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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 11 Jul, 2012
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That metamorphosis is a change in the form of a living thing as it matures, especially the drastic transformation from a larva to an adult [23]. see also pupa.?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

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Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
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Your search for buda thermal karst (Keyword) returned 13 results for the whole karstbase:
Characteristics of discharge at Rose and Gellért Hills, Budapest, Hungary, 2008, Erõ, Ss Anita, Má, Dlszõ, Nyi Judit, Csoma Anita É, .

This study focuses on the discharge characteristics of the Buda Thermal Karst (Budapest, Hungary) found at the Rose and Gellért Hills. The Buda Thermal Karst is a recently active hydrothermal karst system in the heart of Budapest. Studying this unique hydrogeologic system is thus a challenge because of the human impact effects. The research approach is based on the concept of hydrological system analysis (Engelen and Kloosterman 1996), which means that the flow system geometry and recharge-discharge features must correlate when the influence of man on the flow regimes of an area is negligible. Therefore the flow system geometry could be deduced from the evaluation of manifestations of flowing groundwater. To achieve this archival hydrogeologic data and recent observations were used. Based on the localization of springs, collections of archival temperature and chemical data, as well as recent observations, conceptual models were established for the discharge in the Rose Hill and Gellért Hill areas. The observations indicate different discharge characteristics for the two study areas.


Imprints of hydrocarbon-bearing basinal fluids on a karst system: mineralogical and fluid inclusion studies from the Buda Hills, Hungary, 2011, Poros Zsofia, Mindszenty Andrea, Molnar Ferenc, Pironon Jacques, Gyori Orsolya, Ronchi Paola, Szekeres Zoltan

Calcite veins and related sulphate–sulphide mineralisation are common in the Buda Hills. Also, abundant hypogenic caves are found along fractures filled with these minerals pointing to the fact that young cave-forming fluids migrated along the same fractures as the older mineralising fluids did. The studied vein-filling paragenesis consists of calcite, barite, fluorite and sulphides. The strike of fractures is consistent—NNW–SSE—concluding a latest Early Miocene maximum age for the formation of fracture-filling minerals. Calcite crystals contain coeval primary, hydrocarbon-bearing- and aqueous inclusions indicating that also hydrocarbons have migrated together with the mineralising fluids. Hydrocarbon inclusions are described here for the first time from the Buda Hills. Mixed inclusions, i.e., petroleum with ‘water-tail’, were also detected, indicating that transcrystalline water migration took place. The coexistence of aqueous and petroleum inclusions permitted to establish the entrapment temperature (80°C) and pressure (85 bar) of the fluid and thus also the thickness of sediments, having been eroded since latest Early Miocene times, was calculated (800 m). Low salinity of the fluids (<1.7 NaCl eq. wt%) implies that hydrocarbon-bearing fluids were diluted by regional karst water. FT-IR investigations revealed that CO2 and CH4 are associated with hydrocarbons. Groundwater also contains small amounts of HC and related gases on the basin side even today. Based on the location of the paleo- and recent hydrocarbon indications, identical migration pathways were reconstructed for both systems. Hydrocarbon-bearing fluids are supposed to have migrated north-westward from the basin east to the Buda Hills from the Miocene on.


Radionuclides as natural tracers for the characterization of fluids in regional discharge areas, Buda Thermal Karst, Hungary, 2012, Eross A. , Mdlszonyi J. , Surbeck H. , Horvth . , Goldscheider N. , Csoma A. .

The Buda Thermal Karst (Budapest, Hungary) developed in the regional discharge zone of a carbonate rock aquifer system. High radioactivity of the spring waters has already been reported in 1912, but there has been no detailed study and no consistent explanation for its origin. In this area mixing of cold and hot karst waters was hitherto assigned to be responsible for cave formation. However, the dissimilarity of the discharging waters within Budapest (in the North: Rozsadomb; in the South: Gellert Hill), may suggest also different cave forming processes. The application of radionuclides as natural tracers represents a novel approach to investigate these questions. For this study, we used uranium, radium and radon to identify mixing of fluids in the Buda Thermal Karst system and to infer the temperature and chemical composition of the end members. Chloride as a conservative component allowed the mixing ratios for the sampled waters to be calculated. Their fluid compositions were modeled and through the comparison of modeled and measured values, the end members were validated. As the result of this study, it was possible to characterize the mixing end members for the Rozsadomb area, whereas for the Gellert Hill discharge zone, mixing components could not be identified with the aid of radionuclides. Therefore, it is suggested that different processes are responsible for cave formation in these areas. In the Rozsadomb area, structurally-controlled mixing is the dominant cave forming process, whereas in the Gellert Hill area, due to the lack of mixing members, other processes have to be found, which are responsible for the formation of the caves, such as retrograde calcite solubility and/or geogenic acids, such as H2S. The application of radionuclides thus further supported the differences between the two study areas. This study identified moreover the source of elevated radon content of the waters in the Gellert Hill area in form of iron-hydroxide precipitates that accumulate in the spring caves. These precipitates are highly efficient in adsorbing radium, which generates radon by alpha decay, and hence act as local radon source for the waters. In this study we showed that uranium, radium and radon naturally occurring in groundwater can be used to characterize fluids of different flow systems in regional discharge areas owing to the contrasting geochemical behaviors of these elements


Bacterial diversity and community structure of biofilm and discharging thermal water found in spring caves of the Buda Thermal Karst System, 2013, Bki Gabriella, Anda Dra, Makk Judit, Erő, Ss Anita, Mdlsző, Nyi Judit, Mrialigeti Kroly, Borsodi Andrea K.

Hydraulic processing of Buda Thermal Karst, Budapest, Hungary, 2013, Erhardt Ildik, tvs Viktria, Erő, Ss Anita, Czauner Brigitta, Simon Szilvia, Mdlsző, Nyi Judit

Study of a flowstone type speleothem from the hypogene Palvolgy Cave System (Budapest, Hungary), 2013, Virag Magdolna, Mindszenty Andrea, Suranyi Gergely, Molnar Mihaly, LeelŐ, Ssy Szabolcs

Characterisation of the gravitational flow system in the Buda Thermal Karst, Hungary, by environmental isotopes, 2013, Frizs Istvn, Dek Jzsef

Comparison of radioactivity of biofilm and thermal water, Buda Thermal Karst, Hungary, 2013, Freiler gnes, Horvth kos, Mdlsző, Nyi Judit, Erő, Ss Anita, Győ, Ri Orsolya, Surbeck Heinz, Gubicza Jenő,

Comparison of radioactivity of biofilm and thermal water, Buda Thermal Karst, Hungary, 2013, Freiler Agnes, Horvath Akos, Madlsző, Nyi Judit, Erő, Ss Anita

Hydraulic processing of Buda Thermal Karst, Budapest, Hungary, 2013, Erhardt Ildik, Otvos Viktria, Erő, Ss Anita, Czauner Brigitta, Simon Szilvia, Madlsző, Nyi Judit

Bacterial diversity and community structure of biofilm and discharging thermal water found in spring caves of the Buda Thermal Karst System, 2013, Bki Gabriella, Anda Dra, Makk Judit, Erő, Ss Anita, Mdlsző, Nyi Judit, Mrialigeti Kroly, Borsodi Andrea K.

Thermal springs and hypogenic karstification processes in flow system context, 2013, Mdlsző, Nyi Judit, Erő, Ss Anita

Uplifted unconfined and adjoining confined continental carbonate aquifers contain thermal water with marginal thermal springs as decisive discharge features connected to tectonic contact between the unconfined and confined part of the system. These areas are characterised by positive thermal anomaly, particular mineral precipitates and phre-atophyte vegetation. These systems are important not only as sources of thermal water but the confined parts of the system can serve as hydrocarbon reservoirs, moreover Mississippi Valley Type (MVT) ore deposits can also be connected to such environ-ments. Hypogenic speleogenesis can be active at such marginal discharge zones of groundwater due to the direct corrosive effect of deep originated fluids. These different processes are known from the literature however their relationships have not been revealed comprehensively. The application of regional groundwater flow system theory and evaluation can give a chance to understand the common origin of these different processes, which is moving groundwater. The Buda Thermal Karst offers an exception-al natural laboratory where groundwater flow systems and their effect on rock matrix and the environment can be examined and proved directly. Moreover as new discharge phenomenon a karst corrosive biofilm was recognized here. The presentation displays the most important conclusions which can be generalized for areas with similar hydro-geological settings. The research is supported by the NK 101356 OTKA research grant


Study of a flowstone type speleothem from the hypogene Plvlgy Cave System (Budapest, Hungary), 2013, Virg M. , Mindszenty A. , Surnyi G. , Molnr M. , LelŐ, Ssy S.

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