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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

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That boiling spring is see spring, boiling.?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
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Your search for cave air temperature (Keyword) returned 9 results for the whole karstbase:
The climate of the Marble Arch Caves, County Fermanagh, Northern Ireland, BSc thesis (Geography) , 1997, Perrin, D.

The Marble Arch cave is a high energy cave located in County Fermanagh, Northern Ireland. The first 500 metres of the system has been opened as a Showcave for approximately 13 years and has been visited by over half a million visitors since opening. Microclimatic investigations over a six month sampling period (31.7.96-10.1.97) found that the cave has a variable microclimate in response to, the surface climate, the caves hydrology and influences within the Showcave.
High positive correlation coefficient's were attained between the cave and surface air temperature. As distance increased into the cave correlation coefficients' decreased indicating a time lag. Air temperatures varied on both a temporal and spatial scale. Summer air temperature ranges of 2.1 °C were noted between sites within the cave, which increased to 7.1 °C during the winter season. The cave air temperature changed progressively from the entrance to the interior, decreasing in the summer and increasing in the winter months. During the summer months the mean surface air temperature (17.4°C) was greater than the cave mean air temperature (10.8°C). In the winter months the mean surface air temperature (1.9°C) was less than the cave mean air temperature (7.2°C). Site variability was generally greater during the summer months indicated by higher Coefficient of Variations.
The 'chimney effect' is noticeable in some parts of the cave as a result of surface and cave air temperature differences. Airflow within the cave changed direction in response to seasonal air temperature variations, flowing out of the cave during summer months and into the cave in the winter. Other processes such as the 'Entrainment Effect' were also evident. Airflow throughout the cave was generally weak, although in some parts of the cave was noticeable as a 'wind'.
The main river flowing through the cave was responsive to the seasonal cave air temperatures. During the summer months the water temperature once entering the cave decreases by approximately 2°C and increases by up to 7°C during the winter months. A relatively constant seasonal water temperature is maintained whilst travelling through the cave.
The largest air temperature variations occurred within the Showcave in which the presence of tourists and electrical lighting are believed to be partially responsible, the latter of which being the greater contributor. Results show that a tour of 18 people on average increased the surrounding air temperature by up to 1.3°C. The effect was reduced when a tour was moving past a point rather than remaining stationary in the same place.
Electronic lighting increased the overall air temperature throughout the Showcave. Each type of light used within the Showcave influenced the air temperature up to a metre away from the light source. Air temperature increases around the lighting was a result of the type of light used rather than the bulb wattage installed. In some cases the air temperature remained 2°C higher than the mean cave air temperature 1 metre away from the light source.


CONTROL OF ENVIRONMENTAL PARAMETERS FOR MANAGEMENT AND CONSERVATION OF NERJA CAVE (MALAGA, SPAIN), 2002, Carrasco Francisco, Vadillo Iñ, Aki, Liñ, á, N Cristina, Andreo Bartolomé, , Durá, N Juan José,

The Nerja Cave receives on average more than 500,000 visitors per year. In order to know the possible impact in the underground environment by human visits, a monitoring network was installed since 1993, to control hourly several parameters. Also, since 1991 a hydrochemical control has been carried out in the drip water points of the cave and in the natural discharge points of the carbonate aquifer. This continuous record of physical-chemical parameters of drip water, its daily outflow, as well as temperature and relative humidity in the air, CO2 concentration and rock temperature shows the human influence. The main changes in environmental parameters are the following: 1. cave air temperature rises 0.2 °C by 1000 visitors/day; 2. a daily increase between 2 and 3 % in relative air humidity, reaching saturation on summer days; 3. CO2 concentration in air increases up to values between 500 and 700 ppm during low visitability periods and 10 times the background value during high visitability periods (2.800 ppm); 4. temperature of the rock rises between 0.02 °C and 0.15 °C/day, and (5) PCO2 of drip water also presents variations, increasing during the big influx of visits and decreasing the saturation index of carbonated minerals.


Prediction of condensation in caves, 2005, Defreitas C. R. , Schmekal A.

Condensation is an important process in karst environments, especially in caves where carbon dioxide enriched air can lead to high rates of condensation corrosion. The problem is there has been very little research reported in the literature dealing with condensation as a microclimate process. This study addresses the problem and reports on a method for measuring and predicting condensation rates in a limestone cave. Electronic sensors for measuring condensation and evaporation of the condensate as part of a single continuous process of water vapour flux are tested and used to collect 12 months of data. The study site is the Glowworm tourist cave in New Zealand. Condensation is a function of the vapour gradient between rock surfaces in the cave and cave air. The size of the gradient is largely determined by air exchange with the outside. The results show that the numerical model to predict condensation works well. Given that rock-surface temperature in the cave does not vary much, condensation is essentially a function of cave air temperature and the processes that affect it, mainly, air exchange with outside. The results show that condensation can be controlled by controlling ventilation of the cave.


Long-term changes in the cave atmosphere air temperature as a result of periodic heliophysical processes, 2006, Stoeva Penka, Stoev Alexey, Kiskinova Nadya,
Climatic trends connected with short- and long-period variations of the solar activity occur as a reaction even in such conservative media as the air volumes of karst caves. The yearly mean air temperatures in the zone of constant temperatures of four show caves in Bulgaria were studied for a period of 36 years (1968-2003). The examination was made by everyday noon measurements in Ledenika, Saeva dupka, Snezhanka and Uhlovitsa cave. The caves are situated at different altitudes and geographic latitude. Seasonal fluctuations of the yearly mean air temperature in the ZCT of the explored caves have been identified by Fourier analysis. The same analysis has been applied for the Sunspot number and Apmax indices, which are representatives of the solar and geomagnetic activity, for the same period of data available. Autocorrelograms have been used for examination of the seasonal patterns of the air temperatures in the ZCT in every cave and in Sunspot number and Apmax indices. Cross-spectrum analysis has been applied for retrieving the correlations between air ZCT temperatures in the caves and solar and geomagnetic activity. It has been found that the correlation between ZCT temperature time series and sunspot number is better than that between the cave air temperature and Apmax indices. It has been found that is rather connected with the first peak in geomagnetic activity, which is associated with transient solar activity, i.e., coronal mass ejections (CMEs) than with the second one, which is higher and connected with the recurrent high speed streams from coronal holes (Webb, D.F., 2002. CMEs and the solar cycle variation in their geoeffectiveness. In: Wilson, A. (Ed.), Proceedings of the SOHO 11 Symposium on From Solar Min to Max: Half a Solar Cycle with SOHO, 11-15 March 2002, Davos, Switzerland. ESA Publications Division, Noordwijk, 2002, ISBN 92-9092-818-2, pp. 409-419). This work can contribute to studying the mechanisms of atmospheric circulation changes and calibration of long-period climatic data read from cave speleothems and deposits

Long-term changes in the cave atmosphere air temperature as a result of periodic heliophysical processes, 2006, Stoeva P. , . Stoev A. , Kiskinovab N. .

Climatic trends connected with short- and long-period variations of the solar activity occur as a reaction even in such conservative media as the air volumes of karst caves. The yearly mean air temperatures in the zone of constant temperatures of four show caves in Bulgaria were studied for a period of 36 years (1968–2003). The examination was made by everyday noon measurements in Ledenika, Saeva dupka, Snezhanka and Uhlovitsa cave. The caves are situated at different altitudes and geographic latitude. Seasonal fluctuations of the yearly mean air temperature in the ZCT of the explored caves have been identified by Fourier analysis. The same analysis has been applied for the Sunspot number and Apmax indices, which are representatives of the solar and geomagnetic activity, for the same period of data available. Autocorrelograms have been used for examination of the seasonal patterns of the air temperatures in the ZCT in every cave and in Sunspot number and Apmax indices. Cross-spectrum analysis has been applied for retrieving the correlations between air ZCT temperatures in the caves and solar and geomagnetic activity. It has been found that the correlation between ZCT temperature time series and sunspot number is better than that between the cave air temperature and Apmax indices. It has been found that View the MathML source is rather connected with the first peak in geomagnetic activity, which is associated with transient solar activity, i.e., coronal mass ejections (CMEs) than with the second one, which is higher and connected with the recurrent high speed streams from coronal holes (Webb, D.F., 2002. CMEs and the solar cycle variation in their geoeffectiveness. In: Wilson, A. (Ed.), Proceedings of the SOHO 11 Symposium on From Solar Min to Max: Half a Solar Cycle with SOHO, 11–15 March 2002, Davos, Switzerland. ESA Publications Division, Noordwijk, 2002, ISBN 92-9092-818-2, pp. 409–419). This work can contribute to studying the mechanisms of atmospheric circulation changes and calibration of long-period climatic data read from cave speleothems and deposits.


Palaeoclimate Research in Villars Cave (Dordogne, SW-France)., 2008, Genty D.
Villars Cave is a typical shallow cave from South-West France (45.44N; 0.78E; 175 m asl) that has provided several speleothem palaeoclimatic records such as the millennial scale variability of the Last Glacial period and the Last Deglaciation. Monitoring the Villars cave environment over a 13-year period has helped in the understanding of the stable isotopic speleothem content and in the hydrology. For example, it was demonstrated that most of the calcite CaCO3 carbon comes from the soil CO2, which explains the sensitivity of the ?13C to any vegetation and climatic changes. Drip rate monitoring, carried out under four stalactites from the lower and upper galleries, has shown a well marked seasonality of the seepage water with high flow rates during winter and spring. A time delay of about two months is observed between the water excess (estimated from outside meteorological stations) and the drip rate in the cave. A great heterogeneity in the flow rate amplitude variations and in the annual quantity of water between two nearby stalactites is observed, confirming the complexity of the micro-fissure network system in the unsaturated zone. At a daily scale, the air pressure and drip rates are anti-correlated probably because of pressure stress on the fissure network. Cave air CO2 concentration follows soil CO2 production and is correlated with its ?13C content. Since the beginning of the monitoring, the cave air temperature, in both lower and upper galleries, displays a warming trend of ~+0.4C0.1/10yrs. This might be the consequence of the outside temperature increase that reaches the Villars Cave galleries through thermal wave conduction. Chemistry monitoring over a few years has shown that the seepage water of the lower gallery stations is significantly more concentrated in trace and minor elements (i.e. Sr, Mg, Ba, U) than the upper stations, probably due to the 10-20 m depth difference between these galleries, which implies a different seepage pathway and different water/rock interaction durations. There is also, in the elemental concentration (i.e. [Ca]), a seasonal signal which causes variation in the speleothem growth rates. Modern calcite deposit experiments conducted for several years have permitted the calculation of vertical growth rates, which are extremely high in Villars (i.e. 1.0 to 1.75 mm/ yr). Pollen filter experiments in the cave have demonstrated that most of the pollen grain found in the cave comes from the air and not from the water. The specificity of the Villars Cave records is that the climatic variations were well recorded in the calcite ?13C whereas the ?18O is usually used in such studies. Overall, these results are helpful for the interpretation of speleothem records for palaeoclimatic reconstructions, but more work is needed, especially numerical modelling of the temperature, chemistry and hydrology.

Palaeoclimate Research in Villars Cave (Dordogne, SW-France), 2008, Genty, D.

Villars Cave is a typical shallow cave from South-West France (45.44°N; 0.78°E; 175 m asl) that has provided several speleothem palaeoclimatic records such as the millennial scale variability of the Last Glacial period and the Last Deglaciation. Monitoring the Villars cave environment over a 13-year period has helped in the understanding of the stable isotopic speleothem content and in the hydrology. For example, it was demonstrated that most of the calcite CaCO3 carbon comes from the soil CO2, which explains the sensitivity of the δ13C to any vegetation and climatic changes. Drip rate monitoring, carried out under four stalactites from the lower and upper galleries, has shown a well marked seasonality of the seepage water with high flow rates during winter and spring. A time delay of about two months is observed between the water excess (estimated from outside meteorological stations) and the drip rate in the cave. A great heterogeneity in the flow rate amplitude variations and in the annual quantity of water between two nearby stalactites is observed, confirming the complexity of the micro-fissure network system in the unsaturated zone. At a daily scale, the air pressure and drip rates are anti-correlated probably because of pressure stress on the fissure network. Cave air CO2 concentration follows soil CO2 production and is correlated with its δ13C content. Since the beginning of the monitoring, the cave air temperature, in both lower and upper galleries, displays a warming trend of ~+0.4°C±0.1/10yrs. This might be the consequence of the outside temperature increase that reaches the Villars Cave galleries through thermal wave conduction. Chemistry monitoring over a few years has shown that the seepage water of the lower gallery stations is significantly more concentrated in trace and minor elements (i.e. Sr, Mg, Ba, U) than the upper stations, probably due to the 10-20 m depth difference between these galleries, which implies a different seepage pathway and different water/rock interaction durations. There is also, in the elemental concentration (i.e. [Ca]), a seasonal signal which causes variation in the speleothem growth rates. Modern calcite deposit experiments conducted for several years have permitted the calculation of vertical growth rates, which are extremely high in Villars (i.e. 1.0 to 1.75 mm/yr). Pollen filter experiments in the cave have demonstrated that most of the pollen grain found in the cave comes from the air and not from the water. The specificity of the Villars Cave records is that the climatic variations were well recorded in the calcite δ13C whereas the δ18O is usually used in such studies. Overall, these results are helpful for the interpretation of speleothem records for palaeoclimatic reconstructions, but more work is needed, especially numerical modelling of the temperature, chemistry and hydrology.


The visitors influence on air temperature of Yaltinskaya and Geofizicheskaya show caves (Ay-Petri massif, Mount Crimea), 2011, Amelichev, G. N. , Tokarev, S. V. , Klimchouk, A. B.

Monitoring of air temperature in the Yaltinskaya and Geofizicheskaya caves, situated in the Ay-Petri massif in the Mountainous Crimea, was conducted during 7 months. The purpose of this study is to determine the visitors’ influence on natural environment of the caves. Average temperature during the period of monitoring in Yaltinskaya cave was 7,55 °  (v=0,01) and in Geophisicheskaya cave was 6,99 °(v=0,06).

The visitation by tourists causes rising of air temperature up to 0,39 ˚per day. In periods of low visitation the anthropogenic thermal anomalies broke down naturally during the night time, with the participation of processes of evaporation and condensation of cave moisture. In periods of high attendance a partial retention and accumulation of anthropogenic heat occurs. Daily thermal anomalies in starting and finishing periods of holiday season were at the average 0,04 ˚(Yaltinskaya) and 0,13 ˚(Geofizicheskaya). In the peak season they were 0,07 and 0,20 °, respectively.

The anthropogenic influence on the temperature of the studied caves has a seasonal character. It is unstable and is 1-2 orders of magnitude less than the seasonal variability of the natural temperature background.


The interplay between air temperature and ice mass balance changes in Scărişoara Ice Cave, Romania , 2011, Perş, Oiu Aurel , Onac Bogdan P. , Perş, Oiu Ioana

This paper examines the short-term relations established be­tween external and cave air temperature in Scărişoara Ice Cave (Romania) and the role they play upon ice genesis and mass balance changes. Geothermal heat and external climate are the main drivers of the cave’s air temperature, but the ice forming and ablation processes modulate its spatial and temporal char­acteristics. In the winter half-year, cold air inflow leads to the overcooling of the cave atmosphere and walls and ice forma­tion; while in summer, melting of ice acts as strong thermal sink, keeping the air temperature at 0 °C. In autumn and win­ter, dynamic cooling of the cave atmosphere leads to ice build-up, whereas in summer, the causality is overturned, the cave air temperature being controlled by the melting ice. The existence of a net heat sink in the cave (melting ice in summer in this case), leads to the overcooling of the non-glaciated parts of the cave as well, a phenomenon that can hamper paleoclimatic re­constructions based on stable isotope studies in speleothems.


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