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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 11 Jul, 2012
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

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That entropy is the degree of thermodynamic disorder [16].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for calcarenites (Keyword) returned 33 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 33
GHOST-ROCK KARSTIFICATION IN ENTRE-DEUX-MERS (GIRONDE, FRANCE), IMPLICATIONS FOR KARSTOGENESIS AND KARSTIC MORPHOLOGY, , Dubois Caroline, Lans Benjamin, Kaufmann Olivier, Maire Richard, Quinif Yves

The formation of the Oligocene « calcaires à Astéries » in the region of « Entre-deux-Mers » is affected by a karstification with subhorizontal caves that drained rivers from swallow-holes to resurgences. Observations in quarries show that ghost-rock alterites are present. This paper describes the ghost-rocks in the quarry of Piquepoche exploiting the Frontenac stone. We have studied horizontally developed ghost-rocks with vertical extensions still containing the residual alterite. They can be badly consolidated calcarenites up to soft material which has been sampled. Speleogenesis is reviewed in the frame of the mechanical erosion of the alterite of a horizontal ghost-rock followed by an incision by free-flowing waters which form a passage with promontories and potholes. Finally, we show that ceiling anastomoses can form by ghost-rock karstification.


Depositional history of the late Pleistocene limestones of the Kenya coast, 1984, Braithwaite Cjr,
The coastal limestones of Kenya extend approximately 180 km N-S from Malindi to the Tanzanian border. They are at least 20 m thick and may be subdivided into sedimentary units representing major periods of marine deposition punctuated by sub-aerial erosion. Their foundations are formed by thick fluvial and aeolian quartz sands but there is local evidence of marine deposition following these. In the main limestone unit, deposited about 240,000 years ago, initial high energy shallow-shelf deposition was replaced by quiet water sediments with scattered corals. Sea level stood about 8 m higher than at present. Quartzose sands were confined to western areas. A return to shallow water heralded a new phase of emergence and erosion, producing karst surfaces and sub-aerial sediments. These are overlain by herring-bone cross-bedded quartz-rich calcarenites which were the products of a tidally dominated shelf and, at Watamu and Wasini, pass upwards into aeolian dune deposits. However, these were also emersed and subject to karst erosion before deposition of a further widespread marine limestone. Within this, coral knolls are well developed. Much of the sediment accumulated in shallow water, but the ecological succession indicates that knolls were at times in deeper waters. These deposits formed about 125,000 years ago when sea level ultimately stood 15-20 m above its present position. More recently in the area sea level has again fallen. However, the descent was not continuous and pauses were marked by marine terrace formation and subsequent karst erosion with sub-aerial deposition. Brief reversals caused both terraces and sediments to be overlain by thin marine deposits. Sea level paused at its present position about 30,000 years ago when the present reef platform was probably defined. It continued to fall to a maximum of about-120 m before rising to its existing level 7000 years ago and beginning the current cycle of sediment accumulation

Le karst pliocne de la rgion de Safi (Maroc atlantique), 1987, Weisrock A. , Lunski S.
POST-PLIOCENE KARST OF SAFI AREA (ATLANTIC MOROCCO) - The karst of Safi area is developed in bioclastic calcarenites of Plio-Moghrebian upon Mesozoic limestones, marls and gypsum. Dolines, uvalas and poljes are found along faults N170-N195, N040-N070, N080-N115, which are mainly " Mesetian " and " Atlasic " tectonic directions of Atlantic Morocco. Two points are developed upon this karst genesis: 1/ the relations between post-pliocene karstic landforms and paleokarst in limestones and gypsum; 2/ the recent karstic developments occur during the periods wetter than today (310 mm/y), for example Upper Pleistocene, as it is showed by dating of charcoal in dolines filling.

Petrogenesis of Cenozoic, temperate water calcarenites, South Australia; a model for meteoric/shallow burial diagenesis of shallow water calcite sediments, 1989, James Noel P. , Bone Yvonne,

Isopoda (Crustacea: Isopoda: Microcharon, Jaera, Proasellus) and other fauna in hypogean waters of southern Cyprus., 1990, Sket Boris
Springs and wells in SW and S part of Cyprus were briefly surveyed. Chlorinity was 0.1; 0.8 p.p.t. Some isopods were found in collecting galleries of springs and in wells in calcarenites and in gravel deposits. These were Proasellus coxalis ssp. with some depigmented specimens, the probably stygobitic P. c. nanus ssp. n., poorly pigmented Jaera italica, and Microcharon luciae n. sp.; they were accompanied by the stygobitic amphipod Bogidiella cypria, by Turbellaria (Tricladida), by Copepoda (Cyclopoida), and rarely by some other animals (Pisidium sp., Oligochaeta). Only slightly depigmented Turbellaria Tricladida (cf. Dugesia sp.) occur in wells far from surface waters. Descriptions of new taxa are given.

Hazard mapping of karst along the coast of the Algarve, Portugal, 1999, Forth Ra, Butcher D, Senior R,
The engineering geology of the West Algarve coastline between Cape St Vincent in the west and Fare in the east varies considerably, from the high limestone cliffs between Salema and Burgau to the lower but more problematic karstic cliffs around Lagos and east of Portimao. Geotechnical problems vary from toppling failure and rockfalls in the higher, more heavily jointed limestone and sandstone cliffs between Salema and Burgau, to sinkhole collapse, subsidence and gullying within the Miocene calcarenites and Pleistocene sands east of Portimao. This latter area is the subject of this paper. Field mapping was completed on scales of 1:2000 and 1:5000 to encompass geomorphology, geology and vegetation cover. Both sinkhole and sea cliff formation controlling factors are discussed and subsequently nine factors affecting potential hazard location are identified. The relative importance of these ten factors is determined and then each cell, 100 m(2) in size, is assessed for its individual score relative to the presence of, or degree of influence of each of the hazard forming processes. The resulting composite hazard map is aimed at planners and developers as a multipurpose map for general use. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

Karstification and tectonic evolution of the Jabal Madar (Adam Foothills, Arabian platform) during the Upper Cretaceous, 2000, Montenat C. , Soudet H. J. , Barrier P. , Chereau A. ,
A palaeokarst system of Turonian age, located on the Arabian platform, at the front of the ophiolitic nappes of Oman (Jabal Madar, Adam foothills), is described and placed in its geodynamic context. The development of the karst network in a vadose context was favoured by an episode of fracturing (N-S to NW-SE fractures) that affected the Cenomanian platform carbonates of the Natih Formation. The karstic filling comprises two main types of speleothems: - laminated bioclastic calcarenites with graded bedding essentially deposited by gravity currents in a vadose regime; - crystallisation of large masses of white calcite in a saturated regime. The calcite was deposited during several episodes, and often constitutes most of the filling. The episode of uplift and emergence, accompanied by fracturing which favoured the development of the Madar karstic system, was probably induced by the swelling of the Arabian platform, in response to the initiation of the ophiolitic nappe obduction. Karstic filling probably occurred during the rise of marine level, what is suggested by mixing of vadose and marine influences (production of bioclastic calcarenites and later dolomitisation of these ones; crystallisation of white calcite of various origins as evidenced by cathodoluminescence data and carbonate isotopes). At the beginning of the Senonian, the Jabal Madar area was again submerged and incorporated in a relatively deep foreland basin where pelagic marls and turbidites were deposited (Muti Formation). The Jabal Madar (and its karstic system) and the whole of the Adam foothills were affected by folding towards the end of the Cretaceous, during the final phase of thrusting of the Omani nappes. The folding was strongly reactivated by post-obduction compressional movement which occurred during Miocene times

Thermoluminescence dating of dune ridges in western Victoria, 2000, White, Susan

Absolute dating of the Pleistocene dune ridges of southwestern Victoria establishes a time frame for speleogenesis of syngenetic karst in such dune calcarenites. The dunes were deposited during the late mid-Pleistocene.


New constraints on the origin of the Australian Great Barrier Reef: Results from an international project of deep coring, 2001, Drilling Icfgbr,
Two new boreholes provide the first direct evidence of the age of the Australian Great Barrier Reef. An inner shelf sequence (total depth, 86 m; basal age = 210 {} 40 ka) comprises a dominantly siliciclastic unit (thickness [~]52-86 m), overlain by four carbonate units (total thickness 0-34 m). A shelf-edge and slope sequence (total depth 210 m) reveals three major sections: (1) a lower section of resedimented flows deposited on a lower slope, (2) a mid-section including intervals of corals, rhodoliths, and calcarenites with low- angle graded laminae, and (3) an upper section of four shelf- margin coral-reef units separated by karst surfaces bearing paleosols. Sr isotope and magnetostratigraphic data indicate that the central Great Barrier Reef is relatively young (post Bruhnes-Matuyama boundary time), and our best estimate for the onset of reef growth on the outer barrier system is ca. 600 {} 280 ka. This date suggests that reef initiation may have been related to the onset of full eccentricity-dominated glacio-eustatic sea-level oscillation as inferred from large-amplitude 'saw-tooth' 100 k.y. {delta}18O cycles (after marine isotope stage 17), rather than to some regional environmental parameter. A major question raised by our study is whether reef margins globally display a similar growth history. The possibility of a global reef initiation event has important implications for basin to shelf partitioning of CaCO3, atmospheric carbon dioxide levels, and global temperature change during Quaternary time

Water-upwelling pipes and soft-sediment-deformation structures in lower Pleistocene calcarenites (Salento, southern Italy), 2001, Massari F. , Ghibaudo G. , D'alessandro A. , Davaud E. ,
A thin sedimentary blanket, consisting mostly of subtidal, unconformity-bounded calcarenite units, was deposited in the small Novoli graben (Apulian foreland, southern Italy) in Pliocene-Pleistocene time. In a limited part of the study area the lower Pleistocene 'Calcarenite di Gravina,' forming the thicker part of this blanket, is crossed by continuous to discontinuous cylindrical pipes as much as 12 m high, most commonly consisting of stacked concave- upward laminae, locally grading upward into soft-sediment-deformation features and large dishes. The evidence favors an origin linked to upwelling of overpressured groundwater from a large karstic reservoir hosted in the Mesozoic carbonate rocks; the reservoir periodically developed a relatively high hydrostatic head due to Tertiary to Pleistocene cover acting as an aquitard or aquiclude. As a result, submarine springs were generated, the activity of which was primarily controlled by relative sea-level fluctuations. It is suggested that the pipes were located in those points where the hydrostatic pressure was sufficient to fluidize the overlying sediment and could be released without notably affecting the surrounding sediments. Some pipes cross calcarenitic infills of karstic sinkholes developed in the underlying units, whereas others follow the course of vertical to high-angle extensional synsedimentary tectonic fractures generated when the calcarenites were still in an unconsolidated to semiconsolidated state. The former relationships suggest that vertical routes of water upwelling during highstand of base level commonly coincided with axes of vadose solution during base-level lowstand; the latter suggest that opening of fractures enhanced the connection of the deep aquifer with the surface, hence intensifying water upwelling. We think that fluidization along the fractures was not hindered by the partially coherent state, and that pipes with a cylindrical geometry could form in spite of the planarity of the fractures. The formation of the pipes and their internal structure of stacked concave-upward laminae is thought to be consistent with a process of fluidization due to through-flowing waters. We believe that essential in this process is the role of upward-migrating transient water-filled cavities, akin to the voidage waves (Hassett's [1961a, 1961b] parvoids) experimentally reproduced by several authors in liquid fluidized beds, and regarded as true instability phenomena of a fluidized suspension occurring above minimum fluidization velocity. It is suggested that the process is akin to the production of the dish structure. It consists of the filling of transient, upward-migrating, water-filled cavities through steady fallout of particles from the cavity roof, their redeposition in a more consolidated state, and subsidence of the roof due to water seepage upward from the cavity. The process was accompanied by segregation of grains according to their size and density, as well by elutriation of finest particles, and led to a new pattern of sediment texture, packing, and fabric with respect to the surrounding calcarenites

Palaeokarst in the Noondine Chert in Southwestern Australia: Implications for Water Supply and the Protection of Biodiversity, 2002, Appleyard, Steve
In southwestern Australia, karst features occur in geological formations other than the coastal calcarenites of the Tamala Limestone. The Noondine Chert was formed by the silicification of carbonate rocks and contains relict carbonate textures and palaeokarst features such as intense brecciation and the presence of subsurface voids. This geological formation is an important aquifer to the east of the Perth Basin where groundwater resources are otherwise limited, and the aquifer is highly vulnerable to contamination from agricultural land use. The Noondine Chert may also contain a rich stygofauna. This has not been taken into account in groundwater protection policies, and needs to be assessed as a matter of urgency

Palaeokarst in the Noondine Chert in Southwestern Australia: Implications for Water Supply and the Protection of Biodiversity, 2002, Appleyard, Steve

In southwestern Australia, karst features occur in geological formations other than the coastal calcarenites of the Tamala Limestone. The Noondine Chert was formed by the silicification of carbonate rocks and contains relict carbonate textures and palaeokarst features such as intense brecciation and the presence of subsurface voids. This geological formation is an important aquifer to the east of the Perth Basin where groundwater resources are otherwise limited, and the aquifer is highly vulnerable to contamination from agricultural land use. The Noondine Chert may also contain a rich stygofauna. This has not been taken into account in groundwater protection policies, and needs to be assessed as a matter of urgency.


The influence of the geological setting on the morphogenetic evolution of the Tremiti Archipelago (Apulia, Southeastern Italy), 2005, Andriani Gk, Walsh N, Pagliarulo R,
The Tremiti Archipelago (Southern Adriatic Sea), also called Insulae Diomedae from the name of the Greek hero who first landed there, is an area of high landscape and historical value. It is severely affected by significant geomorphologic processes dominated by mass movements along the coast that constitute the most important and unpredictable natural hazard for the population and cultural heritage. Coastal erosion is favoured by the peculiar geological and structural setting, seismic activity, weathering, development of karst processes, and wave action. The present paper reports on descriptive and qualitative evaluation of the factors controlling landslides and coastline changes based on medium-term in situ observation, detailed surface surveys at selected locations since 1995, and historic and bibliographic data. The Tremiti Archipelago is part of an active seismic area characterised by a shear zone separating two segments of the Adriatic microplate that have shown different behaviour and roll back rates in the subduction underneath the Apennines since middle Pleistocene. Although coastal morphology can be basically considered to be the result of wave action, the continual action of subaerial processes contributes effectively to the mechanism of shoreline degradation. Weathering mainly affects the marly calcisiltites and calcilutites of the Cretaccio Fm. and the friable and low cemented calcarenites and biomicrites of the San Nicola Fm. The cliffs are characterised by different types of failure such as lateral spreads, secondary topples, rock falls and slides. At the Isle of San Nicola, landslides are controlled by the contrast in competence, shear strength and stiffness between the Pliocene re-crystallised dolomitic calcarenites and calcisiltites and the Miocene marly calcilutites and calcisiltites. At the Isles of San Domino and Caprara rock falls are attributed to the undercutting of waves at the base of the cliffs

Rock coast morphology in relation to lithology and wave exposure, Lord Howe Island, southwest Pacific, 2005, Dickson Me, Woodroffe Cd,
The morphology of rock coastlines appears primarily to be a function of the eroding force of waves and the resistance of rocks, but a number of local factors complicate determination of the relative significance of these as opposed to other factors. Lord Howe Island, a small, basaltic mid-oceanic island in the northern Tasman Sea, presents a unique opportunity to differentiate the roles of rock resistance and wave exposure. The island occurs at the southern limit of coral growth and there is a fringing coral reef and lagoon on a portion of the western coastline. The reef markedly attenuates wave energy and there is an impressive contrast between the sheltered lagoonal coastline, which consists largely of depositional sandy beaches and vegetated hillslopes, and the exposed coastline which is bold and rugged having been eroded by waves into precipitous plunging cliffs, cliffs with talus slopes, and cliffs with basal shore platforms. There is a clear contrast between the development of basalt shore platforms along the sheltered and exposed coastlines: exposed platforms are wider, backed by a higher and steeper cliff, and are without talus deposits, as opposed to sheltered platforms that are veneered by talus. Calcarenites, deposited in the Late Pleistocene, hence precluding significant rock coast inheritance, have been eroded into platforms that are approximately twice as wide on the exposed coastline than the sheltered coastline. Further evidence as to the efficacy of wave erosion around Lord Howe Island is provided by a suite of landforms that appear to have developed as a result of localised wave-quarrying of highly jointed dykes (sea caves, arches, blowholes, and gulches)

Syngenetic Karst in Australia: a review, 2006, Grimes Ken G.
In syngenetic karst speleogenesis and lithogenesis are concurrent: caves and karst features are forming at the same time as the loose sediment is being cemented into a soft, porous rock. Eogenetic karst and soft-rock karst are closely related terms for features developed in soft, poorly-consolidated limestones. The distinctive features of syngenetic karst are: shallow horizontal cave systems; a general lack of directed conduits (low irregular chambers occur instead); clustering of caves at the margins of topographic highs or along the coast; paleosoil horizons; vertical solution pipes which locally form dense fields; extensive breakdown and subsidence to form collapse-dominated cave systems; a variety of surface and subsurface breccias and locally large collapse dolines and cenotes; and limited surface sculpturing (karren). These features are best developed in host sediments that have well developed primary matrix permeability and limited secondary cementation (and hence limited mechanical strength), for example dune calcarenites. Certain hydrological environments also assist: invading swamp waters or mixing at a well-developed watertable; or, near the coast, mixing at the top and bottom of a freshwater lens floating on salt water. Where these factors are absent the karst forms tend to be more akin to those of classical hard-rock or telogenetic karst.

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