite generation is preserved as corroded relics in ceiling niches truncated by corrosional bevels. Thermal ionisation mass spectrometry and alpha counting U series dating has yielded ages of about 500-450 and 138-121 ka, indicating that there have been several episodes of deposition, occurring during Quaternary warm periods (Elsterian 1/2, Eemian). Spiral and acicular forms representing a second generation began to be deposited in Late Glacial (14 ka - Allerod) times. The youngest aragonite, frostwork, continues to be deposited today. Both of the, younger generations have similar isotopic compositions, indicating that they originated in conditions very similar, or identical, to those found at present in the cave

Evolution of the gypsum karst of Sorbas (SE Spain), 2003,
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Calaforra Jm, Pulidobosch A,
The gypsum karst of Sorbas is developed within Messinian gypsum characterized by an interbedded sequence of selenitic gypsum beds and marls. This geological configuration has led to the development of an interstratal karst in which galleries have developed in the marl levels, but not in the gypsum ones. Up to six cave passage levels have been detected in the gypsum caves following stratification planes between the impervious intercalated marls and the pervious gypsum strata. The explanation for this lies in the hydrogeological history of the area. Initially, the gypsum karst evolved as a multi-layer, semi-confined aquifer under phreatic conditions, enabling the formation of small proto-conduits in the individual gypsum beds, while the intervening marls and clays acted as impervious barriers. During a second stage, after lowering of the piezometric level, vadose conditions were established in which mechanical erosion processes in the intercalated marls and clays became predominant.. This genetic duality means that the gypsum karst at Sorbas can be taken as an example of interstratal karstification where the contemporary underground erosion processes and those of karstic evolution should be, considered products of the hydrogeological development. The total lowering of the piezometric level during the Quaternary is at least of 120 in in the centre of the basin. Interstratal vadose caves more than 120 in below the surface possess phreatic proto-channels in their upper levels which identify the past phreatic conditions in the genesis of the caves. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

Dental morphology of the Dawenkou Neolithic population in North China: implications for the origin and distribution of Sinodonty, 2003,
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Manabe Y. , Oyamada J. , Kitagawa Y. , Rokutanda A. , Kato K. , Matsushita T. ,
We compare the incidence of 25 nonmetric dental traits of the people of the Neolithic Dawenkou culture (6300-4500 BP) sites in Shandong Province, North China with those of other East Asian populations. The Dawenkou teeth had an overwhelmingly greater resemblance to the Sinodont pattern typical of Northeast Asia than to the Sundadont pattern typical of Southeast Asia. Multidimensional scaling using Smith's mean measure of divergence (MMD) statistic place the Dawenkou sample near the Amur and the North China-Mongolia populations in the area of the plot indicating typical Sinodonty. The existence of the Sinodont population in Neolithic North China suggests a possible continuity of Sinodonty from the Upper Cave population at Zhoukoudian (about 34,000-10,000 BP) to the modern North Chinese. The presence of Sinodonty in Shandong Province shows that the Japan Sea and East China Sea were strong barriers to gene flow for at least 3000 years, because at this time the Jomonese of Japan were fully Sundadont. In addition, we suggest that the descendants of the Dawenkou population cannot be excluded as one of the source populations that contributed to sinodontification in Japan. (C) 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved

C and O stable isotope variability in recent freshwater carbonates (River Krka, Croatia), 2004,
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Lojen S. , Dolenec T. , Vokal B. , Cukrov N. , Mihelcic G. , Papesch W. ,
Three types of recent carbonate precipitates from the River Krka, Croatia, were analysed: (1) bulk tufa from four main cascades in a 34 km long section of the river flow through the Krka National Park; (2) a laminar stromatolite-like incrustation formed in the tunnel of a hydroelectric power plant close to the lowest cascade; and (3) recent precipitates collected on artificial substrates during winter, spring and summer periods. Stable isotope compositions of carbon (delta(13)C) and oxygen (delta(18)O) in the carbonate and organic carbon (delta(13)C(org)) were determined and compared with delta(18)O of water and delta(13)C of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). The source of DIC, which provides C for tufa precipitation, was determined from the slope of the line ([DIC]/[DIC0]-1) vs. (delta(13)C-DIC x ([DIC]/[DIC0])) (Sayles & Curry, 1988). The delta(13)C value of added DIC was -13.6parts per thousand, corresponding to the dissolution of CO2 with delta(13)C between -19.5 and -23.0parts per thousand Vienna Pee Dee Belemnite (VPDB). The observed difference between the measured and calculated equilibrium temperature of precipitation of bulk tufa barriers indicates that the higher the water temperature, the larger the error in the estimated temperature of precipitation. This implies that the climatic signals may be valid only in tufas precipitated at lower and relatively stable temperatures. The laminar crust comprising a continuous record of the last 40 years of precipitation shows a consistent trend of increasing delta(13)C and decreasing delta(18)O. The lack of covariation between delta(13)C and delta(18)O indicates that precipitation of calcite was not kinetically controlled for either of the elements. delta(13)C and delta(18)O of precipitates collected on different artificial substrates show that surface characteristics both of substrates and colonizing biota play an important role in C and O isotope fractionation during carbonate precipitation

Ochtin Aragonite Cave (Slovakia): morphology, mineralogy and genesis, 2005,
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Bosk P. , Bella P. , Cilek V. , Ford D. C. , Hercman H. , Kadlec J. , Osborne A. , Pruner P. ,

Ochtiná Aragonite Cave is a 300 m long cryptokarstic cavity with simple linear sections linked to a geometrically irregular spongework labyrinth. The limestones, partly metasomatically altered to ankerite and siderite, occur as lenses in insoluble rocks. Oxygen-enriched meteoric water seeping along the faults caused siderite/ankerite weathering and transformation to ochres that were later removed by mechanical erosion. Corrosion was enhanced by sulphide weathering of gangue minerals and by carbon dioxide released from decomposition of siderite/ankerite. The initial phreatic speleogens, older than 780 ka, were created by dissolution in density-derived convectional cellular circulation conditions of very slow flow. Thermohaline convection cells operating in the flooded cave might also have influenced its morphology. Later vadose corrosional events have altered the original form to a large extent. Water levels have fluctuated many times during its history as the cave filled during wet periods and then slowly drained.
Mn-rich loams with Ni-bearing asbolane and birnessite were formed by microbial precipitation in the ponds remaining after the floods. Allophane was produced in the acidic environment of sulphide weathering. La-Nd-phosphate and REE enriched Mn-oxide precipitated on geochemical barriers in the asbolane layers. Ochres containing about 50 wt.% of water influence the cave microclimate and the precipitation of secondary aragonite. An oldest aragonite generation is preserved as corroded relics in ceiling niches truncated by corrosional bevels. TIMS and alpha counting U series dating has yielded ages of about 500-450 and 138-121 ka, indicating that there have been several episodes of deposition, occurring during Quaternary warm periods (Elsterian 1/2, Eemian). Spiral and acicular forms representing a second generation began to be deposited in Late Glacial (14 ka – Alleröd) times. The youngest aragonite, frostwork, continues to be deposited today. Both of the younger generations have similar isotopic compositions, indicating that they originated in conditions very similar, or identical, to those found at present in the cave.


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