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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 11 Jul, 2012
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

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That finite difference method is a numerical method used to approximate the solution of partial differential equations [16].?

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Your search for colonization (Keyword) returned 41 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 41
Observations on the aquatic subterranean fauna of Cuba., 1973, Botosaneanu Lazare
A short account on some achievements of the cubano-romanian biospeleological expeditions to Cuba in the study of the aquatic subterranean faunas. The following divisions of the aquatic subterranean realm are reviewed together with their most characteristic faunal elements: "guano pools" and rimstone pools in the vadose zone of the caves; underground streams; water table (and other) lakes in the caves; "pozzos" carved in the limestone, and "grietas" which are vertical clefts in the limestone of marine terraces, giving access to fresh- or to brackish water; the interstitial of the marine beaches; the underflow of running waters. At present, thorough biospeleological research is being carried out almost everywhere in Central America; Cuba, which remained until recently rather poorly investigated, proves to be one of the most remarkable areas from this point of view. A few of the most interesting problems rose in the course of the study of the underground aquatic fauna of Cuba are listed. An interesting biogeographical problem is the following: some of the subterranean aquatic elements prove to be related to elements belonging to the fauna of the other Antilles and of Mexico, but not to the South-American fauna (as is the case for some terrestrial groups). The research undertaken will be a contribution to the problem of the divisions of the aquatic subterranean realm and of their reciprocal relations, in a warm and humid climate; it will also contribute an answer to the problem of the differences between temperate and tropical cave communities; finally, it allows one to perceive in its very progress the process of colonization of the subterranean freshwaters by elements of marine origin, either through the interstitial realm or through the fissures of the littoral limestones.

The colonisation of some caver in the Jura by Niphadobota alpine Bezzi (Dipt. Tipulidae)., 1973, Turquin M. J.
Three new localities of Niphadobota (=Chionea) alpina in the French southern Jura allow the author to state that this insect's climatic requirements explain the biogeography of the species; the origin of the colonization of caves by this dipteran is considered.

Observations on the aquatic subterranean fauna of Cuba., 1973, Botosaneanu Lazare
A short account on some achievements of the cubano-romanian biospeleological expeditions to Cuba in the study of the aquatic subterranean faunas. The following divisions of the aquatic subterranean realm are reviewed together with their most characteristic faunal elements: "guano pools" and rimstone pools in the vadose zone of the caves; underground streams; water table (and other) lakes in the caves; "pozzos" carved in the limestone, and "grietas" which are vertical clefts in the limestone of marine terraces, giving access to fresh- or to brackish water; the interstitial of the marine beaches; the underflow of running waters. At present, thorough biospeleological research is being carried out almost everywhere in Central America; Cuba, which remained until recently rather poorly investigated, proves to be one of the most remarkable areas from this point of view. A few of the most interesting problems rose in the course of the study of the underground aquatic fauna of Cuba are listed. An interesting biogeographical problem is the following: some of the subterranean aquatic elements prove to be related to elements belonging to the fauna of the other Antilles and of Mexico, but not to the South-American fauna (as is the case for some terrestrial groups). The research undertaken will be a contribution to the problem of the divisions of the aquatic subterranean realm and of their reciprocal relations, in a warm and humid climate; it will also contribute an answer to the problem of the differences between temperate and tropical cave communities; finally, it allows one to perceive in its very progress the process of colonization of the subterranean freshwaters by elements of marine origin, either through the interstitial realm or through the fissures of the littoral limestones.

The colonisation of some caver in the Jura by Niphadobota alpine Bezzi (Dipt. Tipulidae)., 1973, Turquin M. J.
Three new localities of Niphadobota (=Chionea) alpina in the French southern Jura allow the author to state that this insect's climatic requirements explain the biogeography of the species; the origin of the colonization of caves by this dipteran is considered.

Observations on Stenasellus virei in its natural biotopes (Crustacea Isopoda Asellota of Subterranean Waters)., 1974, Magniez Guy
Thanks to intensive exploration and to new methods for capturing aquatic underground fauna. 117 localities are now known for Stenasellus virei. The description of some typical biotopes suggests that the species lives as well in karstic waters as in phreatic ones, inside the different environment of the hydrogeological classification of subterranean waters. St. virei buchneri and St. v. hussoni are almost cavernicolous. St. v. angelieri is distributed in the underground waters of Catalonia. St. v. boui is located in the underflow of Salat river basin. St. v. virei is widely distributed in the alluvial water-level of Garonne and Ebro rivers basins. The dispersion of St. virei into the alluvial environment explains the process of colonization of continental underground waters. It explains also the existence of an apparently insulated population into the sink-hole of Padirac. The actual distribution of the five subspecies is explained by important restrictions of the area in quaternary glacial ages, followed by local (in the water-level of the tributaries of Garonne river) spreading during postglacial time. The postglacial reconquest of the Salat river underflow by this species seems to have been responsible for the latest subspeciation (St. v. boui). The endemic populations of fossil karstic systems seem to have an abnormal composition. They include unusually large adults, juvenile stages being rare. They differ from the phreatic populations, which exhibit a normal distribution is size groups, with a formal percentage of juveniles. These differences between karstic and interstitial populations may result from the fact that in caves, Sr. virei is often insulated from its original phreatic biocoenosis: an intraspecific competition between size classes has taken the place of normal heterospecific struggle for existence.

Paleoenvironment and speciation in the cave beetle complex Speonomus delarouzeei (Coleoptera, Bathysciinae), 1988, Juberthie Christian
In the eastern part of the Pyrenees (France) the author describes a scenario of speciation in the cave species complex Speonomus delarouzeei (Coleoptera Bathysciinae); the speciation processes have been initiated by a breakdown of the ecological equilibrium induced during three glacial-interglacial episodes. The scenario is the following: during the first glaciation (2.3-2.1 MY), psychrophilic populations ancestral to S. brucki were selected over the highest elevation of the range, by means of cold effect which produced an adaptive demographic advantage; adaptive characters of troglobitic species (K strategy) take place presumably in relation to colonization of caves and M.S.S.; during the second glaciation (1.7-1.3 MY) and a more recent, S. charlottae, latter S. emiliae, diverged from troglobite ancestors of S. brucki without further adaptive characters, as result from stochastic and historical events. M.S.S. generated during erosional period of glacial event provided ways for migration and new niches for colonization. Bottleneck effect in size population of ancestors, founder effect, and colonization by local population which present genetic and behavioural geographical polymorphism, argue for a rapid speciation, presumably 100,000 years long and 50,000 generations in the case of S. emiliae.

Speciation of troglobites: studies in the San Antonio cave (Oaxaca, Mexico), 1991, Junge Peter, Langecker Thomas G. , Wilkens Horst
The phylogenetically young species community of San Antonio Cave (Oaxaca, Mexico) exemplifies the hypothesis that speciation of troglobites can occur in close contact with epigean predecessors. In a subterranean creek which continues outside with a rich epigean fauna, four troglobitic aquatic crustacean and one fish species (Rhamdia reddelli, Pimelodidae) were studied. Today not a single surface specimen can be found in the cave waters although several epigean species are troglophilic and/or are the ancestors of cave forms in other parts of Mexico. The absence of epigean invaders is attributed to the presence of specimens of some of the more aggressive and carnivorous cave species close to the cave entrance. Contrary to this it can be presumed that at the beginning of the troglobitic evolution the cave ancestral epigean forms were regularly invading the cave. It is assumed that photonegative behaviour played a role for the initial colonization of the cave but it is not of significance as a separating mechanism for the speciation process.

Faunistic study in the karst complex of Frasassi (Genga, Italy)., 1994, Bertolani Roberto, Manicardi Gian Carlo, Rebecchi Lorena
f the complex and they are the consequence of a relatively recent faunistic colonization.

Some remarks on the genus Microcharon Karaman in Greece, and description of M. agripensis n. sp. (Crustacea, Isopoda, Microparasellidae), 1994, De Laurentiis Paola, Galassi Diana M. P. , Pesce Giuseppe L.
Several samples of microparasellid isopods of the genus Microcharon Karaman were obtained in groundwater habitats of Greece. Four species are identified, and taxonomical and zoogeographical remarks on some rare or poorly known taxa are made. One species, herein described as Microcharon agripensis n. sp., is new to Science. M. latus prespensis Karaman, 1954, on account of the different morphology of the first and second male pleopods, and its partially overlapping distribution, in respect to M. latus Karaman, 1934, is definitively raised at specific rank. Supplementary descriptions and illustrations are reported for incompletely described species such as M. latus, M. prespensis stat. nov., M. major Karaman, 1954 and M. othrys Argano & Pesce, 1979. For some species, such as M. latus, M. othrys and M. antonellae Galassi, 1991, SEM preparations of the mouthparts, not well detailed with the optical microscopy, were carried out. According to data from the present study, a paleogeographical scenario of the Balkan Peninsula is briefly depicted in order to sketch the most significative events which led to the colonization and speciation of the Microcharon species in this area.

BACTERIA, FUNGI AND BIOKARST IN LECHUGUILLA CAVE, CARLSBAD-CAVERNS-NATIONAL-PARK, NEW-MEXICO, 1995, Cunningham Ki, Northup De, Pollastro Rm, Wright Wg, Larock Ej,
Lechuguilla Cave is a deep, extensive, gypsum- and sulfur-bearing hypogenic cave in Carlsbad Caverns National Park, New Mexico, most of which (> 90%) lies more than 300 m beneath the entrance. Located in the arid Guadalupe Mountains, Lechuguilla's remarkable state of preservation is partially due to the locally continuous Yates Formation siltstone that has effectively diverted most vadose water away from the cave. Allocthonous organic input to the cave is therefore very limited, but bacterial and fungal colonization is relatively extensive: (1) Aspergillus sp. fungi and unidentified bacteria are associated with iron-, manganese-, and sulfur-rich encrustations on calcitic folia near the suspected water table 466 m below the entrance; (2) 92 species of fungi in 19 genera have been identified throughout the cave in oligotrophic (nutrient-poor) ''soils'' and pools; (3) cave-air condensate contains unidentified microbes; (4) indigenous chemoheterotrophic Seliberius and Caulobacter bacteria are known from remote pool sites; and (5) at least four genera of heterotrophic bacteria with population densities near 5 x 10(5) colony-forming units (CFU) per gram are present in ceiling-bound deposits of supposedly abiogenic condensation-corrosion residues. Various lines of evidence suggest that autotrophic bacteria are present in the ceiling-bound residues and could act as primary producers in a unique subterranean microbial food chain. The suspected autotrophic bacteria are probably chemolithoautotrophic (CLA), utilizing trace iron, manganese, or sulfur in the limestone and dolomitic bedrock to mechanically (and possibly biochemically) erode the substrate to produce residual floor deposits. Because other major sources of organic matter have not been detected, we suggest that these CLA bacteria are providing requisite organic matter to the known heterotrophic bacteria and fungi in the residues. The cavewide bacterial and fungal distribution, the large volumes of corrosion residues, and the presence of ancient bacterial filaments in unusual calcite speleothems (biothems) attest to the apparent longevity of microbial occupation in this cave

A recent colonization of Dolichopoda cave crickets in the Poscola cave (Orthoptera, Rhaphidophoridae)., 1996, Bernardini Camilla, Cesaroni Donatella, Di Russo Claudio, Rampini Mauro, Sbordoni Valerio
We report a series of investigations carried out on a Dolichopoda population recently discovered in the Poscola cave and in some small caves nearby (Lessini Mountains, Vicenza). This population is located north of Po river, outside the present known geographic range of this genus in Italy. Morphology of the epiphallus corroborated by chromosome and allozyme analysis indicated that this population belongs to D. laetitiae. Study of the genetic structure of population in the Poscola area revealed high gene flow levels between Poscola and the other minor caves, suggesting the occurrence of a single expanding population. This finding as well as mark-recapture data on population size, migrations, age structure and habitat type strongly suggest that the Poscola population is the result of a recent colonization due to anthropocore dispersal.

A simple scenario for stygobitization in Stenobermuda Schultz, 1978 (Isopoda Asellota Stenetriidae), with description of a new species from Andros Island, Bahamas, 1997, Botosaneanu Lazare, Iliffe Thomas M.
Description of a new stygobitic and troglomorphic species of Stenobermuda from a Blue Hole in the Bahamas, is an opportunity for speculation about hypogean colonization by this and by another cave-dwelling species from Bermuda, starting from populations of a widely distributed Western Atlantic shallow water marine species.

The Hawaiian cave planthoppers (Homoptera: Fulgoroidea: Cixiidae); A model for rapid subterranean speciation?, 1997, Hoch Hannelore
After the successful colonization of a single ancestral species in the Hawaiian Islands, planthoppers of the cixiid genus Oliarus underwent intensive adaptive radiation resulting in 80 described endemic species. Oliarus habitats range from montaneous rain forests to dry coastal biotopes and subterranean environments. At least 7 independant evolutionary lines represented by different species have adapted to lava tubes on Molokai (1), Maui (3), and Hawaii Island (3). Behavioral and morphological studies on one of these evolutionary lines on Hawaii Island, the blind, flight- and pigmentless Oliarus polyphentus have provided evidence for reproductive isolation between allopatric populations which may in fact be separate species. Significant differences in song parameters were observed even between populations from neighbouring lava tubes, although the planthoppers are capable of underground migration through the voids and cracks of the mesocavernous rock system which is extant in young basalt: after a little more than 20 years, lava tubes within the Mauna Ulu 1974 flow had been colonized by O. 'polyphenius" individuals, most probably originating from a near-by forestkipuka. Amazingly, this species complex is found on the youngest of the Hawaiian Islands, with probably less than 0.5 m.y., which suggests rapid speciation processes. Field observations have led to the development of a hypothesis to match underground speciation with the dynamics of vegetational succession on the surface of active volcanoes. Planthopper range partitioning and geographic separation of populations by young lava flows, founder events and small population size may be important factors involved in rapid divergence.

Deforestation in the Dominican Republic: a village-level view, 1997, Brothers Ts,
Deforestation is still rapid in some parts of the Caribbean, though it has attracted much less attention than deforestation in mainland Latin America. This paper examines the history and causes of the recent rapid deforestation of a lowland karst region of the Dominican Republic in the light of models derived from studies in Central America and the Amazon. Investigation was limited to the vicinity of a single village (Los Limones). Information was drawn from interviews, questionnaires and ground reconnaissance, in addition to archival information and aerial photographs. Deforestation at Los Limones involved many of the same elements seen in mainland deforestation, including construction of access roads, spontaneous agricultural colonization, and pasture conversion, but it followed no single mainland model. Logging, not normally emphasized as a cause of Latin American deforestation, played an important role in opening up the forest to agricultural settlement. Pasture conversion was not a matter of aggregation of large ranches by wealthy absentee landowners, as in the Amazon, but apparently a local response to the economic and ecological advantages of cattle raising. Government actions strongly influenced deforestation, but not via colonization schemes or economic subsidies for cattle ranching; the rhythm of deforestation at Los Limones was tied to the monopolistic practices of the dictatorship of Rafael Trujillo and the social disorganization following his assassination. The national government in fact bears the primary responsibility for deforestation of Los Haitises, a conclusion that contradicts the government's own suggestion that the destruction was largely carried out by poor farmers. Prospects for rehabilitation of the deforested area are gloomy because of the extent of ecological damage and the continued adversarial relationship between the government and the rural population

Spatial and temporal patterns of bacterial density and metabolic activity in a karst aquifer, 2001, Simon K. S. , Gibert J. , Petitot P. , Laurent R. ,
Karst aquifers are heterotrophic ecosystems fueled by organic matter imported from the surface. The temporal pattern of floods influences organic matter import and the spatial distribution of organic matter and biofilms in aquifer structural zones. We investigated spatial and temporal patterns of bacterial density and activity as indicators of energy availability and microbial dynamics in a karst aquifer. During baseflow, bacterial density and microbial hydrolytic activity were similar in the upper and lower zones of the aquifer. Floods apparently scoured aquifer biofilms and trans ported soil bacteria into the aquifer, increasing inactive bacterial density in the water column. Respiring bacterial density did not respond to floods and changed little over time. The overall proportion of total bacteria that were respiring was very high on some dates, resulting from a reduction of inactive cell density during flood recession. Floods appear to be key events in scouring senescent microbial assemblages in karst aquifers and stimulating microbial recolonization of the aquifer matrix. We conclude that a conceptual model of karst aquifer structure and function should incorporate changes caused by alternation between flooding and drying in the aquifer

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