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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That thalweg is a line of maximum depth of stream cross section [16].?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for chalk (Keyword) returned 87 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 87
An Account of Large Subterraneous Caverns in the Chalk Hills Near Norwich; By Mr. Wm. Arderon, F. R. S. Comprised in a Letter from Mr. Henry Baker F. R. S. to the President, 0000, Baker H,

Die Entdeckung von fossilen Sugetierresten im Gebiet von Petralona (Chalkidike)., 1961, Petrochilos, J.

Die Entdeckung von fossilen Sugetierresten im Gebiet von Petralona (Chalkidike), 1961, Petrochilos, J.

Some Considerations concerning Percolation Waters in the Chalk of North Berkshire, 1971, Paterson K.

Seminar on Karst Denudation - Some Notes on Chalk erosion in Denmark, 1972, Aub Conrad

Geology and hydrogeology of the El Convento cave-spring system, Southwestern Puerto Rico., 1974, Beck Barry F.
Whereas the North Coast Tertiary Limestones of Puerto Rico are classic karst locales, their southern counterparts are almost devoid of karst development. The El Convento Cave-Spring System is the most prominent feature of the only large scale karst area developed on the South Coast Tertiary limestones. The karst topography is localized on the middle Juana Diaz Formation, which is a reef facies limestone, apparently because of the high density and low permeability of this zone as compared to the surrounding chalks and marls. In the El Convento System a sinking ephemeral stream combines with the flow from two perennial springs inside the cave. The surface drainage has been pirated from the Rio Tallaboa to the east into El Convento's subterranean course. The climate is generally semi-arid with 125-150 cm of rain falling principally as short, intense showers during Sept., Oct., and Nov. Sinking flood waters are absorbed by a small sinkhole and appear two to three hours later in the cave. In the dry season this input is absent. The two springs within the cave have a combined inflow to the system of 1.0 m3/min at low flow but half of this leaks back to the groundwater before it reaches the resurgence. The spring waters are saturated with CaCO3 and high in CO2 (26.4 ppm). As the water flows through the open cave it first becomes supersaturated by losing CO2 and then trends back toward saturation by precipitating CaCO3.

Rapid groundwater flow in fissures in the chalk: an example from south Hampshire, 1974, Atkinson Tc, Smith Di,
Projected road improvements in south Hampshire included plans to dispose of surface drainage into soakaways to be sited near an area of swallow holes in the Chalk. An experiment was undertaken to establish if there was a direct connection between the swallow holes, located near the junction of the Chalk and the Lower Tertiary strata, and major springs used for water supply in the Havant area. As the swallow holes are dry except in periods of storm rainfall a tracer, the fluorescent dye Rhodamine WT, was injected together with a large volume of water into one of the swallow holes. Water samples were collected from the springs at Havant and analysed for Rhodamine WT using a Turner fluorometer. The tracer was found at both sets of springs sampled and the straight line velocity from input point to spring was in excess of 2 km per day. Computations based on the concentration of dye recovered from the springs show that in the event of a tanker spillage within the proposed drainage scheme severe contamination would be expected to occur at the springs. The experiment and the results obtained make it clear that extreme caution should be exercised to avoid contamination of fissure-flow within the Chalk aquifer

Carbonate rocks in the Black Sea basin: indicators for shallow water and subaerial exposure during Miocene--Pliocene time, 1979, Stoffers P. , Muller G. ,
Drilling in the Black Sea in general revealed three types of sediments: terrigenous, chemical, and biogenic. Terrigenous muds predominate in the Pleistocene whereas chemical sediments are abundant in the lower Pleistocene--Pliocene to Late Miocene sedimentary section. Biogenic constituents play a minor role only. The chemical sediments include calcite (lake chalk), Mg-calcite, aragonite, siderite and dolomite. Among these, the dolomites of Pliocene to Late Miocene age are most interesting. They were encountered in the two drill sites close to the Bosporus drilled in 2115 to 1750 m water depth, respectively. The dolomites show a great variety of criteria (e.g. intraclasts, algae mats, crusts, pellets, oolites), indicating a shallow water environment with occasional subaerial exposure and supratidal evaporitic conditions. The formation of these shallow water carbonates in the Black Sea is supposed to correlate with the Messinian salinity crisis in the Mediterranean

Karst et littoral du Bec de Caux (Seine-Maritime), 1983, Rodet, J.
KARST AND COAST OF BEC DE CAUX, (SEINE-MARITIME, FRANCE) - The Pays de Caux seaside takes a preferential place in the importance of karstic features in the chalk of Normandy, because of the section of the sea cliffs. This exceptional frame allows three main observations. The first one is the investigation of springs, which places flooded paleo-karst in a prominent position. Those karstic phases, under the seal evel, have their counterpart above it. Study of development and the distribution of the passages in the Cap Fagnet underground pattern, shows these different karstic bases, and their relations, giving a true underground delta of active springs. The second aspect concerns the relations between dry caves and coastal-line carvings. It appears a typology, showing the influence of karstification in the morphology of caps. The third point is about quality of entrance infillings, as paleogeographic witness, and contributor in valuation of the shoreline evolution, in Etretat area, especially during the Flandrian transgression.

Towards the prediction of subsidence risk upon the Chalk outcrop, 1983, Edmonds Cn,
Surface karst landforms such as solution pipes, swallow holes and dolines are well developed on the Cretaceous chalk outcrop in Britain. The local frequency of these solution features on the chalk can be as high as on any of the best developed karst areas on other British limestones. However, the overall frequency of solution features for major regions of the chalk outcrop is much lower. Solution pipes, swallow holes and dolines often represent an engineering hazard because of metastable conditions, which, if disturbed, can result in ground subsidence. The research described here is aimed at producing a model to predict areas of subsidence risk upon the chalk outcrop. Considerations for the prediction of subsidence risk are outlined with preliminary analysis for two areas

Subsidence hazard prediction for limestone terrains, as applied to the English Cretaceous Chalk, 1987, Edmonds Cn, Green Cp, Higginbottom Ie,
Soluble carbonate rocks often pose a subsidence hazard to engineering and building works, due to the presence of either metastable natural solution features or artificial cavities. There is also an inherent danger to the public and lives have been lost because of unexpected ground collapses. Although site investigation techniques are becoming increasingly elaborate, the detection of hazardous ground conditions associated with limestones is frequently difficult and unreliable. Remedial measures to solve subsidence problems following foundation failure are expensive. It would be advantageous if areas liable to subsidence could be identified in a cost-effective manner in advance of planning and ground investigation. Hazard mapping could then be used by planners when checking the geotechnical suitability of a proposed development or by engineering geologists/geotechnical engineers to design the type of ground investigation best suited to the nature and scale of the potential hazard. Recent research focussed on the English Chalk outcrop has led to the development of two new models to predict the subsidence hazard for both natural solution features and artificial cavities. The predictive models can be used to map the hazard at any given chalkland locality, as a cost-effective precursor to ground investigation. The models, although created for the Chalk outcrop, have important implications for all types of limestone terrain. The basis of the predictive modelling procedure is an analysis of the spatial distribution of nearly 1600 natural solution features, and more than 850 artificial cavity locations, identified from a wide varietyy of sources, including a special appeal organized by CIRIA. A range of geological, hydrogeological and geomorphological factors are evaluated to identify significant relationships with subsidence. These factors are ranked, numerically weighted and incorporated into two quantitative subsidence hazard model formulae. The models can be applied to perform hazard mapping

The application of airborne remote sensing to the detection of solution features in limestone, 1987, Edmonds Cn, Kennie Tjm, Rosenbaum Ms,
Airborne remote sensing techniques have been developed for the detection of collapse and subsidence features in chalk and other limestone rocks. The detection of such features in the early stages of an engineering project is of crucial importance if serious geotechnical problems to building construction and public safety are to be avoided. Particular attention is paid to the potential of airborne multispectral scanner (MSS) and thermal infrared (IR) data as a means of detection. Background information is also provided concerning a project to obtain multitemporal thermal IR data over two test sites on the Cretaceous Chalk outcrop of southern England

Le karst de Bourgogne, 1988, Delance, J. H.
THE KARST OF BURGONDY (France) - Karst of Burgundy is located between karst of Paris Basin, to which it is connected by its western and northern margins and karst of Jura. The burgundian karst forms an original entity in close relationship with the geological structure of the area, which had defined its distribution and density and the system's amplitudes. Karst of Burgundy develops in calcareous marine formations of Jurassic and Upper Cretaceous (chalk). The karstic landscapes are remarkable by their abundant dry valleys. Caves are characterised by their shallow depths (less than 100m) and the important spreading of the active systems. They can be graded into three types: mesokarstic, holokarstic and cutaneous caves. Deepest and greatest caves (up to 22km) are of holokarstic type. In Burgundy, the majority of caving range from Miocene to Pleistocene; cutaneous caves were only developed during cold phases of Quaternary. Fillings of caves are important, the most interesting fillings are Quaternary bone breccias, rich in paleontological and prehistoric data.

La craie, roche carbonate poreuse, et son karst, 1991, Rodet, J.
Chalk and its karst - Chalk is a calcareous rock liable to karstification. That is demonstrated by the work which researchers and planners have been carrying out for a century and half. However, to state that all chalks are the sites of karstic drainage is unfortunate. Chalk turns out to be a more or less porous, more or less marly, more or less calcareous rock. This great variety of forms of drainage can show, going from one extreme (omnipresent porosity) to another (exclusively karstic drainage), passing on way through all the variants permitted by the blending of physico-hydrological qualities.

In the valleys of southeastern France, below karst massifs, river deposits with travertines show vertical sedimentary sequences always similar, with, from bottom to top: gravels, silts, chalks, travertines s.s. (stromatolitic encrustations with laminated facies), travertinous sand, silts. The study of flora and fauna fossilized by these formations shows a good correlation between the maximum of carbonate deposition (travertinous facies s.s.) and the optimum of vegetation development (forest). And finally, behind calcareous dams edified by travertine, paludal and lacustrine fields are environments developed trapping diversified sediments (clays, peats, silts,...). Then, dam and lake are forming a unit that we can call a 'travertine system'

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