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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That throughfall is a part of precipitation that reaches ground by falling through vegetative cover [16].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for chronology (Keyword) returned 123 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 123
Paleotemperatures and Chronology at Archeological Cave Site Revealed by Thermoluminescence, 1965, Dort W, Zeller Ej, Turner Md, Vaz Je,
Contrasting values of remnant thermoluminescence of limestone samples from Jaguar Cave, eastcentral Idaho, reveal temperature differences attributable to position within the cave microenvironment. Absence of recorded temperature change during cave-filling by rock and human debris indicates brevity of human occupation, which was near the end of Wisconsin (Pinedale) time

Speleochronology, 1966, Ollier, C. D.

Speleochronolgy is a study of the age of caves and their contents. At the present time the International Commission for Speleology is collecting data, and as the Australian representative on the Commission, the author would like to hear from anyone with information that may be relevant to speleochronology in Australia or in neighbouring countries. This paper shows some of the aims and methods of the subject and indicates the type of information that may be useful.


The Last Interglacial: Paleotemperatures and Chronology, 1971, Emiliani C,
The O$^{18}$/O$^{16}$ analysis and Th$^{230}$/Pa$^{231}$ dating of deep-sea cores showed that the last interglacial age, with an early major temperature maximum followed by two smaller ones, extended from 100,000 to 70,000 years ago and was preceded by a glacial age extending from 120,000 to 100,000 years ago. The O$^{18}$/O$^{16}$ analysis and Th$^{230}$/U$^{234}$ dating of speleothems confirm and refine these ages

Chronology of the Black Sea over the last 25,000 years, 1972, Degens Et, Ross Da,
Deep-water sediments of the Black Sea deposited during Late Pleistocene and Holocene time are distinguished by three sedimentary units: (1) a microlaminated coccolith ooze mainly consisting of Emiliania huxleyi; (2) a sapropel; and (3) a banded lutite. The base of the first unit lies at 3,000 years B.P., that of the second at 7,000 years B.P., and that of the third at least at about 25,000 years B.P. Fossils and geochemical criteria are used to decipher the environmental events of this time period. Beginning with the base of the section dated at about 25,000 years B.P. we witness the final stage of metamorphosis from anoxic marine to oxic freshwater conditions. By the time this stage ended, about 22,000 years B.P., the Black Sea had become a truly freshwater habitat. The lake phase lasted about 12,000 to 13,000 years. Sedimentation rates were in the order of 1 m/103 years, but began to decrease as sea level rose during the last 5,000 years of this phase (9,000-15,000 years B.P.). Starting at about 9,000 years B.P. and continuing to 7,000 years B.P., Mediterranean waters occasionally spilled over the Bosporus as a consequence of ice retreat and sea level rise. This marked the beginning of a gradual shift from freshwater to marine, and from well aerated to stagnant conditions. At about 7,000 years B.P. when deposition of unit 2 started, the H2S zone was well established. Sedimentation rates dropped to 10 cm/103 years. Environmental conditions similar to those of today finally became established around 3,000 years B.P., almost exactly the time when Jason and the Argonauts sailed through the Bosporus in search of the Golden Fleece

Continental Pleistocene Climatic Variations from Speleothem Age and Isotopic Data, 1974, Thompson Peter, Schwarcz Henry P. , Ford Derek C. ,
Speleothems from continental North American caves have been dated by means of the 230Th/234U method. Oxygen isotopic variations in the dated samples and phases of speleothem deposition can be interpreted in terms of climatic change. A glacial chronology constructed from the age and isotopic data lends support to the astronomical theory of climatic change

Developmental chronology and evolution of calcium storage and urate containing cells in Niphargus schellenbergi Karaman., 1975, Graf Franois, Michaut Philippe.
The intra-marsupial development of Niphargus schellenbergi is divided into three phases: within the chorion, embryonic intermoult and juvenile intermoult. The disappearance of the chorion divides the first phase from the second. A double exuviation exists between the last two. The chronology of the embryonic development and of the beginning of post-embryonic development is established. On hatching the juvenile N. schellenbergi has one pair of hepatopancreatic caeca. During the first post-embryonic intermoults the ventral hepatopancreatic caeca, posterior caeca and anterior caecum are formed. The relation between posterior caeca and the aorta is described. The study of calcium storage before moulting showed that calcareous concretions located in posterior caeca and midgut have the typical form, volume, quantity and distribution of the species. This calcium accumulation process occurs in the midgut following the first posternbryonic exuviation. It is only when the sixth exuviation is attained that storage in the posterior caeca is similar to the one in adults. The urate containing cells located at the lower face of the pericardial septum begin to accumulate urate spherules 15 days before hatching. They vary in form, volume, localization and composition, and so may be considered as storage sites for urate, pigments and various ions (P, K, Ca, S, Cl, Na, Mg) which are returned to circulation.

Interglacial chronology of the Rocky and Mackenzie Mountains based on 230Th/234U dating of calcite speleothems., 1977, Harmon R. S. , Ford D. C. , Schwarcz H. P.

U-Series Dating of Speleothems and A-Glacial Chronology for Western North America, 1979, Harmon, Russell S.

Cave and Landscape Evolution At Isaacs Creek, New South Wales, 1979, Connolly M. , Francis G.

Isaacs Creek Caves are situated in the Hunter Valley of New South Wales and form a distinct unit within the Timor karst region. The larger caves such as Man, Helictite and Belfry all show evidence of early development under sluggish phreatic conditions. Nevertheless later phases of dynamic phreatic and vadose development occurred in Belfry and Helictite caves. In the case of Helictite Cave sluggish phreatic, dynamic phreatic and vadose action may have operated simultaneously in different parts of the same cave. After each cave was drained through further valley incision by Isaacs Creek, extensive clay fills derived from surface soil were deposited in it. There has been considerable re-excavation of the fills; in Main Cave younger clay loams have partially filled the resulting cavities and thus underlie the older clays. The earliest speleogenesis took place in Main Cave which pre-dates the valley of Isaacs Creek. This cave now lies in the summit of Caves Ridge about 100m above the modern valley floor. Helictite and Shaft Caves formed when the valley had been cut down to within 30m of its present level and some early phreatic development also took place in the Belfry Cave at this time. Later phases of dynamic phreatic and vadose development in Belfry Cave occurred when the valley floor lay about 12m above its present level and can be correlated with river terraces at this height. Evidence from cave morphology, isotopic basalt dates and surfaces geomorphology indicates that Main Cave formed in the Cretaceous and that Helictite Cave, Shaft Cave and the early development in Belfry Cave date from the Palaeogene. Although the dynamic phreatic and vadose action in Belfry Cave is more recent, it may still range back into the Miocene. This is a much more ancient and extended chronology than has hitherto been proposed for limestone caves and is in conflict with widely accepted ideas about cave longevity. Nevertheless evidence from Isaacs Creek and other parts of the Hunter Valley indicates that the caves and landforms are ancient features and thus notions of cave longevity developed in younger geological environments of the northern hemisphere do not apply in the present context.


Amino acid geochronology: integrity of the carbonate matrix and potential of molluscan fossils, 1980, Miller G. H.

Geomorphology and Past Environments at Nombe Rockshelter, Simbu Province, Papua New Guinea, 1981, Gillieson David S. , Mountain Maryjane

The geomorphic development of a limestone rockshelter in the Chimbu region of New Guinea is outlined. The sedimentary sequence and associated artifactual material are described and related to regional chronology. Disturbance of the rockshelter deposits by seismic and erosive processes is indicated, and must be borne in mind when excavating and analysing material from similar sites.


La recherche karstologique en Amrique du Nord, 1983, Palmer, A. N.
Karst research in North America - After several decades of isolation from the other goesciences, karst research in the USA is now merging with many other science fields. Advances have been particularly notable in the subjects of cave origin, mineralogy, geochemistry, geochronology and paleoclimatology. Recently there has been a tendency for karst principles to be applied to diverse fields such as carbonate petrology, environmental science, and hydrology

Speleothem Dates and Pleistocene Chronology in the Peak District of Derbyshire, 1983, Ford T. D. , Gascoyne M. , Beck J. S.

Towards a Mousterian Chronology, 1985, Reynolds T. E. G.

Chronology of Guitarrero Cave, Peru, 1985, Lynch Thomas F. , Gillespie R. , Gowlett John A. J. , Hedges R. E. M. ,
Dating by accelerator mass spectrometry of wooden artifacts, cord, and charcoal samples from Guitarrero Cave, Peru, supports the antiquity of South America's earliest textiles and other perishable remains. The new dates are consistent with those obtained from disintegration counters and leave little doubt about the integrity of the lower Preceramic layers and their early cultivars. Reevaluation of the mode of deposition suggests that most of the remains resulted from short-term use of the cave in the eighth millennium B.C., with a possible brief human visit as early as 12,560 years ago

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