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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 11 Jul, 2012
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That cave pisolite is see cave pearl.?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
Engineering challenges in Karst, Stevanović, Zoran; Milanović, Petar
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Geochemical and mineralogical fingerprints to distinguish the exploited ferruginous mineralisations of Grotta della Monaca (Calabria, Italy), Dimuccio, L.A.; Rodrigues, N.; Larocca, F.; Pratas, J.; Amado, A.M.; Batista de Carvalho, L.A.
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
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Your search for central texas (Keyword) returned 32 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 32
Caves of Central Texas, 1948, White, Patrick J.

Temperature and relative humidity responses of two Texas cave-adapted Millipedes, Cambala speobia (Cambalida: Cambalidae) and Speodesmus bicornourus (Polydesmida: Vanhoeffeniidae)., 1972, Bull Eddie, Mitchell Robert W.
The temperature and relative humidity preferences and tolerances of two Texas species of cave-adapted millipedes, Cambala speobia (Chamberlin) and Speodesmus bicornourus Causey, were studied. Both species showed gross preferences when tested in gradient chambers for temperatures and relative humidities approximating those of their cave environments. But C. speobia, the less adapted species morphologically, was the more selective of the two species for such conditions. S. bicornourus was far less tolerant of elevated temperatures and reduced relative humidities than was C. speobia. Discussed is a possible reason why a terrestrial troglobite like S. bicornourus would combine intolerance with a lessened ability to perceive those factors to which it is intolerant. Discussed also are the possible causes of the present distribution of Cambala and Speodesmus in the caves of central Texas.

Temperature and relative humidity responses of two Texas cave-adapted Millipedes, Cambala speobia (Cambalida: Cambalidae) and Speodesmus bicornourus (Polydesmida: Vanhoeffeniidae)., 1972, Bull Eddie, Mitchell Robert W.
The temperature and relative humidity preferences and tolerances of two Texas species of cave-adapted millipedes, Cambala speobia (Chamberlin) and Speodesmus bicornourus Causey, were studied. Both species showed gross preferences when tested in gradient chambers for temperatures and relative humidities approximating those of their cave environments. But C. speobia, the less adapted species morphologically, was the more selective of the two species for such conditions. S. bicornourus was far less tolerant of elevated temperatures and reduced relative humidities than was C. speobia. Discussed is a possible reason why a terrestrial troglobite like S. bicornourus would combine intolerance with a lessened ability to perceive those factors to which it is intolerant. Discussed also are the possible causes of the present distribution of Cambala and Speodesmus in the caves of central Texas.

Temperate preference responses of some aquatic, cave-adapted Crustaceans from Central Texas and Northeastern Mexico., 1973, Elliot William R. , W. Mitchell Robert
The temperature preference responses of five species of troglobite crustaceans were studied in a 15-30C gradient. Stygonectes hadenoecus, S. russelli and Asellus reddelli had no discernible temperature preferenda. Speocirolana bolivari had a weak preference for 20-30C. Cirolanides texensis had a pronounced preference for 20-30C, temperatures much warmer than that of its habitat. The lack of temperature preferenda in three species agrees with the hypothesis that imprisoned troglobites tend to lose responses to those environmental variables which are constant in caves. S. bolivari may retain its temperature selectivity because of a slow rate of cave-adaptation. It is hypothised that C. texensis is recently descended from a tropical, epigean, freshwater ancestor.

Temperate preference responses of some aquatic, cave-adapted Crustaceans from Central Texas and Northeastern Mexico., 1973, Elliot William R. , W. Mitchell Robert
The temperature preference responses of five species of troglobite crustaceans were studied in a 15-30C gradient. Stygonectes hadenoecus, S. russelli and Asellus reddelli had no discernible temperature preferenda. Speocirolana bolivari had a weak preference for 20-30C. Cirolanides texensis had a pronounced preference for 20-30C, temperatures much warmer than that of its habitat. The lack of temperature preferenda in three species agrees with the hypothesis that imprisoned troglobites tend to lose responses to those environmental variables which are constant in caves. S. bolivari may retain its temperature selectivity because of a slow rate of cave-adaptation. It is hypothised that C. texensis is recently descended from a tropical, epigean, freshwater ancestor.

3-D seismic evidence of the effects of carbonate karst collapse on overlying clastic stratigraphy and reservoir compartmentalization, 1996, Hardage B. A. , Carr D. L. , Lancaster D. E. , Simmons J. L. , Elphick R. Y. , Pendleton V. M. , Johns R. A. ,
A multidisciplinary team, composed of stratigraphers, petrophysicists, reservoir engineers, and geophysicists, studied a portion of Boonsville gas field in the Fort Worth Basin of north-central Texas to determine how modern geophysical, geological, and engineering techniques can be combined to understand the mechanisms by which fluvio-deltaic depositional processes create reservoir compartmentalization in a low- to moderate-accommodation basin. An extensive database involving well logs: cores, production, and pressure data from more than 200 wells, 26 mi(2) (67 km(2)) of 3-D seismic data, vertical seismic profiles (VSPs), and checkshots was assembled to support this investigation. We found the mast Important geologic influence on stratigraphy and reservoir compartmentalization in this basin to be the existence of numerous karst collapse chimneys over the 26-mi(2) (67 km(2)) area covered by the 3-D seismic grid, These near-vertical karst collapses originated in, or near, the deep Ordovician-age Ellenburger carbonate section and created vertical chimneys extending as high as 2500 fl (610 m) above their point of origin causing significant disruptions in the overlying elastic strata. These karst disruptions lend to be circular in map view, having diameters ranging from approximately 500 ft (150 m) to as much as 3000 ft (915 m) in some cases. Within our study area, these karat features were spaced 2000 ft (610 m) to 6000 ft (1830 m) apart, on average. The tallest karst collapse zones reached into the Middle Pennsylvanian Strawn section, which is some 2500 ft (760 m) above the Ellenburger carbonate where the karst generation began. We used 3-D seismic imaging to show how these karst features affected the strata above the Ellenburger and how they have created a well-documented reservoir compartment in the Upper Caddo, an upper Atoka valley-fill sandstone that typically occurs 2000 ft (610 m) above the Ellenburger. By correlating these 3-D seismic images with outcrops of Ellenburger karat collapses, we document that the physical dimensions (height, diameter, cross-sectional area) of the seismic disruptions observed in the 3-D data equate to the karst dimensions seen in outcrops. We also document that this Ellenburger carbonate dissolution phenomenon extends over at least 500 mi (800 km), and by inference we suggest karst models like we describe here may occur in any basin that has a deep, relatively thick section of Paleozoic carbonates that underlie major unconformities

Alteration of magnetic properties of Palaeozoic platform carbonate rocks during burial diagenesis (Lower Ordovician sequence, Texas, USA), 1999, Haubold Herbert,
Palaeomagnetic and sedimentological investigations of samples from two sections of correlative Iapetan platform carbonate rocks from Texas, USA, were made to test whether their magnetic properties reflect diagenetic alteration associated with regional and local tectonism. The Honeycut Formation (Llano Uplift area, central Texas), in close proximity to the late Palaeozoic Ouachita orogenic belt, exhibits a distinct correlation between magnetization intensity, magnetization age (direction) and lithofacies. Mudstones preserve their weak primary Early Ordovician magnetization, whereas dolo-grainstones carry a strong Pennsylvanian magnetization residing in authigenic magnetite. Fluid migration associated with the Ouachita Orogeny has been focused in lithofacies with high permeability and caused dolomite recrystallization and pervasive remagnetization. Magnetization intensity trends covary with fluid/rock ratios. However, aquitards were either not affected or less affected by these fluids. Unlike the Honeycut Formation, permeable rocks of the El Paso Group (Franklin Mountains, west Texas) carry only a non-pervasive Pennsylvanian magnetization. Therefore, a larger percentage of El Paso Group samples retain a primary Early Ordovician signature. This area is further removed from the Ouachita front, and, thus, the influence by Pennsylvanian orogenic fluids was less pronounced

Geochronology of late Pleistocene to Holocene speleothemsfrom central Texas: Implications for regional paleoclimate, 2001, Musgrove Marylynn, Banner Jay L. , Mack Larry E. , Combs Deanna M. , James Eric W. , Cheng Hai, Edwards R. Lawrence,
A detailed chronology for four stalagmites from three central Texas caves separated by as much as 130 km provides a 71 000-yr record of temporal changes in hydrology and climate. Mass spectrometric 238U-230Th and 235U-231Pa analyses have yielded 53 ages. The accuracy of the ages and the closed- system behavior of the speleothems are indicated by interlaboratory comparisons, concordance of 230Th and 231Pa ages, and the result that all ages are in correct stratigraphic order. Over the past 71 000 yr, the stalagmites have similar growth histories with alternating periods of relatively rapid and slow growth. The growth rates vary over more than two orders of magnitude, and there were three periods of rapid growth: 71-60 ka, 39-33 ka, and 24-12 ka. These growth-rate shifts correspond in part with global glacial-interglacial climatic shifts. Paleontological evidence indicates that around the Last Glacial Maximum (20 ka), climate in central Texas was cooler and wetter than at present. This wetter interval corresponds with the most recent period of increased growth rates in the speleothems, which is consistent with conditions necessary for speleothem growth. The temporal shift in wetness has been proposed to result from a southward deflection of the jet steam due to the presence of a continental ice sheet in central North America. This mechanism also may have governed the two earlier intervals of fast growth in the speleothems (and inferred wetter climate). Ice volumes were lower and temperatures in central North America were higher during these two earlier glacial intervals than during the Last Glacial Maximum, however. The potential effects of temporal variations in precession of Earth's orbit on regional effective moisture may provide an additional mechanism for increased effective moisture coincident with the observed intervals of increased speleothem growth. The stalagmites all exhibit a large drop in growth rate between 15 and 12 ka, and they show very slow growth up to the present, consistent with drier climate during the Holocene. These results illustrate that speleothem growth rates can reflect the regional response of a hydrologic system to regional and global climate variability

Travel Times Along Selected Flow Paths of the Edwards Aquifer, Central Texas, 2001, Kuniansky E. L. , Fahlquist L. , Ardis A. F.

Flow path travel times in the structurally controlled, karstic Edwards aquifer were estimated using simulated ground-water levels obtained from a finite-element model. For this analysis, simulated monthly ground-water levels were averaged over an 11-year calibration period to minimize the transient effect of short-term recharge and discharge events. The 1978-89 calibration period was characterized by average to wetter-than-average climatic conditions; simulated water-level and spring-flow compared favorably with measured data. Flow paths for which travel times were estimated range from 1,250 to 10,000 feet wide and from about 8 to 180 miles long. Effective aquifer thickness and effective porosity can be highly variable and is poorly defined throughout most of the aquifer. Accordingly, travel-time estimates were computed within known or inferred thicknesses and porosities within known or inferred ranges of 350 to 850 feet and 15 to 35 percent, respectively. The minimum rock matrix porosity for each element was divided by 10 to estimate a minimum time of travel (a worst case time of travel). Travel times range from 14 to 160 years for a flow path from the Blanco River Basin to San Marcos Springs and from 350 to 4,300 years for a flow path from the West Nueces River Basin to Comal Springs. Travel times near the minimum of the ranges are similar in magnitude to those determined from tritium isotopes in spring water, thus supporting the hypothesis that effective porosity and effective thickness of the aquifer is less than the respective ranges. 


The Application of GIS in Support of Land Acquisition for the Protection of Sensitive Groundwater Recharge Properties in the Edwards Aquifer of South-Central Texas, 2002, Stone, D. , Schindel, G. M.
In May 2000, the City of San Antonio passed a $45 million bond issue to purchase land or conservation easements of sensitive land in the recharge zone of the Edwards Aquifer in south central Texas. The Edwards Aquifer is the primary source of water for over 1.7 million people in the region. The application of geographic information systems (GIS) methods allowed for the objective comparison of all properties within the recharge and contributing zones of the aquifer for possible purchase. A GIS matrix was developed and applied in the process of prioritizing sensitive karst lands.

Structural framework of the Edwards Aquifer recharge zone in south-central Texas, 2004, Ferrill Da, Sims Dw, Waiting Dj, Morris Ap, Franklin Nm, Schultz Al,
The Edwards Aquifer, the major source of water for many communities in central Texas, is threatened by population growth and development over its recharge zone. The location of the recharge and confined zones and the flow paths of the aquifer are controlled by the structure of and deformation processes within the Balcones fault system, a major system of predominantly down-to-the-southeast normal faults. We investigate the geologic structure of the Edwards Aquifer to assess the large-scale aquifer architecture, analyze fault offset and stratigraphic juxtaposition relationships, evaluate fault-zone deformation and dissolution and fault-system architecture, and investigate fault-block deformation and scaling of small-scale (intrablock) normal faults. Characterization of fault displacement shows a pattern of aquifer thinning that is likely to influence fault-block communication and flow paths. Flow-path constriction may be exacerbated by increased fault-segment connectivity associated with large fault displacements. Also, increased fault-zone deformation associated with larger-displacement faults is likely to further influence hydrologic properties. Overall, faulting is expected to produce strong permeability anisotropy such that maximum permeability is subhorizontal and parallel to fault-bedding intersections. At all scales, aquifer permeability is either unchanged or enhanced parallel to faults and in many cases decreased perpendicular to faults

Floating Rafts of Calcite Crystals in Cave Pools, Central Texas, U.S.A.: Crystal Habit vs. Saturation State, 2004, Taylor Penny M. , Chafetz Henry S. ,
Calcite precipitation at the air-water interface in cave pools in central Texas (U.S.A) produces floating rafts of interconnected, low-Mg calcite crystals with individual crystal habits that range from equant (length to width = 1:1) to prismatic (4:1). Saturation state for the waters ranges from -0.19 to .35 (SIc = log IAP/K). Equant crystals precipitate from waters with a lower saturation index (SIc) and form rafts with a fused fabric whereas prismatic crystals precipitate from higher-SIc waters and form rafts with an interlaced fabric. The pools contain low-magnesium (molal Mg/Ca < 0.6), calcium-bicarbonate, and calcium-bicarbonate-nitrate type waters with temperatures that range from 13.8{degrees}C to 20.7{degrees}C and pH readings from 6.7 to 8.4. Equant euhedral crystals precipitate from water with saturation states close to equilibrium. Visible defects in the equant crystals include incomplete edges between faces and nearly circular (mean diameter 9 {micro}m) to angular holes in faces. The holes apparently result from crystallite growth around foreign objects on the crystal surface such as gas bubbles. Prismatic crystals precipitate from supersaturated water. Faces of these subhedral crystals are smaller in area than the faces of the equant crystals. No intrafacial circular holes are seen, but trigonal intercrystallite pores are common in the prismatic crystals. The variety in crystal habits, from equant to prismatic, is due to preferential growth along one crystallographic axis. Thus, in these cave pools crystal habit is related to the saturation state of the water

Cave air control on dripwater geochemistry, Obir Caves (Austria): Implications for speleothem deposition in dynamically ventilated caves, 2005, Spotl C. , Fairchild I. J. , Tooth A. F. ,
There are very few process studies that demonstrate the annual variation in cave environments depositing speleothems. Accordingly, we initiated a monitoring program at the Obir Caves, an Austrian dripstone cave system characterized by a seasonally changing air flow that results in a predictable pattern of high pCO(2), during summer and low pCO(2), in winter. Although similar seasonal changes in Soil pCO(2) occur, they are not directly connected with the changes in the subsurface since the dripwaters are fed from a well-mixed source showing little seasonal variation. Cold season flushing by relatively CO2-poor air enhances degassing of CO2 in the cave and leads to a high degree of supersaturation of dripwater with regard to calcite. Forced calcite deposition during the cold season also gives rise to a pronounced pattern of synchronous seasonal variations in electrical conductivity, alkalinity, pH, Ca and delta(13)C(DIC) which parallel variations recorded in delta(13)C(cave air). Chemical components unaffected by calcite precipitation (e.g., delta D,delta(18)O,SiO2,SO4) lack a seasonal signal attesting to a long residence in the karst aquifer. Modeling shows that degassing of CO2 from seepage waters results in kinetically-enhanced C isotopic fractionation, which contrasts with the equilibrium degassing shown from the Soreq cave in Israel. The Obir Caves may serve as a case example of a dripstone cave whose seepage waters (and speleothems) show intra-annual geochemical variability that is primarily due to chemical modification of the groundwater by a dynamic, bidirectional subsurface air circulation. Copyright (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd

Sinkholes and the Engineering and Environmental Impacts of Karst, 2005, Beck B. F.

Conference Proceedings

Sinkholes and the Engineering and Environmental Impacts of Karst Contains over 70 papers addressing karst topography which impacts water resources, waste disposal, foundation stability, and a multitude of other geotechnical and environmental issues. These papers were presented at the 10th Multidisciplinary Conference held September 24-28, 2005 in San Antonio, Texas and Sponsored by the Geo-Institute of ASCE, P. E. LaMoreaux & Associates, Inc. and Edwards Aquifer Authority. The goal of this conference was to share knowledge and experience among disciplines by emphasizing practical applications and case studies. This proceedings will benefit environmental and geotechnical engineers, and others involved in water resources, water disposal, and foundation stability issues.

Contents:

Application of Geophysical Logging Techniques for Multi-Channel Well Design and Installation in a Karst Aquifer (by Frank Bogle, ...)

Case Studies of Massive Flow Conduits in Karst Limestone (by Jim L. Lolcama)

A Case Study of the Samanalawewa Reservoir on the Walawe River in an Area of Karst in Sri Lanka (by K. Laksiri, ...)

Characterization and Water Balance of Internal Drainage Sinkholes (by Nico M. Hauwert, ...)

Characterization of Desert Karst Terrain in Kuwait and the Eastern Coastline of the Arabian Penninsula (by Waleed Abdullah, ...)

Characterization of a Sinkhole Prone Retention Pond Using Multiple Geophysical Surveys and Closely Spaced Borings (by Nick Hudyma, ...)

Combining Surface and Downhole Geophysical Methods to Identify Karst Conditions in North-Central Iowa (by J. E. Wedekind, ...)

Complexities of Flood Mapping in a Sinkhole Area (by C. Warren Campbell, P.E.)

Conceptualization and Simulation of the Edwards Aquifer, San Antonio Region, Texas (by R. J. Lindgren, ...)

Database Development and GIS Modeling to Develop a Karst Vulnerability Rating for I-66, Somerset to London, KY (by Michael A. Krokonko, ...)

Design and Construction of the Foundations for the Watauga Raw Water Intake Facility in Karstic Limestone near the City of Johnson City, TN (by Tony D. Canale, P.E., ...)

Detection of Three-Dimensional Voids in Karstic Ground (by Derek V. Morris, P.E., ...)

Development and Evolution of Epikarst in Mid-Continent US Carbonates (by Tony L. Cooley, P.E.)

Dye Tracing Sewage Lagoon Discharge in a Sandstone Karst, Askov, Minnesota (by Emmit Calvin Alexander, Jr., ...)

The Effectiveness of GPR in Sinkhole Investigations (by E. D. Zisman, P.E., ...)

Effects of Anthropogenic Modification of Karst Soil Texture on the Water Balance of ?Alta Murgia? (Apulia, Italy) (by F. Canora, ...)

Environmental Isotope Study on Recharge and Groundwater Residence Time in a covered Ordovician Carbonate Rock (by Zhiyuan Ma, ...)

Error and Technique in Fluorescent dye Tracing (by Chris Smart)

Essential Elements of Estimating Engineering Properties of Karst for Foundation Design (by Ramanuja Chari Kannan, P.E., Fellow, ASCE)

Estimating Grout Quantities for Residential Repairs in Central Florida Karst (by Larry D. Madrid, P.E., ...)

Evaluation of Groundwater Residence Time in a Karstic Aquifer Using Environmental Tracers: Roswell Artesian Basin, New Mexico (by Lewis Land)

Experience of Regional Karst Hazard and Risk Assessment in Russia (by A. L. Ragozin, ...)

Experimental Study of Physical Models for Sinkhole Collapses in Wuhan, China (by Mingtang Lei, ...)

Fractal Scaling of Secondary Porosity in Karstic Exposures of the Edwards Aquifer (by Robert E. Mace, ...)

The Geological Characteristics of Buried Karst and Its Impact on Foundations in Hong Kong, China (by Steve H. M. Chan, ...)

Geophysical Identification of Evaporite Dissolution Structures Beneath a Highway Alignment (by M. L. Rucker, ...)

Geotechnical Analysis in Karst: The Interaction between Engineers and Hydrogeologists (by R. C. Bachus, P.E.)

The Gray Fossil Site: A Spectacular Example in Tennessee of Ancient Regolith Occurrences in Carbonate Terranes, Valley and Ridge Subpovince, South Appalachians U.S.A. (by G. Michael Clark, ...)

Ground-Water Basin Catchment Delineation by Bye Tracing, Water Table Mapping, Cave Mapping, and Geophysical Techniques: Bowling Green Kentucky (by Nicholas C. Crawford)

Groundwater Flow in the Edwards Aquifer: Comparison of Groundwater Modeling and Dye Trace Results (by Brian A. Smith, ...)

Grouting Program to Stop Water Flow through Karstic Limestone: A Major Case History (by D. M. Maciolek)

Highway Widening in Karst (by M. Zia Islam, P.E., ...)

How Karst Features Affect Recharge? Implication for Estimating Recharge to the Edwards Aquifer (by Yun Huang, ...)

Hydrogeologic Investigation of Leakage through Sinkholes in the Bed of Lake Seminole to Springs Located Downstream from Jim Woodruff Dam (by Nicholas C. Crawford, ...)

The Hydrologic Function of the soil and Bedrock System at Upland Sinkholes in the Edwards Aquifer Recharge Zone of South-Central Texas (by A. L. Lindley)

An Integrated Geophysical Approach for a Karst Characterization of the Marshall Space Flight Center (by Lynn Yuhr, ...)

Integrated Geophysical Surveys Applied to Karstic Studies Over Transmission Lines in San Antonio, Texas (by Mustafa Saribudak, ...)

Judge Dillon and Karst: Limitations on Local Regulation of Karst Hazards (by Jesse J. Richardson, Jr.)

Karst Groundwater Resource and Advantages of its Utilization in the Shaanbei Energy Base in Shaanxi Province, China (by Yaoguo Wu, ...)

Karst Hydrogeology and the Nature of Reality Revisited: Philosophical Musings of a Less Frustrated Curmudgeon (by Emmit Calvin Alexander, Jr.)

Karst in Appalachia ? A Tangled Zone: Projects with Cave-Sized Voids and Sinkholes (by Clay Griffin, ...)

Karstic Features of Gachsaran Evaporites in the Region of Ramhormoz, Khuzestan Province, in Southwest Iran (by Arash Barjasteh)

Large Perennial Springs of Kentucky: Their Identification, Base Flow, Catchment, and Classification (by Joseph A. Ray, ...)

Large Plot Tracing of Subsurface Flow in the Edwards Aquifer Epikarst (by P. I. Taucer, ...)
Lithology as a Predictive Tool of Conduit Morphology and Hydrology in Environmental Impact Assessments (by George Veni)

Metadata Development for a Multi-State Karst Feature Database (by Yongli Gao, ...)

Micropiling in Karstic Rock: New CMFF Foundation Solution Applied at the Sanita Factory (by Marc Ballouz)

Modeling Barton Springs Segment of the Edwards Aquifer Using MODFLOW-DCM (by Alexander Y. Sun, ...)

Multi-Level Monitoring Well Completion Technologies and Their Applicability in Karst Dolomite (by Todd Kafka, ...)

National-Scale Risk Assessment of sinkhole Hazard in China (by Xiaozhen Jiang, ...)

New Applications of Differential Electrical Resistivity Tomography and Time Domain Reflectometry to Modeling Infiltration and Soil Moisture in Agricultural Sinkholes (by B. F. Schwartz, ...)

Non-Regulatory Approaches to Development on Karst (by Jesse J. Richardson, Jr., ...)

PA State Route 33 Over Bushkill Creek: Structure Failure and Replacement in an Active Sinkhole Environment (by Kerry W. Petrasic, P.E.)

Quantifying Recharge via Fractures in an Ashe Juniper Dominated Karst Landscape (by Lucas Gregory, ...)

Quantitative Groundwater Tracing and Effective Numerical Modeling in Karst: An Example from the Woodville Karst Plain of North Florida (by Todd R. Kincaid, ...)

Radial Groundwater Flow at Landfills in Karst (by J. E. Smith)

Residual Potential Mapping of Contaminant Transport Pathways in Karst Formations of Southern Texas (by D. Glaser, ...)

Resolving Sinkhole Issues: A State Government Perspective (by Sharon A. Hill)

Shallow Groundwater and DNAPL Movement within Slightly Dipping Limestone, Southwestern Kentucky (by Ralph O. Ewers, ...)

Sinkhole Case Study ? Is it or Isn?t it a Sinkhole? (by E. D. Zisman, P.E.)

Sinkhole Occurrence and Changes in Stream Morphology: An Example from the Lehigh Valley Pennsylvania (by William E. Kochanov)

Site Characterization and Geotechnical Roadway Design over Karst: Interstate 70, Frederick County, Maryland (by Walter G. Kutschke, P.E., ...)

Soil Stabilization of the Valley Creek Trunk Sewer Relief Tunnel (by Jeffrey J. Bean, P.E., ...)

Some New Approaches to Assessment of Collapse Risks in Covered Karsts (by Vladimir Tolmachev, ...)

Spectral Deconvolution and Quantification of Natural Organic Material and Fluorescent Tracer Dyes (by Scott C. Alexander)

Springshed Mapping in Support of Watershed Management (by Jeffrey A. Green, ...)

Sustainable Utilization of Karst Groundwater in Feicheng Basin, Shandong Province, China (by Yunfeng Li, ...)

Transport of Colloidal and Solute Tracers in Three Different Types of Alpine Karst Aquifers ? Examples from Southern Germany and Slovenia (by N. Göppert, ...)

Use of the Cone Penetration Test for Geotechnical Site Characterization in Clay-Mantled Karst (by T. C. Siegel, ...)

The Utility of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Interferometry in Monitoring Sinkhole Subsidence: Subsidence of the Devil?s Throat Sinkhole Area (Nevada, USA) (by Rana A. Al-Fares)

Void Evolution in Soluble Rocks Beneath Dams Under Limited Flow Condition (by Emmanuel S. Pepprah, ...)


Characteristic odors of Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana Chiroptera: Molossidae., 2006, Nielsen L. T. , Eaton D. K. , Wright D. W. , Schmidtfrench B.
The odors in a central Texas cave with a large roosting population of Mexican free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana) were identified and related to captive individual bats. Solid phase microextraction (SPME) was used to sample and concentrate the volatile organics from the cave and individual bats. Odors were detected organoleptically and simultaneously quantified and identified. The characteristic odor for 1. b. mexicana is due principally to 2'-aminoacetophenone.

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