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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

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That potential drop is the difference in total head between two equipotential lines [22].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for budget (Keyword) returned 36 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 36
Cave Microclimate: A Note on Moisture, 1969, Wigley, T. M.

The moisture budget of a cave atmosphere is examined quantitatively. The results indicate that caves can be divided into two distinct classes depending on whether the cave atmosphere is or is not saturated. A further consequence of the theory is that greater climate fluctuations are to be expected in caves in which unsaturated conditions prevail. This generalisation may have significance in studies of cavern breakdown and in ecological studies in caves.


Thermal stratification and annual heat budget of a Florida sinkhole lake, 1972, Nordlie Frank,

A rapid method for determining water budget of enclosed and flooded karst plains, 1976, Zibret Z. , Simunic Z.

Diffuse flow and conduit flow in limestone terrain in the Mendip Hills, Somerset (Great Britain), 1977, Atkinson T. C.
The hydrogeology of the karstic Carboniferous Limestone is described. Water tracing has established recharge areas for fifteen major springs and water budgets confirm the size of the areas found. Groundwater flow occurs in two modes: turbulent conduit flow and diffuse Darcian flow in fine fractures. Recharge is 50% quickflow via caves and closed depressions and 50% slower percolation. Active storage in the diffuse component (S = 0.92%) is 30 times greater than in phreatic conduits. Diffuse hydraulic conductivity is 0.89 m day−1 and an average of 60?80% of groundwater is transmitted by conduits in this maturely karsted and steeply dipping aquifer.

Groundwater chemistry and cation budgets of tropical karst outcrops, Peninsular Malaysia, I. Calcium and magnesium, 1989, Crowther J,
The discharge and chemical properties of 217 autogenic groundwaters were monitored over a 1-yr period in the tower karsts of central Selangor and the Kinta Valley, and in the Setul Boundary Range. Because of differences in soil PCO2, calcium concentrations are significantly higher in the Boundary Range (mean, 82.5 mg l-1) than in the tower karst terrain (44.6 mg l-1). Local differences in both source area PCO2 and amounts of secondary deposition underground cause marked intersite variability, particularly in the tower karst. Dilution occurs during flood peaks in certain conduit and cave stream waters. Generally, however, calcium correlates positively with discharge, since the amount of secondary deposition per unit volume of water decreases at higher flows. Magnesium concentrations and Mg:Ca Mg ratios of groundwaters are strongly influenced by bedrock composition, though bedrock heterogeneity and the kinetics and equilibria of carbonate dissolution reactions preclude extremely low or high Mg:Ca Mg values. Net chemical denudation rates range from 56.6 to 70.9 m3km2yr-1.The results are considered in relation to cation fluxes in surface runoff, soil throughflow and nutrient cycling. Preliminary calcium and magnesium budgets show that (1) dissolutional activity is largely confined to the near-surface zone; and (2) the annual uptake of calcium and magnesium by tropical limestone forests is similar in magnitude to the net solute output in groundwaters

WATER-BUDGET, FUNCTIONING AND PROTECTION OF THE FONTAINE-DE-VAUCLUSE KARST SYSTEM (SOUTHEASTERN FRANCE), 1992, Blavoux B, Mudry J, Puig Jm,
The karst aquifer of the well-known Fontaine de Vaucluse has been recently studied, results have been got about delimitation of the system and its working. Geological data (lithology and structure) have allowed to delimit an 1115 Km2 intake area including Ventoux-Lure north facing range (1,909-1,826 m) and the Plateau which is prolonging it southwards (Fig. 1 and 2). The average altitude of the whole area, obtained by balancing elevation belt surfaces, is about 870 m. This elevation squares with results of tracing tests (Fig. 3), environmental physical, chemical and isotopic tracings, that allow to value a 850 m average altitude for the intake area (Fig. 4). The moisture balance has been computed from an altitude belts climatic model, using local rain an temperature gradients (Fig. 5 and Table II), because the weather network is not representative. So, rainfalls rise of about 55 mm per 100 m elevation and temperature decreases of about 0.5-degrees-C per 100 m. The consequence of these two antagonist phenomena is the quasi constant value of actual evapotranspiration on each altitude belt. With the Fig. 7 organigram, curves of effective rainfalls and infiltration coefficient versus elevation can be plotted (Fig. 6). This computation shows that 3/4 of the total and the whole of dry season effective rainfalls are provided by the part of the intake area situated above the average altitude: on the lowest belt, effective rainfalls are only 120 mm per year and increase to 1380 mm on the upper section (Fig. 8 and Table 1). The weighted effective rainfalls are about 570 mm per year for the whole intake area. Hydrodynamical and physico-chemical studies show, despite its large size, the weak inertia of the system, so proves its good karstification, that confirms for the whole system the pin-point speleological observations. The discharge of the spring, which average value is 21 m3.s-1 (only 18 for the last ten years), can exceed 100 m3.s-1 and the minimum has never been lower than 3.7 m3.s-1 (Fig. 9). When it rains on the intake area, the increase of the discharge is very sudden in a rainy period : one to four days. This short delay is due to seepage through epikarst and unsaturated zone. During dry periods, the spring reaction is deadened, due to storage in the unsaturated zone. The silica content distribution was plotted during several hydrokinematical phases (Fig. 10). It shows: an almost unimodal distribution for the 8 km2 fissured limestone aquifer of Groseau; a multimodal one for the 1115 km2 karst aquifer of Fontaine de Vaucluse. This proves that karstification is more important than size in the response of the system. Weak summer rainfalls do not influence the discharge, nevertheless they influence chemistry of the spring water, and so interrupts the water depletion phasis. Then, the decrease of discharge can continue after the end of the chemical depletion phasis, water which is overflowing after summer rainfalls (in a dry period) is influenced hy the chemistry of seepage water : on the graph of a principal components analysis, done on chemical variables. an hysteresis phenomenon can be seen (Fig. 11). A discriminant analysis (Fig. 12) confirms that these autumn waters, with high ratio seepage tracers, are not reserve waters from the saturated zone. The ratio of reserve water in the total discharge, is preponderant: 3/4 and 2/3 respectively of the yearly runoff volumes for 1981 and 1982 (Fig. 13), but an important part of these reserves can be stored in the unsaturated zone. This storage capacity can be valued by different means: transposing to Vaucluse (1115 km2) the volume measured on another karst system in the Pyrenees (13 km2); it gives about 100 million m2; using setting parameters of Bezes model (1976) on the same aquifer: it gives 113 million m3; using depletion curves, that show, for instance during the 1989 summer and autumn dry period, a 80 million m3 volume. In all cases, we get a value of about one hundred million m3 for the storage capacity of the unsaturated zone. With a 20 m range of fluctuation for the water table and with a 10(-2) specific yield, on a 500 to 1,000 km2 saturated zone, the zone of fluctuation can release about 10 to 20 million m3. Then, the volume of water stored in the whole saturated zone, with a 300 m minimum thickness (depth of the waterlogged pit of the Fontaine), a 500 km2 minimum surface and a 10(-3) specific yield, is about 150 million m3, including 27 million m3 stored in the channels. So, the unsaturated zone represents a significant part of the whole storage capacity and most of the yearly renewable reserves. Paradoxically, the biggest french spring is not tapped at all; as its intake area is neither a regional nor a national park, no general protection covers it : because of its good karstification, the vulnerability of the system is important. Good quality of water is attributable to the low population and human activities density on the intake area (4 inh.km-2). A great part of the intake area is uncultivated (large forest and ''garrigues'' areas). Due to the lack of surface water and scantness of soils, agriculture is not intensive (lavender, thyme, sage and bulk wheat fields. meadowlands). On the mountainous zone, roads are salted in winter and snowmelt water can reach a significantly high chloride ratio than in a natural climatic functioning (for instance 25 mg.l-1 in Font d'Angiou where the ratio would have been 3 mg.l-1). As tourism is developing both on the mountain and on the plateau, the management of the highest intake area must be carefully held: its part is preponderant in the feeding of the system

THE CATCHMENT-AREA OF THE SV-IVAN-KARST SPRING IN ISTRIA (CROATIA), 1993, Bonacci O, Magdalenic A,
This paper discusses the results of a geological, hydrogeological, and hydrological analysis of the catchment boundaries and area of the Sv. Ivan karst spring. The underground watershed has been determined by geological and hydrogeological methods. The control used was the hydrologic water budget analysis appropriate for karst basins with limited data (Turc, 1954). The Sv. Ivan spring includes one main spring and several intermittent springs. The water in the main spring penetrates the flysch layers which limit the spring's discharge; therefore, the discharge of the main spring is fairly uniform. The ratio between minimum and maximum yearly discharges ranges from 1:3.3 to 1:12.8. Only a part of the water flows through the main spring while the other springs in the zone are overflows. The catchment area of Sv. Ivan spring zone is defined as 65 km2

THE VRANA LAKE HYDROLOGY (ISLAND OF CRES - CROATIA), 1993, Bonacci O,
The Vrana Lake on the island of Cres in the Adriatic Sea represents a specific phenomenon of karst hydrology. The island of Cres covers an area of 404.3 km2 with an average volume, of 220 x 10(6) m3 of fresh water in the lake. The island has an average rainfall of 1,063 mm, with a Mediterranean climate. The lake has a bottom reaching a depth of 62 m below mean sea level. The average water level is 14 m above mean sea level. The most probable theories on the origin of the lake and its hydrologic-hydrogeologic functioning state that it is a flooded polje in karst. The water budget method was used to define the lake catchment area at approximately 25 km2. During the last six years, there has been drastic decrease of about 3 m in the lake's water level. This phenomenon was analyzed and it was calculated that 53 percent of the water-level decline was caused by water discharges from the lake to satisfy water supply demands, and 47 percent was due to a period of low precipitation during the analyzed period

Hydrogeologic controls on the groundwater interactions with an acidic lake in karst terrain, Lake Barco, Florida, 1996, Lee T. M. ,
Transient groundwater interactions and lake stage were simulated for Lake Barco, an acidic seepage lake in the mantled karst of north central Florida. Karst subsidence features affected groundwater flow patterns in the basin and groundwater fluxes to and from the lake. Subsidence features peripheral to the lake intercepted potential groundwater inflow and increased leakage from the shallow perimeter of the lake bed. Simulated groundwater fluxes were checked against net groundwater flow derived from a detailed lake hydrologic budget with short-term lake evaporation computed by the energy budget method. Discrepancies between modeled and budget-derived net groundwater flows indicated that the model underestimated groundwater inflow, possibly contributed to by transient water table mounding near the lake. Recharge from rainfall reduced lake leakage by 10 to 15 times more than it increased groundwater inflow. As a result of the karst setting, the contributing groundwater basin to the lake was 2.4 ha for simulated average rainfall conditions, compared to the topographically derived drainage basin area of 81 ha. Short groundwater inflow path lines and rapid travel times limit the contribution of acid-neutralizing solutes from the basin, making Lake Barco susceptible to increased acidification by acid rain

Risk assessment methodology for karst aquifers .1. Estimating karst conduit-flow parameters, 1997, Field Ms, Nash Sg,
Quantitative ground-water tracing of conduit-dominated karst aquifers allows for reliable and practical interpretation of karst ground-water flow. Insights into the hydraulic geometry of the karst aquifer may be acquired that otherwise could not be obtained by such conventional methods as potentiometric-surface mapping and aquifer testing. Contamination of karst aquifers requires that a comprehensive tracer budget be performed so that karst conduit hydraulic-flow and geometric parameters be obtained. Acquisition of these parameters is necessary for estimating contaminant fate-and-transport. A FORTRAN computer program for estimating total tracer recovery from tracer-breakthrough curves is proposed as a standard method. Estimated hydraulic-flow parameters include mean residence time, mean flow velocity, longitudinal dispersivity, Peclet number, Reynolds number, and Froude number. Estimated geometric parameters include karst conduit sinuous distance, conduit volume, cross-sectional area, diameter, and hydraulic depth. These parameters may be used to (1) develop structural models of the aquifer, (2) improve aquifer resource management, (3) improve ground-water monitoring systems design, (4) improve aquifer remediation, and (5) assess contaminant fate-and-transport. A companion paper demonstrates the use of these hydraulic-flow and geometric parameters in a surface-water model for estimating contaminant fate-and-transport in a karst conduit. Two ground-water tracing studies demonstrate the utility of this program for reliable estimation of necessary karst conduit hydraulic-flow and geometric parameters

Vertical leakage and vertically averaged vertical conductance for karst lakes in Florida, 1998, Motz L. H. ,
In the karst lake district in peninsular Florida in the southeastern United States, as many as 70% of the lakes lack surface outlets, and groundwater outflow is an important part of the water budgets of these: lakes. For 11 karst lakes in the Central Lake District, vertical leakage from the lakes to the upper Floridan aquifer averages 0.12 to 4.27 m yr(-1). The vertically averaged vertical conductance K-v/b, a coefficient that represents the average of the vertical conductances of the hydrogeologic units between the bottom of a lake and the top of the upper Floridan aquifer, was determined to range from 0.0394 to 1.00 yr(-1) for these lakes. For six of the lakes, various hydraulic parameters previously calculated by other investigators are shown to be equivalent to the K,ib values calculated in this study. If K-v/b is determined for a lake, then vertical leakage can be estimated for other conditions of lake stage and hydraulic head in the upper Floridan aquifer, using K-v/b for the lake and Darcy's equation written for vertical flow. The methodology described in this paper for quantifying K-v/b, which requires only limited data (i.e., vertical leakage, lake stage, and hydraulic head in the upper Floridan aquifer), could be used to investigate the apparent association between relatively large K-v/b values and lake level instabilities at some lakes in the Central Lake District and similar hydrogeologic settings. This methodology for calculating vertical leakage is applicable to the Central Lake District in Florida and to other similar lake and groundwater systems

Effects of nearshore recharge on groundwater interactions with a lake in mantled karst terrain, 2000, Lee T. M. ,
The recharge and discharge of groundwater were investigated for a lake basin in the mantled karst terrain of central Florida to determine the relative importance of transient groundwater inflow to the lake water budget. Variably saturated groundwater flow modeling simulated water table responses observed beneath two hillsides radiating outward from the groundwater flow-through lake. Modeling results indicated that transient water table mounding and groundwater flow reversals in the nearshore region following large daily rainfall events generated most of the net groundwater inflow to the lake. Simulated daily groundwater inflow was greatest following water table mounding near the lake, not following subsequent peaks in the water level of upper basin wells. Transient mounding generated net groundwater inflow to the lake, that is, groundwater inflow in excess of the outflow occurring through the deeper lake bottom. The timing of the modeled net groundwater inflow agreed with an independent lake water budget; however, the quantity was considerably less than the budget-derived value

Quantification of thermo-erosion in pro-glacial areas - examples from Svalbard, 2000, Etzelmuller B,
Surface changes in recently deglaciated terrain are calculated by comparing air-photo derived digital elevation models (DEMs) from four pro-glacial areas on Svalbard. The paper quantifies the amount of material mobilised due to thermo-karst processes and discusses the influence of the process on the sediment budget of terrestrial arctic glacier basins underlain by permafrost. The study shows that thermo-erosion in deglaciated terrain is an important process which falls within the concept of paraglacial activity. The average annual material mobilisation due to thermo-erosion can be in the same order of magnitude as field-measured total annual suspended sediment transfer out of the catchments. The study implies further that ice-cored moraines are important sediment magazines, which release more material during warmer periods than during colder periods

Water budget and vertical conductance for Lowry (Sand Hill) Lake in north-central Florida, USA, 2001, Motz L. H. , Sousa G. D. , Annable M. D. ,
Water-budget components and the vertical conductance were determined for Lowry (Sand Hill) Lake in north-central Florida, USA. In this type of lake, which interacts with both the surface-water and groundwater systems, the inflow components are precipitation, surface-water inflow, groundwater inflow, and direct runoff (i.e. overland flow), and the outflow components are evaporation, groundwater outflow, and surface-water outflow. In a lake and groundwater system that is typical of many karst lakes in Florida, a large part of the groundwater outflow occurs by means of vertical leakage through an underlying confining unit to a deeper, highly transmissive aquifer called the upper Floridan aquifer. The water-budget component that represents vertical leakage to the upper Floridan aquifer was calculated as a residual using the water-budget equation. For the 13 month period from August 1994 to August 1995, relative to the surface area of the lake, rainfall at Lowry Lake was 1.55 m yr(-1), surficial aquifer inflow was 0.79 m yr(-1), surface-water inflow was 1.92 m yr(-1), and direct runoff was 0.01 m yr(-1). Lake evaporation was 1.11 m yr(-1), and surface-water outflow was 1.61 m yr(-1). The lake stage increased 0.07 m yr(-1), and the vertical leakage to the upper Floridan aquifer was 1.48 m yr(-1). Surficial aquifer outflow from the lake was negligible. At Lowry Lake, vertical leakage is a major component of the water budget, comprising about 35% of the outflow during the study period. The vertical conductance (K-V/b), a coefficient that represents the average of the vertical conductances of the hydrogeologic units between the bottom of a lake and the top of he upper Floridan aquifer, was determined to be 2.51 x 10(-4) day(-1) for Lowry Lake. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights. reserved

Karst hydrology: recent developments and open questions, 2002, White W. B. ,
Karst aquifers are those that contain dissolution-generated conduits that permit the rapid transport of ground water, often in turbulent flow. The conduit system receives localized inputs from sinking surface streams and as storrn runoff through sinkholes. The conduit system interconnects with the ground water stored in fractures and in the granular permeability of the bedrock. As a conceptual framework, the basic components of karstic aquifers seem to be generally accepted. Progress in the decade of the 1990s has focused mainly on quantifying the conceptual model. The equilibrium chemistry of the limestone and dolomite dissolution has been reliably established, and there are formal models for the kinetics of dissolution. Kinetic models have been used to calculate both fracture enlargement to protoconduits (0.01-m aperture) and the enlargement of protoconduits to the size of typical cave passages. Modeling of ground water flow in karstic aquifers has been less successful. Progress has been made in the use of water budgets, tracer studies, hydrograph analysis and chemograph analysis for the characterization of karstic aquifers. Topics on which progress is needed include (a) the construction of models that describe the complete aquifer including the interactions of all components, (b) models for elastic sediment transport within the aquifer, and (c) working out processes and mechanisms for contaminant transport in karst aquifers. An optimistic assessment at the end of the millennium is that a complete model for karstic aquifers is visible on the horizon.

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