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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 11 Jul, 2012
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That dip is 1. the angle between an inclined bedding plane in a rock sequence and the horizontal. the dip value includes an inclination and a direction and the two components are generally quoted in this order and in the format l0 ene or 10 towards 025 magnetic (etc.). the dip direction is down the slope. true dip is the maximum dip value of a given bedding plane; other, lesser values, obliquely down the same bedding plane, referred to as apparent dips. the direction at right-angles to the true dip, where the dip value is zero, is known as the strike [9]. 2. maximum plunge of sloping planar features (e.g bedding, fractures) within a geological formation measured perpendicularly to the strike of the features. see also strike; hade.?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
Engineering challenges in Karst, Stevanović, Zoran; Milanović, Petar
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Geochemical and mineralogical fingerprints to distinguish the exploited ferruginous mineralisations of Grotta della Monaca (Calabria, Italy), Dimuccio, L.A.; Rodrigues, N.; Larocca, F.; Pratas, J.; Amado, A.M.; Batista de Carvalho, L.A.
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
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Your search for climate change (Keyword) returned 79 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 79
238U---234U---230Th---232Th systematics and the precise measurement of time over the past 500,000 years, 1987, Lawrence Edwards R. , Chen J. H. , Wasserburg G. J. ,
We have developed techniques to measure the 230Th abundance in corals by isotope dilution mass spectrometry. This, coupled with our previous development of mass spectrometric techniques for 234U and 232Th measurement, has allowed us to reduce significantly the analytical errors in 238U---234U---230Th dating and greatly reduce the sample size. We show that 6 x 108 atoms of 230Th can be measured to 30[per mille sign] (2[sigma]) and 2 x 1010 atoms of 230Th to 2[per mille sign]. The time over which useful age data on corals can be obtained ranges from a few years to ~ 500 ky. The uncertainty in age, based on analytical errors, is 5 y (2[sigma]) for a 180 year old coral (3 g), 44 y at 8294 years and 1.1 ky at 123.1 ky (250 mg of coral). We also report 232Th concentrations in corals (0.083-1.57 pmol/g) that are more than two orders of magnitude lower than previous values. Ages with high analytical precision were determined for several corals that grew during high sea level stands ~ 120 ky ago. These ages lie specifically within or slightly postdate the Milankovitch insolation high at 128 ky and support the idea that the dominant cause of Pleistocene climate change is Milankovitch forcing

Effect of climate changes on the precipitation patterns and isotopic composition of water in a climate transition zone: case of the eastern Mediterranean Sea area, 1987, Gat J. R. , Carmi I.

A high resolution record of Holocenc climate change in speleothem calcite from Cold Water Cave, northeast Iowa, 1992, Dorale J. A. , Gonzalez L. A. , Reagan M. K. Et Al.

A High-Resolution Record of Holocene Climate Change in Speleothem Calcite from Cold Water Cave, Northeast Iowa, 1992, Dorale Ja, Gonzalez La, Reagan Mk, Pickett Da, Murrell Mt, Baker Rg,
High-precision uranium-thorium mass spectrometric chronology and 18O-13C isotopic analysis of speleothem calcite from Cold Water Cave in northeast Iowa have been used to chart mid-Holocene climate change. Significant shifts in [dagger]18O and [dagger]13C isotopic values coincide with well-documented Holocene vegetation changes. Temperature estimates based on 18O/16O ratios suggest that the climate warmed rapidly by about 3{degrees}C at 5900 years before present and then cooled by 4{degrees}C at 3600 years before present. Initiation of a gradual increase in [dagger]13C at 5900 years before present suggests that turnover of the forest soil biomass was slow and that equilibrium with prairie vegetation was not attained by 3600 years before present

STABLE ISOTOPIC COMPOSITION OF METEORIC CALCITES - EVIDENCE FOR EARLY MISSISSIPPIAN CLIMATE-CHANGE IN THE MISSION CANYON FORMATION, MONTANA, 1993, Smith T. M. , Dorobek S. L. ,
The Lower Mississippian Mission Canyon Formation of central to southwestern Montana was deposited under dominantly semiarid to arid climatic conditions during Osagean to early Meramecian times. Following deposition, a pronounced climatic shift to more humid conditions occurred during middle Meramecian times. This climatic change is indicated by extensive, post-depositional karst fabrics and in the stable isotopic composition of early, meteoric calcite cements and diagenetically altered sediments. Early meteoric calcite cement in Mission Canyon limestones is generally nonluminescent and fills intergranular and fenestral porosity. Petrographic data indicate that this cement formed during intermittent subaerial exposure of the Mission Canyon platform during Osagean times. This initial generation of meteoric calcite cement has deltaO-18 values from -8.1 to -2.6 parts per thousand PDB. These data, and the oxygen isotopic values from nonluminescent skeletal grains and micrite in host limestone indicate that Osagean meteoric water may have had deltaO-18 values as low as -6.0 parts per thousand SMOW. A second generation of petrographically similar, but isotopically distinct, calcite cement fills biomolds and porosity within solution-collapse breccias in the Mission Canyon Formation. This cement generation postdates earlier nonluminescent Osagean calcite cement and is volumetrically most abundant near the top of the Mission Canyon Formation. DeltaO-18 values from these cements and from nonluminescent lime mudstone clasts and matrix in solution collapse breccias range from -13.8 to -8.2 parts per thousand PDB. These data indicate that Meramecian meteoric water may have had deltaO-18 values as low as - 12.0 parts per thousand. However, a higher-temperature burial overprint on the deltaO-18 values of the calcite cement cannot be ruled out. The more positive deltaO-18 values of the Osagean calcite components probably indicate warm and arid conditions during short-term [10(4)(?) yr) subaerial exposure along intraformational sequence and parasequence boundaries. The more negative deltaO-18 values from Meramecian calcite components and the extensive karst associated with the post-Mission Canyon unconformity may have developed because of cooler and more humid climatic conditions and possible rain-out effects during middle Meramecian times. A dramatic shift towards cooler and more humid climatic conditions may be coincident with the onset of major continental glaciation in the Early Carboniferous. The post-Mission Canyon unconformity has been attributed to a major fall in sea level that may have glacio-eustatic origins. Growth of continental glaciers during a time of global cooling would have caused migration of polar fronts further toward the paleoequator. These polar fronts in turn, would have pushed moist, mid-latitude weather systems toward the paleoequator, resulting in cooler, more humid conditions in low-latitude settings during ''icehouse'' times

lsotopic patterns in modern global precipitation, 1993, Rozanski K. , Araguasaraguas L. , Gonfiantini R.

BLUE HOLES - DEFINITION AND GENESIS, 1995, Mylroie J. E. , Carew J. L. , Moore A. I. ,
Blue holes are karst features that were initially described from Bahamian islands and banks, which have been documented for over 100 years. They are water-fined vertical openings in the carbonate rock that exhibit complex morphologies, ecologies, and water chemistries. Their deep blue color, for which they are named, is the result of their great depth, and they may lead to cave systems below sea level Blue holes are polygenetic in origin, having formed: by drowning of dissolutional sinkholes and shafts developed in the vadose zone; by phreatic dissolution along an ascending halocline; by progradational collapse upward from deep dissolution voids produced in the phreatic zone; or by fracture of the bank: margin. Blue holes are the cumulative result of carbonate deposition and dissolution cycles which have been controlled by Quaternary glacioeustatic fluctuations of sea-level. Blue holes have been widely studied during the past 30 years, and they have provided information regarding karst processes, global climate change, marine ecology, and carbonate geochemistry. The literature contains a wealth of references regarding blue holes that are at times misleading, and often confusing. To standardize use of the term blue hob, and to familiarize the scientific community with their nature, we herein define them as follows: ''Blue holes are subsurface voids that are developed in carbonate banks and islands; are open to the earth's surface; contain tidally-influenced waters of fresh, marine, or mixed chemistry; extend below sea level for a majority of their depth; and may provide access to submerged cave passages.'' Blue holes are found in two settings: ocean holes open directly into the present marine environment and usually contain marine water with tidal now; inland blue holes are isolated by present topography from surface marine conditions, and open directly onto the land surface or into an isolated pond or lake, and contain tidally-influenced water of a variety of chemistries from fresh to marine

LIMESTONE WEATHERING IN EASTERN AUSTRALIA .1. EROSION RATES, 1995, Smith D. I. , Greenaway M. A. , Moses C. , Spate A. P. ,
A traversing microerosion meter (MEM) was used to measure the rates of surface weathering of limestones in southeastern Australia. There were two groups of MEM sites installed in 1978/9. The aim of the experimental design for the first type, the 13 sites at Cooleman Plain and Yarrangobilly Caves, was to obtain erosion rates for limestones of similar lithology exposed under comparable climate conditions. The sites were positioned to measure erosion over a range of microsolutional forms and with exposure to differing forms of erosion, i.e. subaerial, subsoil and instream. The second set, at Ginninderra close to Canberra, consists of nine limestone slabs of differing lithology, collected from different locations but exposed under identical climatic conditions. The number of individual measurement points at each MEM site varied from 24 to 68. There were major differences in erosion rates between subaerial bedrock and instream sites at Yarrangobilly and Cooleman Plain, but no evidence of differential erosion across the micro-forms. There were differences in the weathering rate for bedrock sites, due to climatic differences, and between the limestone lithologies exposed at Ginninderra. The average rate of erosion for the subaerial bedrock sites at Cooleman Plain and Yarrangobilly over the 13 years was 0.013 mm a(-1) and at Ginninderra 0.006 mm a(-1). At some of the sites microflora (lichens and mosses) caused problems for field measurement. The weathering processes that contribute to the surface lowering are discussed in the accompanying paper by Moses ef al

TECTONIC AND PALEOCLIMATIC SIGNIFICANCE OF A PROMINENT UPPER PENNSYLVANIAN (VIRGILIAN STEPHANIAN) WEATHERING PROFILE, IOWA AND NEBRASKA, USA, 1995, Joeckel R. M. ,
A Virgilian (Stephanian) weathering profile up to 4 m deep, containing a paleosol (basal Rakes Creek paleosol) in the basal mudstone of the Rakes Creek Member and karstified marine sediments in the Ost, Kenosha, and Avoca members below, is restricted to southeastern Nebraska (specifically the Weeping Water Valley) and the Missouri River Valley bluffs of adjacent easternmost Iowa. This weathering profile, informally referred to as the Weeping Water weathering profile, disappears farther eastward into the shallow Forest City Basin in southwestern Iowa. Weeping Water weathering profile features are prominent in comparison to other Midcontinent Pennsylvanian subaerial exposure surfaces, indicating prolonged subaerial exposure, relatively high elevation, and a marked drop in water table along the Nemaha Uplift in southeastern Nebraska. Eastward, on the margin of the Forest City Basin, the basal Rakes Creek paleosol and underlying karst are thinner and relatively poorly developed; paleosol characteristics indicate formation on lower landscape positions. Comparative pedology, the contrasting of paleosol variability, morphology, and micromorphology between different paleosols in the same regional succession, provides a basis for interpreting the larger significance of the basal Rakes Creek paleosol. The stratigraphically older upper Lawrence and Snyderville paleosols in the same area are significantly different in patterns of lateral variability and overall soil characteristics. Weaker eustatic control and stronger tectonic activity may explain the greater west-east variability (and eventual eastward disappearance) of the basal Rakes Creek paleosol. Differences in soil characteristics between the Vertisol-like upper Lawrence and Snyderville paleosols and the non-Vertisol-like basal Rakes Creek paleosol appear to be due to climate change, particularly a shift from more seasonal to more uniform rainfall. This climate change hypothesis is compatible with overall Virgilian stratigraphic trends in the northern Midcontinent outcrop area

The influence of climatic change on exposure surface development: a case study from the Late Dinantian of England and Wales, 1996, Vanstone Simon,
Exposure surfaces represent an integral part of Asbian-Brigantian cyclothemic platform carbonates in England and Wales. These are characterized by the association of clay palaeosols, calcrete and palaeokarst and in most instances would appear to have been polygenetic. Alternating calcrete-karst stratigraphies associated with individual exposure surfaces indicate that the climate changed from semi-arid to humid to semi-arid conditions during each sea-level fall/rise cycle. Lowstand intervals were humid and resulted in karstification of the cyclothem-top sediments and the formation of a mineral soil. In contrast, regressive/transgressive phases were semi-arid and resulted in calcretization of the emergent platform carbonates. The influence that climatic cyclicity had upon exposure surface development was modulated by variations in platform bathymetry, subsidence and spatial climatic variation, and platforms exhibit their own individual record of what was essentially an idealized sequence of events. As with the sea-level oscillations responsible for cyclothemic sedimentation, the climatic cyclicity is thought to be the product of orbital forcing and probably reflects either eccentricity-driven shifts in the locus of monsoonal precipitation, or precession-driven variations in monsoonal intensity. If precessional in origin, exposure surface development represents a single minimum to minimum excursion, some 20 ka in duration, whereas if eccentricity-driven this may have been appreciably longer. Nevertheless, the immature nature of the exposure surfaces suggests that emergence was probably only of the order of a few tens of thousands of years

Karst landforms and caves of Nordland, North Norway, 1996, Lauritzen S. E.

U-Pb dating of Quaternary age speleothems, 1996, Richards D. A. , Bottrell S. H. , Cliff R. A. , Strohle K. D.

Climate Change: The Karst Record., 1996,

Climate Change: The Karst Record - A conference review, 1997, Yonge C. J.

Sensitivity of karst process to environmental change along the Pep II transect, 1997, Yuan D. X. ,
It has been known since as early as the last century that karst formation is a geologic process related to chemical reaction, but not until the last couple of decades were karst processes viewed as being sensitive to environmental change. The direction and intensity of karst processes are controlled by environmental factors such as temperature, climate, hydrology, vegetation, geology, and the openness of the system to the atmosphere. Accordingly, karst features, as a product of the carbon cycle, differ in space and time. This is clearly evident from the world karst correlation project, IGCP 299. There is a sharp contrast between karst types on both sides of the Qingling Mountain range of central China. Semi-arid karst is located to the north, and humid subtropical karst to the south. Karst features are capable of recording high resolution paleoclimatic change. AMS C-14, isotope and geochemical studies of thin laminae from a giant stalagmite located near Guilin, in southern China, have clearly identified rapid climate changes during the past 40 ka. In karst areas with active neotectonism, huge deposits of calcareous travertine record the amount of deeply sourced CO2 emitted into the atmosphere and can aid studies on modem tectonism because of the association of calcareous travertine with active faults.

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