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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 11 Jul, 2012
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That cuesta, hogback is a nonsymetrical ridge due to a gently dipping stratum [16].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
Engineering challenges in Karst, Stevanović, Zoran; Milanović, Petar
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Geochemical and mineralogical fingerprints to distinguish the exploited ferruginous mineralisations of Grotta della Monaca (Calabria, Italy), Dimuccio, L.A.; Rodrigues, N.; Larocca, F.; Pratas, J.; Amado, A.M.; Batista de Carvalho, L.A.
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
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Search in KarstBase

Your search for cave morphology (Keyword) returned 64 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 64
An Elementary Study of the Cave Morphology and Seepage in the Reyfad-Pollnacrom System, Northern Ireland, 1970, Halliwell R. A.

New structural elements of the Organy unit situated between the Koscieliska and the Mi?tusia Valleys. [in Polish], 1978, Grodzicki, Jerzy

Cave and Landscape Evolution At Isaacs Creek, New South Wales, 1979, Connolly M. , Francis G.

Isaacs Creek Caves are situated in the Hunter Valley of New South Wales and form a distinct unit within the Timor karst region. The larger caves such as Man, Helictite and Belfry all show evidence of early development under sluggish phreatic conditions. Nevertheless later phases of dynamic phreatic and vadose development occurred in Belfry and Helictite caves. In the case of Helictite Cave sluggish phreatic, dynamic phreatic and vadose action may have operated simultaneously in different parts of the same cave. After each cave was drained through further valley incision by Isaacs Creek, extensive clay fills derived from surface soil were deposited in it. There has been considerable re-excavation of the fills; in Main Cave younger clay loams have partially filled the resulting cavities and thus underlie the older clays. The earliest speleogenesis took place in Main Cave which pre-dates the valley of Isaacs Creek. This cave now lies in the summit of Caves Ridge about 100m above the modern valley floor. Helictite and Shaft Caves formed when the valley had been cut down to within 30m of its present level and some early phreatic development also took place in the Belfry Cave at this time. Later phases of dynamic phreatic and vadose development in Belfry Cave occurred when the valley floor lay about 12m above its present level and can be correlated with river terraces at this height. Evidence from cave morphology, isotopic basalt dates and surfaces geomorphology indicates that Main Cave formed in the Cretaceous and that Helictite Cave, Shaft Cave and the early development in Belfry Cave date from the Palaeogene. Although the dynamic phreatic and vadose action in Belfry Cave is more recent, it may still range back into the Miocene. This is a much more ancient and extended chronology than has hitherto been proposed for limestone caves and is in conflict with widely accepted ideas about cave longevity. Nevertheless evidence from Isaacs Creek and other parts of the Hunter Valley indicates that the caves and landforms are ancient features and thus notions of cave longevity developed in younger geological environments of the northern hemisphere do not apply in the present context.


Granite Caves in Girraween National Park, South-East Queensland, 1982, Finlayson, Brian

Four caves and two underground streams in granite occur within the Girraween National Park. Only two of these sites have previously been reported. They mainly occur on the margins of major joints in the granite where streams descend into troughs along the joints. The caves are themselves formed in minor joints. In some cases streams have worked their way down from the surface along a joint but at three of the sites streams flow through horizontal joints in the granite which have not been opened from the surface. For these sites it is not clear how the initial passage was opened up underground. The two possible mechanisms suggested here are solution and joint opening following pressure release. The cave morphology clearly indicates that once the path flow is open, abrasion becomes the major process. Flowstone terraces, 'cave coral', and cemented gravels are found in the caves. The speleothems and the cement are amorphous silica (Opal A). Caves in granite may be more common than was previously thought.


The hydraulics of conduit flow in carbonate aquifers., 1984, Gale S. J.

Analysis of the morphology of dissolution-bedform assemblages and hydraulically-transported sediments found within conduits in carbonate aquifers in North America and the British Isles has allowed the hydraulic conditions under which conduit flows occur to be established. Mean values of flow velocity, boundary-shear stress, conduit Reynolds number, conduit Froude number, boundary friction factor, boundary roughness and flow power have been calculated. The values obtained are in agreement with other evidence in the conduits and are comparable to those obtained from other, similar, hydraulic systems.


Limestone Petrology and Cave Morphology on San Salvador Island, Bahamas, 1990, Vogel P. N. , Mylroie J. E. , Carew J. L.

The influence of tectonic zones on cross section formations in the Predjama cave, Slovenia1996, 1996, ebela, Stanka

Development and Morphology of Kazumura Cave, Hawaii, 1997, Allred, K. , Allred, C.
Kazumura Cave is a lava tube located in Puna District on the Island of Hawaii. A brief description and history of the cave is included. Compass and tape surveys in 1994 and 1995 extended the system significantly. This provided an excellent opportunity to study a long master lava tube. Lava deposition and thermal erosion are primary factors affecting the cave morphology. This is demonstrated by passage configuration, multiple levels, invasion of extraneous tubes, and the development of lava falls. Other tube features such as windows, balconies, and rafted breakdown are also discussed. Some features in Kazumura Cave are similar to those associated with carbonate caves and surface water streams.

Seismotectonic versus man-induced morphological changes in a cave on the Arrabida chain (Portugal), 1999, Crispim Ja,
Distinctions between cave morphologies originating from seismic or active tectonics and those generated by natural elastic breakdown or by human activity must be made using unambiguous interpretative criteria. Easily accessible caves in particular, which may have been visited for centuries or millennia, or caves located near engineering works or quarries using great quantities of explosives, may have broken speleothems, breakdowns or detachment joints unrelated to seismic events or tectonic movements. Zambujal cave lies near neotectonic and seismic structures associated with a Plio-Quaternary 200 m uplift of the Arrabida chain and has suffered impacts resulting from quarrying, followed by possible vandalism. It is thus an example for which it is difficult to decipher morphological agents as there is the possibility that identical forms have been generated by several causes, which may have repeated at different episodes of its evolution. However, a careful morphological interpretation makes it possible to accept the existence of two seismic episodes, an 'ancient' one and a 'modern' one. The detection of other episodes between these is only possible using absolute dating. (C) Elsevier, Paris

Paleokarst features and other climatic relics in Hungarian caves, 1999, Bolnertaká, Cs Katalin

Relics of climatic changes during the modern phase of karstic development have been preserved in the morphology, sediments and speleothems of several caves in Hungary; and there are examples of real paleokarst features exposed by modern caves as well. The unique sandstone morphology of Cserszegtomaj Well Cave (Keszthely Mts., Transdanubian Mountain Range), developed along the contact of Triassic dolomite and Pannonian sandstone, displays the relief of a karst surface formed probably under the subtropical conditions of the Early Miocene. The uppermost parts of Beremend Crystal Cave (Villány Mts., South Transdanubia) exposes also from below the clastic fill of an ancient karst shaft that, according to its rich vertebrate remains, dates back at least to the Lower Pleistocene. With their Late Eocene marine sediment fill, the small paleokarst cavities exposed in the Eocene bedrock of Mátyás-hegy and Pál-völgy Caves (Buda Hills) are interpreted as salt-fresh water mixing zone cavities formed during a short immersion of a tropical reef.


Morphological and Geological Characteristics of two denuded caves in SW Slovenia, 1999, Š, Ebela Stanka

Denuded or unroofed caves can be identified from original karst topography many times. For this article the morphology and geology of 2 denuded caves were studied. In 1994 first denuded cave was discovered near village Povir when the highway construction Divača-Dane was already taking place. Original cave morphology was realized from topographic maps 1:1.000. In 1996 with preliminary karst studies before beginning of highway construction Divača-Kozina 4 denuded caves were discovered. The one near Kačiče-Pared was very well morphologically expressed.


Karstmorphological research in the Mecsek Mountains, South Hungary, 2000, Barta Karoly, Tarnai Tamas

Etude du fonctionnement dune cavit englace durant un cycle climatique : site de la glacire dAutrans (Vercors), premiers rsultats, 2001, Perroux, Annesophie
This underground ice work comes in the framework of high-resolution environmental records in underground deposits researches. With this aim, we have chosen the Autrans ice cave to analyse an ice core. In a preliminary research about the ice cave and its working in comparison to climatic variations, we have two informations: there's two types of working, of dynamic from season to season, and the cave morphology is very important for draughts.

Reconstruction of Alpine Cenozoic paleorelief through the analysis of caves at Siebenhengste (BE, Switzerland), 2002, Hauselmann P. , Jeannin P. Y. , Monbaron M. , Lauritzen S. E. ,
The cave region of Siebenhengste, situated north of Lake Thun (Switzerland), contains one of the most important cave systems in the world, which extends from 500 to 2000 m a.s.l. It has a complex multiphase history. The recognized speleogenetic phases are related to spring level and to old valley floors. The six most recent phases were investigated in St. Beatus cave and Barenschacht. They suggest a progressive Quarternary Aare valley incision to 890, 805, 760, 700, 660, and 558 in a.s.l. that is confirmed by statistical analysis of small caves. U/Th-datings of flowstone allowed a timing of the valley deepening phases: the valley bottom was at 760 in already before 350 ka, the one at 700 in was active between 235 and 160 ka. The cave morphology in the upper part of the cave system was coupled with sedimentological observations. This combination leads to the hypothesis that the uppermost (oldest) cave parts were already created in the Miocene, during and after the last deposition of the Molasse. Ideas about the evolution of the paleorelief suggest that today's Aare valley is a product of glacial erosion, and that the old Aare valley shifted its position several times between the Miocene and today. (C) 2002 Editions scientifiques et medicales Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved

Ochtina Aragonite Cave (Western Carpathians, Slovakia): Morphology, mineralogy of the fill and genesis, 2002, Bosak P, Bella P, Cilek V, Ford Dc, Hercman H, Kadlec J, Osborne A, Pruner P,
Ochtina Aragonite Cave is a 300 m long cryptokarstic cavity with simple linear sections linked to a geometrically irregular spongework labyrinth. The metalimestones, partly metasomatically altered to ankerite and siderite, occur as isolated lenses in insoluble rocks. Oxygen-enriched meteoric water seeping along the faults caused siderite/ankerite weathering and transformation to ochres that were later removed by mechanical erosion. Corrosion was enhanced by sulphide weathering of gangue minerals and by carbon dioxide released from decomposition of siderite/ankerite. The initial phreatic speleogens, older than 780 ka, were created by dissolution in density-derived convectional cellular circulation conditions of very slow flow. Thermohaline convection cells operating in the flooded cave might also have influenced its morphology. Later vadose corrosional events have altered the original form to a large extent. Water levels have fluctuated many times during its history as the cave filled during wet periods and then slowly drained. Mn-rich loams with Ni-bearing asbolane and bimessite were formed by microbial precipitation in the ponds remaining after the floods. Allophane was produced in the acidic environment of sulphide weathering. La-Nd-phosphate and REE enriched Mn-oxide precipitated on geochemical barriers in the asbolane layers. Ochres containing about 50 wt.% of water influence the cave microclimate and the precipitation of secondary aragonite. An oldest aragonite generation is preserved as corroded relics in ceiling niches truncated by corrosional bevels. Thermal ionisation mass spectrometry and alpha counting U series dating has yielded ages of about 500-450 and 138-121 ka, indicating that there have been several episodes of deposition, occurring during Quaternary warm periods (Elsterian 1/2, Eemian). Spiral and acicular forms representing a second generation began to be deposited in Late Glacial (14 ka - Allerod) times. The youngest aragonite, frostwork, continues to be deposited today. Both of the, younger generations have similar isotopic compositions, indicating that they originated in conditions very similar, or identical, to those found at present in the cave

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