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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That karst plain is 1. large flat surface in karst formed by erosion and corrosion [20]. 2. a plain on which closed depressions, subterranean drainage, and other karst features may be developed. also called karst plateau [10]. synonyms: (french.) plateau karstique; (german.) karstebene, karstrandebene, korrosionsflache; (greek.) karstikon pedhion; (italian.) piano carsico; (russian.) karstovaja ravnina; (spanish.) llanura karstica; (turkish.) karst ovasi; (yugoslavian.) krska zaravan, povrs, kraski ravnik. see also marginal polje.?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for bosnia and herzegovina (Keyword) returned 12 results for the whole karstbase:
Differences in the C-14 age, delta C-13 and delta O-18 of Holocene tufa and speleothem in the Dinaric Karst, 2003, Horvatincic N. , Bronic I. K. , Obelic B. ,
We studied Holocene speleothems and tufa samples collected in numerous caves and rivers in the Dinaric Karst of Croatia, Slovenia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, as well as Serbia and Montenegro. Differences in the formation process of tufa and speleothems are discussed in the context of their isotopic composition (C-14, C-13 and O-18), as well as the chemistry of surface water (rivers, lakes) and drip water (in caves). The physical and chemical parameters monitored in the surface water (tufa precipitation) and drip water (speleothem precipitation) show that more stable conditions accompany speleothem rather than tufa formation. This is particularly obvious in the water temperature variations (2-22degreesC in surface water and 7-12degreesC in drip water) and in saturation index variation (3-11 in surface water and 1-6 in drip water). The range of C-14 ages recorded by Holocene speleothems (similar to 12 000 yr) is wider by several thousands years than that of Holocene tufa samples (similar to 6000 yr). delta(13)C values for tufa samples range from -12parts per thousand to -6parts per thousand and for speleothem samples from -12parts per thousand to ?? per thousand reflecting higher soil carbon and/or vegetation impact on the process of tufa than on speleothem formation. The differences in delta(18)O values of tufa and speleothem samples from different areas reflect different temperature conditions and differing isotopic composition in the water. The study shows that speleothems from the Dinaric Karst can be used as global palaeoclimatic records, whereas tufa records changes in the local palaeoenvironment. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

Differences in the 14C age, [delta]13C and [delta]18O of Holocene tufa and speleothem in the Dinaric Karst, 2003, Horvatincic Nada, Krajcar Bronic Ines, Obelic Bogomil,
We studied Holocene speleothems and tufa samples collected in numerous caves and rivers in the Dinaric Karst of Croatia, Slovenia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, as well as Serbia and Montenegro. Differences in the formation process of tufa and speleothems are discussed in the context of their isotopic composition (14C, 13C and 18O), as well as the chemistry of surface water (rivers, lakes) and drip water (in caves). The physical and chemical parameters monitored in the surface water (tufa precipitation) and drip water (speleothem precipitation) show that more stable conditions accompany speleothem rather than tufa formation. This is particularly obvious in the water temperature variations (2-22[deg]C in surface water and 7-12[deg]C in drip water) and in saturation index variation (3-11 in surface water and 1-6 in drip water). The range of 14C ages recorded by Holocene speleothems (~12 000 yr) is wider by several thousands years than that of Holocene tufa samples (~6000 yr). [delta]13C values for tufa samples range from -12[per mille sign] to -6[per mille sign] and for speleothem samples from -12[per mille sign] to [per mille sign] reflecting higher soil carbon and/or vegetation impact on the process of tufa than on speleothem formation. The differences in [delta]18O values of tufa and speleothem samples from different areas reflect different temperature conditions and differing isotopic composition in the water. The study shows that speleothems from the Dinaric Karst can be used as global palaeoclimatic records, whereas tufa records changes in the local palaeoenvironment

Organic pollutants in stream sediments of Kupa River drainage basin, 2005, Franciskovicbilinski S, Bilinski H, Sirac S,
This paper presents the first results of distribution of organic pollutants in 44 sediment samples (fraction < 63 mu m) of Kupa River drainage basin, which is a significant water resource for Croatia, Slovenia and BiH (Bosnia and Herzegovina). The investigated region aimed to be used as a model for future studies, necessary to meet Decision No. 2455/2001/EC. Some parts of the drainage basin are national parks (Risnjak and Plitvice Lakes). Also, a great part was affected by war 1991-1995 and is still under mines, what makes it difficult to sample. Sediments have shown a good record of pollution. Concentrations of total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were found above toxic levels (> 0.02 ppm) for 7 sediment samples. Total phenols were determined above 0.65 ppm for 23 sediment samples, which was characterized as heavily polluted sites. Mineral oils above 100 ppm were found in 13 sediment samples, which are, therefore, moderately polluted. Total lindane isomers in all sediments were below the detection limit of 0.0004 ppm, and, therefore, far below the toxic level of 0.0009 ppm. Results have shown unexpectedly that the western part of Kupa River drainage basin, with karst aquifers of high risk located in the boarder area of Croatia and Slovenia, has sediments, which were more polluted with organic contaminants from those affected by the war in the middle and eastern part of the basin. Further studies of sediments and protection of karst aquifers in this region is suggested

Basic morphological and morphostructural characteristics of the Rakitnica canyon (Dinaric Karst, Bosnia and Herzegovina), 2005, Lepirica, Alen

The canyon valley of the Rakitnica river is one of the deepest and longest in the Dinaric karst. The paper states the basic morphological and morphostructural characteristics of the canyon, and gives its geomorphological regionalization. High level of correlation between lithology, tectonics and relief of the researched area has been determined. Genesis and development of this relief form have been considerably guided by neotectonic processes during the Quaternary.


GEOMORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE MASSIF PRENJ, 2008, Lepirica Alen
The researched area of the mountain massif Prenj with surface of 463 km2 is located in the zone of high karst of Outer Dinarides of Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is circular mountain morphostructure with assymetrical transversal profile. Developed in Mesozoic subhorizontal layers of limestone and dolomite over 3500 thick, fissured by numerous reverse and normal faults. Prenj is folded-thrusted mountain massif (2103 m a.s.l.) uplifted during neotectonic phase of Dinarides development, structurally represented by three blocks. A high degree of correlation between lithology, fault structures and relief has been determinated. The main fault structures caused by rotation of Prenj blocks which were reflected on different orientations of stretching of the mountain ridges and composite valleys of Neretva, Konjika Bijela, Mostarska Bijela, Glogonica and Id-bar. Thrusts express tectonic, lithological, and morphological border of the considered mountain with inter mountain Neogene depressions in the North and South. Netectonic movements and dominanting carbonate composition of the terrain have influenced on reticular relief structure of the massif. Linear landforms of ridges formed in karst are neotectonically, rectilinearly and half-arc elongated up to 12 km. In regards to morphogenesis during the Quaternary, the massif is characterized by development: derasional, glacial, periglacial, karstic, fluviokarstic, fluviodenudational and fluvial erosional and accumulational processes and landforms. Finally, geomorphological regionalization of Prenj was made on the basis of the criteria of similarity of morpho-evolutionary, structural-lithological and orographical characteristics.

Glaciokarst of western Orjen, Montenegro, 2009, Stepisnik, Uros, Mateja Ferk, Blaz Kodelja, Goran Medenjak, Andrej Mihevc, Karel Natek And Manja Zebre.
The Orjen Massif is situated in the southeastern part of the Dinaric Mountains on the border between Montenegro, Croatia, and Bosnia and Herzegovina. Its highest peak is Zuba?ki kabao (1894m). Detailed geomorphological mapping was used to facilitate reconstruction of the extent of ice advance during the last glacial maximum within four valley glaciers in western Orjen. The length of the glaciers in the valleys was up to 4km. Glaciation of the karstic surface resulted in a series of features that are typical of glaciokarst. In the upper of the valleys there are a number of over-deepened cirques, kotli? and cave entrances. In the accumulation-dominant areas of the glaciers distinct lateral-terminal moraine complexes were formed and proglacial fans exhibit features indicative of formation by multiple glacial floods that were an indirect result of the contemporary functioning of the glacial and karstic geomorphic system. By studying the up-valley limits of lateral moraines and applying an altitude-ratio methodology, the equilibrium line altitude of the glaciers during their maximum extent was determined at an elevation of 1325m.

Vascular plant biodiversity richness and endemo relictness of the karst mountains Prenj-Čvrsnica-Čabulja in Bosnia and Herzegovina (W. Balkan) , 2011, Redhić, Sulejman, Barudanović, Senka, Trakić, Sabina, Kulijer Dejan
The complex of karstic mountains Prenj-Čvrsnica and Čabulja in Herzegovina (w. Balkan) is characterized by high level of both geomorphology and biodiversity richness. This has been confirmed by a research of plant communities, their structure and dynamics, which took place throughout several seasons from 2005 to 2008. In the investigated area the vegetation cover, as a reliable indicator for specific karstic circumstances, is being differentiated in a great number of syntaxa (plant communities) that encompass over 2,500 vascular plants. On the surface of about 100,000 ha identified were up to 236 plant associations, 116 alliances and 63 vegetation orders that belong to 34 classes. This amounts 34% of total of vegetation classes at the European level and 100% of so far known vegetation classes in Bosnia and Herzegovina, over 80% of classes at the level of Montenegro and Croatia.There have been identified nearly 450 endemic and relict species, which is why most of the identified communities are endemic and relict ones, not only at the level of association but also at the level of higher syntaxonomic categories, such as alliance and order. The highest diversity level characterizes those communities that make a direct contact with the calcareous geological foundation either in rock crevices or screes on limestone. That high level of floristic and vegetation richness places this area among the most diverse areas both in Europe and whole Mediterranean.That high level of floristic and vegetation richness places this area among the most diverse areas both in Europe and whole Mediterranean. Such pattern of vegetation (syntaxonomy) and floristic diversity confirms the unique role of dinaric-herzegovina karst as a complex of unrepeatable ecological factors on global scale.

THERMOMINERAL WATERS OF INNER DINARIDES KARST, 2012, Milenić, D. , KruniĆ, O. , MilankoviĆ, D.

The Dinarides are the largest continuous karst region in Europe. With regard to a geotectonic view, they are divided into the Outer, Central and Inner Dinarides occupying the territories of Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia and Montenegro. Numerous occurrences of thermomineral water have been recorded in the Inner Dinarides area. The majority of them are genetically related to carbonate sediments of Mesozoic age. This paper deals with occurrences of thermomineral waters of the Inner Dinarides karst, their quantitative and qualitative characteristics, basic genetic types, the age of karst thermomineral waters of the Inner Dinarides, the available quantities of hydrogeothermalmineral energy, balneological potential and the possibility of rational multi-purpose utilisation. Hydrochemical and isotope methods have been used for the analysis of basic genetic types and age of karst thermomineral waters, while a geothermometer method has been used for the calculation of primary temperatures in water-bearing horizons(geothermal reservoirs) themselves. The carried out research has pointed out that karst thermomineral waters formed in carbonate sediments of Mesozoic age are characterized by temperatures ranging from 15.5oC (Kneina Ilida) to 75oC (Bogatić), being most frequently of a HCO3-Ca, Mg type with neutral to poor alkaline reaction and mineralization below 1 g/l. Karst thermomineral waters of the Inner Dinarides are most frequently related to geothermal systems formed in carbonate sediments covered by rocks of poor water permeability. In case of some thermomineral water occurrences, the mixing of the karst thermomineral waters with those formed in sedimentary basins occurs due to their hydraulic relation, thus it is not possible to determine only one geothermal system in which they are formed. The overall geothermal potential of the thermomineral waters of the Inner Dinarides karst is about 160 MW. In addition to the geothermal aspect, these waters have been widely utilised in balneology, wellness programmes, as well as for the needs of bottling. The level of research activity and with that the way of the utilisation of these waters are various. With regard to the number of occurrences known so far and their potential, it can be claimed with certainty, that the utilisation of thermomineral water occurring in the karst of the Inner Dinarides will increase significantly in future. An example of the multi-purpose utilisation of the Pribojska Banja Spa thermomineral waters illustrates a possible way of doing it.


Thermomineral waters of inner Dinarides Karst, 2012, Milenić, Dejan, Krunić, Olivera, Milanković, Djuro

The Dinarides are the largest continuous karst region in Europe. With regard to a geotectonic view, they are divided into the Outer, Central and Inner Dinarides occupying the territories of Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia and Montenegro. Numerous occurrences of thermomineral water have been recorded in the Inner Dinarides area. The majority of them are genetically related to carbonate sediments of Mesozoic age. This paper deals with occurrences of thermomineral waters of the Inner Dinarides karst, their quantitative and qualitative characteristics, basic genetic types, the age of karst thermomineral waters of the Inner Dinarides, the available quantities of hydrogeothermalmineral energy, balneological potential and the possibility of rational multi-purpose utilisation. Hydrochemical and isotope methods have been used for the analysis of basic genetic types and age of karst thermomineral waters, while a geothermometer method has been used for the calculation of primary temperatures in water-bearing horizons(geothermal reservoirs) themselves. The carried out research has pointed out that karst thermomineral waters formed in carbonate sediments of Mesozoic age are characterized by temperatures ranging from 15.5oC (Kneina Ilida) to 75oC (Bogatić), being most frequently of a HCO3-Ca, Mg type with neutral to poor alkaline reaction and mineralization below 1 g/l. Karst thermomineral waters of the Inner Dinarides are most frequently related to geothermal systems formed in carbonate sediments covered by rocks of poor water permeability. In case of some thermomineral water occurrences, the mixing of the karst thermomineral waters with those formed in sedimentary basins occurs due to their hydraulic relation, thus it is not possible to determine only one geothermal system in which they are formed. The overall geothermal potential of the thermomineral waters of the Inner Dinarides karst is about 160 MW. In addition to the geothermal aspect, these waters  have been widely utilised in balneology, wellness programmes, as well as for the needs of bottling. The level of research activity and with that the way of the utilisation of these waters are various. With regard to the number of occurrences known so far and their potential, it can be claimed with certainty, that the utilisation of thermomineral water occurring in the karst of the Inner Dinarides will increase significantly in future. An example of the multi-purpose utilisation of the Pribojska Banja Spa thermomineral waters illustrates a possible way of doing it.


Karst rivers particularity: an example from Dinaric karst (Croatia/Bosnia and Herzegovina), 2013, Bonacci O. , Zeljkovic I. , Galic A.

The very complex system of sinking, losing and underground transboundary Karst rivers, lakes and aquifers in the central part of the deep and bare Dinaric karst in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina is analysed. The groundwater and surface water are hydraulically connected through numerous karst forms which facilitate the exchange of water between the surface and subsurface. A complex underground conduit system is an inherent characteristic karst system analysed. Groundwater and surface water exchange with both adjacent and distant aquifers through underground routes or inflows from surface streams and artificial reservoirs. Because of a complex surface and underground karst features, which strongly influenced its hydrological and hydrogeological regime, the main open stream flow, with a longitude of about 106 km, undergoes eight name changes. In this paper, it is noted as ‘‘the eight-name river’’. In fact, it represents one river with losing, sinking and underground stream sections. Different surface and underground karst forms play crucial roles in the way the water flowing over the surface and on the underground sections of its catchment. The analysed area is full of varied and often spectacular surface landforms, including for example the Blue and Red Lakes and the Kravice Waterfall. The analyses made in the paper show the existence of a decreasing trend of mean annual discharges on the eight-name river, which can cause numerous problems in the regional water resource management of this transboundary river and catchment.


Karst rivers particularity: an example from Dinaric karst (Croatia/Bosnia and Herzegovina), 2013, Bonacci Ognjen, Ž, Eljković, Ivana, Galić, Amira

The very complex system of sinking, losing and underground transboundary Karst rivers, lakes and aquifers in the central part of the deep and bare Dinaric karst in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina is analysed. The groundwater and surface water are hydraulically connected through numerous karst forms which facilitate the exchange of water between the surface and subsurface. A complex underground conduit system is an inherent characteristic karst system analysed. Groundwater and surface water exchange with both adjacent and distant aquifers through underground routes or inflows from surface streams and artificial reservoirs. Because of a complex surface and underground karst features, which strongly influenced its hydrological and hydrogeological regime, the main open stream flow, with a longitude of about 106 km, undergoes eight name changes. In this paper, it is noted as ‘‘the eight-name river’’. In fact, it represents one river with losing, sinking and underground stream sections. Different surface and underground karst forms play crucial roles in the way the water flowing over the surface and on the underground sections of its catchment. The analysed area is full of varied and often spectacular surface landforms, including for example the Blue and Red Lakes and the Kravice Waterfall. The analyses made in the paper show the existence of a decreasing trend of mean annual discharges on the eight-name river, which can cause numerous problems in the regional water resource management of this transboundary river and catchment.


Hydrodynamic modeling of a complex karst-alluvial aquifer: case study of Prijedor Groundwater Source, Republic of Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina, 2013, Polomčić Dušan, Dragišić Veselin, Živanović Vladimir

Middle Triassic fractured and karstified limestone and dolomite form a karst aquifer in the Sana River Valley near the town of Prijedor. As a result of intensive tectonic movements, carbonate rocks are mostly below the Sana River level, covered by younger Pliocene and alluvial deposits. The main source of groundwater recharge is infiltration from the Sana River through its alluvium over most of the aquifer. The main objective of the research reported in this paper was to evaluate the hydraulic relationships of the alluvial, Pliocene and karst aquifers in order to better understand the water supply potential of the karst aquifer. Although the use of hydrodynamic modeling is not very common with karst aquifers, the developed model provided significant and useful information on the groundwater budget and recharge type. The influence of fault zones and spatial anisotropy of the karst aquifer were simulated on the hydrodynamic model by varying permeability on the xand y­axes of the Cartesian coordinate system with respect to the fault, the main pathway of groundwater circulation. Representative hydraulic conductivities were Kx

 = 2.3·10­3

 m/s and Ky

 = 5.0·10­3

 m/s in the faults of Nw to SE direction, and Kx

 = 2.5·10­3

 m/s and Ky

 1.2·10­3

 m/s in the faults of Sw to NE trend. Model research showed that the karst aquifer can be used in the long term at maximal tested capacities and that current groundwater exploitation is not compromised in dry periods when the water budget depends entirely on recharge from the Sana River.


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