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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

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That critical depth is the depth of flow in open channels when specific energy is minimum [16].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for climatology (Keyword) returned 65 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 65
Messinian event in the black sea, 1979, Hsu Kenneth J. , Giovanoli Federico,
Three holes were drilled during the 1975 DSDP Leg 42B drilling the Black Sea. A section from Hole 380, at 2107 m water depth on the western edge of the abyssal plain, is 1074 m thick, and provides the most complete stratigraphic section. Dating of the sediments is based upon (1) fossil evidence from pollen, crustaceans, benthic foraminifera, and diatoms, (2) correlation with climatic changes and with unusual isochronous events that have been dated elsewhere, (3) paleomagnetic data, and (4) estimates of sedimentation rate.The history of Black Sea sedimentation recorded by the DSDP cores includes black shale sedimentation during the Late Miocene, followed by periodic chemical sedimentation from Late Miocene to Early Quaternary, and a change to dominantly terrigenous sedimentation from the Middle Quaternary. These hemipelagic and turbiditic sediments were deposited in lacustrine and brackish marine environments. The Messinian sediments, however, consist of stromatolitic dolomite, oolitic sands, and coarse gravels, deposited in supratidal and intertidal environments. The intercalation of the shallow-water sediments in a deep-water sequence suggests a drastic lowering of the water-level within the Black Sea basin during the Messinian so that the edge of the present abyssal plain was then the edge of a shallow lake.The Messinian draw-down phase of the Black Sea was in existence for about 100,000 years during the Lago-Mare stage of the salinity crisis. The evaporated waters formed an alkaline lake before it was drowned by a brackish marine transgression correlative to the Trubi transgression of the Mediterranean

Relations between the location of the karst bauxites in the northern hemisphere, the global tectonics and the climatic variations during geological time, 1979, Nicolas Jean, Bildgen Pierre,
The study of the distribution of the laterites and bauxites of karst in the Northern Hemisphere shows that their location is not erratic. Most of the bauxites are ordered after their age, according to alignments indicating the existence of palaeoclimatic belts of humid intertropical type that were susceptible of having generated a laterizing pedogenesis, during geological time when these bauxites and laterites were formed. In relation to the present network of latitudes, these palaeoclimatic belts gradually took up more southerly positions, as geological time passed. A few of these formations appear, however, to be located outside the palaeclimatic belts within which they should occur. To explains this apparent anomaly, it is in consequence necessary to call into play on the one hand, the drift of the palaeoclimatic belts from the north to the south, and on the other, the mechanisms of ocean-floor spreading and of the movement of the continental plates. The results of these processes are integrated into the framework of the principles of global tectonics. They also correspond to those obtained from other disciplines, such as palaeomagnetism, palaeoclimatology, biogeography, palaeontology, etc.Extension of this study to the Southern Hemisphere can not be realized for the present, because the results of the researches relating to it in the field with which we are concerned are much too imprecise and the bibliography linked up with it too summary

Quaternary Paleoclimatology of the Black Sea basin, 1979, Schrader Hans Joachim,
The occurrence of polyhaline, mesohaline and oligohaline diatom, silicoflagellate, ebridian and chrysomonad populations in late Quaternary Black Sea sediments (DSDP Leg 42B) forms the basis for reconstruction of surface water paleosalinities in the Black Sea basin over the last 3 million years. Four major periods with increased salinites are separated by extended freshwater periods. Based on paleosalinites, indicators of trophic freshwater conditions and changes in diatom species diversity, a correlation is made to the northern Europian glacial--interglacial stratigraphy and this correlation is used to place paleoenvironmental events into a chronostratigraphy. The `synchronous' late Quaternary occurrence of sediments rich in organic carbon in both the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea supports this interpretation.Three different stages in the interaction between the Black Sea and the Eastern Mediterranean Sea are defined: Stage A (exchange of freshwater and marine water similar to the present day flux) during the Holocene, Eemian, Holsteinian and Pliocene; Stage B (freshwater conditions with only occasional marine spills) during the Saalian, the Waalian, the Tiglian and the Praetiglian; and Stage C (freshwater conditions with no inflow of marine waters) during the Weichselian, the Elsterian and Eburonian

Etude des circulations d'air dans la grotte de Niaux, 1983, Andrieux, C.
THE AIR MOVEMENTS IN THE grotte DE NIAUX. CONSEQUENCES - The present paper deals with air movements in the grotte de Niaux (Arige, France) during ten years (1971-1980). The data (observations, measurements) have been obtained, upon an average, each week; they relate to the direction of underground air movements, to the speed and to average air flow, which have been measured at some places, at cave entrances. The results show two types of air movements. In the first one, the gas exchanges between the cave and outside happen through the galleries and the known entrances and also through all the fractures of the carbonate rocks. When it occurs, the cave can be divided in three main parts, each one having their own characteristics. The second one is observed only during very rainy times; the whole cave is then subjected to air movement according to the "wind tube model". The air exchanges through the fractures are fixed by the percolation. The percolation zone is consequently submitted to diphasic water flow. Therefore, different models of air movements in caves must be considered. These data also show it is needful that the airflow should be measured to understand the climatic phenomena of the caves.

La recherche karstologique en Amrique du Nord, 1983, Palmer, A. N.
Karst research in North America - After several decades of isolation from the other goesciences, karst research in the USA is now merging with many other science fields. Advances have been particularly notable in the subjects of cave origin, mineralogy, geochemistry, geochronology and paleoclimatology. Recently there has been a tendency for karst principles to be applied to diverse fields such as carbonate petrology, environmental science, and hydrology

Palaeogeographic environment during the desiccation of the Black Sea, 1983, Kojumdgieva Emilia,
During the latest Chersonian (about 10.3 m.y. ago) tectonic movements took place leading to an elevation of the Crimean-Caucasian chain and to an isolation of the Fore-Caucasian part of the Black Sea Basin. This part of the basin had been draining the rivers of the Russian Platform and after the isolation it became desalinized, while the main part of the Black Sea Basin was almost desiccated and evaporites, mainly dolomites, formed in it due to the predominant calcium---magnesium---carbonate composition of the Chersonian Sea waters. These dolomites are found in the drillings of DSDP Leg 42B and are confirmed geophysically.The tectonic movements during the latest Chersonian led to the formation of a series of grabens along which the Mediterranean Sea invaded the north Aegean area and a little later (during the Early Maeotian) the Black Sea

Le point des recherches karstologiques en URSS, 1986, Kisselov V. , Klimchouk A. , Dubliansky V.
KARST RESEARCHES IN USSR - Karst researches in USSR have obtained a further development during these last years. Numerous regional investigations have been realised, especially in Crimea, Western Caucasus, Podolia, Ural, Central Asia and Southern Siberia. Some works on caves sedimentology have permitted to develop the knowledge on speleogenesis. Interesting studies are performed on speleoclimatology and ice caves (thermo-karst). Several contributions on the modern practical speleology are underlined: speleo-medicine, speleological techniques on steel cables, surveying, morphometry, applied speleology, show caves.

Approche thorique _simplifie de la dissolution karstique, 1994, Gombert, P.
The specific behaviour of karsts makes the estimation of karstic denudation very difficult: discharge and water chemical variabili-ties are in fact major characteristics of aquifer karstic systems and cannot be properly estimated by the way of random sampling. The classical empirical methods provide generally high relative errors due to the bad knowledge of the hydrogeological catchment basin and even of the total number of springs. In the case of CORBEL's or WILLIAM's empirical formulas, average relative error can be estimated to about 100 % for a normally known aquifer karstic system : therefore it is impossible to compare different karsts that have not been studied with the same accuracy. The theoretical statisti-cal relationships between karstic denu-dation and a single climatic parameter (rainfall) are open to criticism: main authors tell that effective rainfall and pedological C02 are essential parame-ters of karstic denudation, which are never taken into account. For example, there are different PULINA's formula for different climatic types indicating that it is necessary to use another climatic parameter different from rain-fall! Moreover this way of modelling the data restrains the statistical repre-sentativity of each formula and intro-duces a difficult choice for karsts, which are at the border of two climatic types (or with mountainous parts). Another problem is the case of polar countries karsts where most precipitation is snowy and does not participate in karstic denudation. Therefore a mathematical modelling of carbonate dissolution is shown, based on infiltra-tion rate calculation and knowledge of calco-carbonic equilibrium. Temperature and rainfall are taken into account to determine the efficient part of precipitation, the productivity of pedogenetic C02 and the carbonate solubility constants. This theoretical approach gives the same results but with relative errors under 50 %. Consequently it is easy to compare different karstic countries in the world: hot and wet climates are confirmed to have the main karstogenetic activity but the role of cold countries is rehabilita-ted. Then paleokarstic denudation can be estimated.

Phnomnes karstiques dans les roches siliceuses au Niger oriental, 1994, Sponholz, B.
In North-eastern Niger karstic features occur commonly in siliceous rocks (sandstone, silcretes, iron crusts crystalline). On the base of geomorphological field studies and micromorphological analyses karst forming caused by rock solution is verified The results render possible the dating of the main karstification period in Early Tertiary. The widespread distribution of similar results indicates the dependence of karstification on palaeoclimatic conditions. Actually, the karstic systems influence significantly the development of other landforms.

The last glacial/interglacial record of rodent remains from the Gigny karst sequence in the French Jura used for palaeoclimatic and palaeoecological reconstructions, 1995, Chaline J, Brunetlecomte P, Campy M,
A multidisciplinary approach has produced an exceptional chronological log of climatic patterns for the Upper Pleistocene sequence of Gigny Cave (Jura, France) covering the Pre-Eemian, Eemian Interglacial, Middle Glacial and Upper Pleniglacial, as well as a part of the Holocene. Multivariate analysis (correspondence and component analysis) of rodent associations from the sequence is used here to characterize the different climatic stages in terms of relative temperature, plant cover and moisture. Faunal analysis establishes: (1) positive and negative correlations among the variations of the different species; (2) the significance of axis 1 (component analysis) which, in terms of temperature, opposes cold environments with contrasted continental biotopes; (3a) the significance of axis 2 (component analysis), which reflects vegetation patterns ranging from open to closed habitats; (3b) the significance of axis 3 (component analysis), which expresses trends in moisture; (4) various correlations between faunal and climatic parameters (temperature, plant cover and moisture); (5) evaluation of faunal diversity (Shannon index ranging from 0.74 to 2.27) showing that diversity increases with temperature and the complexity of vegetation, but is not sensitive to moisture. Lastly, the comparison of multivariate methods with the weighted semi-quantitative Hokr method shows the complementarity of the two approaches, the first methods quantifying climatic parameters while the second seems to provide more precise evaluations of the main seasons of rainfall

TECTONIC AND PALEOCLIMATIC SIGNIFICANCE OF A PROMINENT UPPER PENNSYLVANIAN (VIRGILIAN STEPHANIAN) WEATHERING PROFILE, IOWA AND NEBRASKA, USA, 1995, Joeckel R. M. ,
A Virgilian (Stephanian) weathering profile up to 4 m deep, containing a paleosol (basal Rakes Creek paleosol) in the basal mudstone of the Rakes Creek Member and karstified marine sediments in the Ost, Kenosha, and Avoca members below, is restricted to southeastern Nebraska (specifically the Weeping Water Valley) and the Missouri River Valley bluffs of adjacent easternmost Iowa. This weathering profile, informally referred to as the Weeping Water weathering profile, disappears farther eastward into the shallow Forest City Basin in southwestern Iowa. Weeping Water weathering profile features are prominent in comparison to other Midcontinent Pennsylvanian subaerial exposure surfaces, indicating prolonged subaerial exposure, relatively high elevation, and a marked drop in water table along the Nemaha Uplift in southeastern Nebraska. Eastward, on the margin of the Forest City Basin, the basal Rakes Creek paleosol and underlying karst are thinner and relatively poorly developed; paleosol characteristics indicate formation on lower landscape positions. Comparative pedology, the contrasting of paleosol variability, morphology, and micromorphology between different paleosols in the same regional succession, provides a basis for interpreting the larger significance of the basal Rakes Creek paleosol. The stratigraphically older upper Lawrence and Snyderville paleosols in the same area are significantly different in patterns of lateral variability and overall soil characteristics. Weaker eustatic control and stronger tectonic activity may explain the greater west-east variability (and eventual eastward disappearance) of the basal Rakes Creek paleosol. Differences in soil characteristics between the Vertisol-like upper Lawrence and Snyderville paleosols and the non-Vertisol-like basal Rakes Creek paleosol appear to be due to climate change, particularly a shift from more seasonal to more uniform rainfall. This climate change hypothesis is compatible with overall Virgilian stratigraphic trends in the northern Midcontinent outcrop area

Annually laminated sequences in the internal structure of some Belgian stalagmites - importance for paleoclimatology., 1996, Genty D. , Quinif Y.

Annually laminated sequences in the internal structure of some Belgian stalagmites; importance for paleoclimatology, 1996, Genty D, Quinif Y,

A stepped karst unconformity as an Early Silurian rocky shoreline in Guizhou Province (South China), 1996, Jiayu R. , Johnson M. E. ,
There succeeded by marine strata, karst unconformities signify a former rocky coastline. Such relationships may help sort out relative sea-level changes and aspects of local geography controlling facies distribution. An exceptional example of an early Silurian karst shore is well exposed near the village of Wudang in central Guizhou Province, near the capital city of Guiyang in South China. Here the Lower Silurian Kaochaitien Formation oversteps 63 m of paleotopographic relief in limestones belonging to the Llanvirn Guniutan Formation and Caradoc to early Ashgill Huanghuachong Formation (Ordovician). The corresponding rise in sea level took place coeval with tectonic uplift, as confirmed by a regionally diachronous relationship in the Ordovician-Silurian boundary across a 250 km track from central to northern Guizhou Province. The change in sea level also fits with a global rise of sea level in late Aeronian (later Llandovery, early Silurian) time. Borings of the ichnofossil, Trypanites, are reported from the karst surface of the Huanghuachong Formation and Silurian strata hh sink holes in this unit over 5 m deep. The Silurian karst shoreline near Wudang is integrated with other regional data to construct a paleogeographic map covering the northern half of Guizhou Province

Influence of climatic parameters in karstic denudation, 1997, Gombert P. ,
Karstic denudation is empirically estimated by specific dissolution or geochemical balance calculations, which need a precise knowledge of the aquifer, or by mathematical expressions which only depend upon rainfall. It is in fact known that water inflow charged with CO2 is the main karstic agent. We propose a mathematical model called << Maximal Potential Dissolution >> (DMP) and based on efficient infiltration calculation, CO2 soil productivity and knowledge of the calcocarbonic equilibrium

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