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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That bourne is (british.) 1. a stream that appears in a normally dry valley, particularly on the chalk outcrop in southern england, during wet conditions [9]. 2. intermittent stream in a normally dry valley in chalk country [10].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for communication (Keyword) returned 39 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 39
Lascaux Charcoal, 1951, Barghoorn Es, Movius Hl,

Fossil Deposits under the Entrance of Carlsbad Caverns, 1953, Black Dm,

A Device for Surveying and Speech Communication Underground, 1963, Lord H.

Cave-to-Surface Magnetic Induction Direction Finding and Communication, 1966, Charlton, Jr. , Royce E.

Old Napier Downs Cave, west Kimberly, Western Australia, 1966, Jennings, J. N.

Although small caves are numerous in the limestone Ranges of the Fitzroy Basin in West Kimberly, (sic, actually Kimberley) large and long caves are few on the basis of present knowledge, and reasons for this paucity are ready to find (Jennings, 1962). Of all the known caves, The Tunnel has probably the greatest geomorphological interest (Jennings and Sweeting, 1963a), though it offers little apparent prospect for further exploration. The string of caves ending in Cave Spring in Bugle Gap (Jennings and Sweeting, 1963b) seemed more promising in this latter respect when examined in 1959 and D.C. Lowry (Personal Communication) reports finding considerable extension to one of these caves in a recent visit. Although the cave to be discussed here - Old Napier Downs Cave - is not very large in terms of its known dimensions and a brief reference to it has already been made (Jennings and Sweeting, 1963b, p.27), fuller description in a journal more readily accessible to Australian speleologists and publication of a survey are justified because of the prospects for further exploration that the cave itself and its neighbourhood present.


Caves of Vakuta, Trobriand Islands, Papua, 1969, Ollier C. D. , Holdsworth D. K

In a previous paper (1968a) we described caves of Kiriwina, the largest of the Trobriand Islands, a group of coral islands situated 100 miles off the north-east coast of Papua. This paper records caves of Vakuta, a smaller island south of Kiriwina. Vakuta is shaped like a boomerang (Figure 1) and is separated from the southern tip of Kiriwina by Kasilamaka Passage, about half a mile wide. The area of Vakuta Island is approximately 11 square miles. The island contains three villages, the most important being Vakuta Village which has a Methodist (now United Church) Mission. A track links Vakuta Village to Kasilamaka Passage which can be crossed by native canoe; the track continues on Kiriwina to Losuia, 40 miles north. Vakuta Island has a population of about 500. The Vakutans are of the same mixed Melanesian-Polynesian stock as the people of Kiriwina. Woodcarving is not practised to the same extent as in Kiriwina and the quality is generally low. However, some canoes have particularly well decorated prows. The influence of the Mission is very evident in the dress of the Vakutans and in the village, old cast-off clothing, often quite dirty, is the rule. In the fields the women wear grass and fibre skirts though the men were not seen to wear a pubic leaf as usual in Kiriwina, but shorts. Papuan Airlines operate a weekly flight between Port Moresby and Losuia, the Administration Centre, using Skyvan aircraft. Weekend tourist charter flights in DC-3 aircraft arrive frequently, but irregularly, from Port Moresby and occasionally from Lae and Rabual. The authors visited Vakuta Island in December, 1968. Guides were recruited locally and we were fortunate to be assisted by Mr. Gilbert Heers, the only European resident of the island, who speaks fluent Kiriwini which made communication with our guides relatively easy. With his help, we were able to obtain accounts of the legends and traditions associated with the caves on the island. We have also had valuable discussions about Vakuta and the customs and legends of the Trobriand Islands with Mr. Lepani Watson, M.H.A., who was born on Vakuta, and Mr. John Kasaipwalova, a Trobriand Islander now studying at the University of Queensland. We are most grateful for the assistance of these people. Although the most accurate map of the Trobriands is an Admiralty chart, the authors used an old U.S. Army map which was based on a pre-war Government survey. The caves were roughly surveyed using 100 ft tape, prismatic compass and abney level. The village rest-house became the social centre of the village during our stay. We had no difficulty in finding food. A surprising variety of foods such as yams, sweet potato, eggs, pineapples, soursop, tomatoes and fresh coconut appeared and payment was accepted eagerly in stick tobacco and newspaper. Payment in cash was rarely appreciated, though it will become more useful now that a trade store has been established by the Village Co-operative. To avoid repetitive explanations of features in the accounts of individual caves, various general topics will be discussed first.


Optimum Frequencies for Underground Radio Communication, 1970, Davis, Nevin W.

The New Guinea Expedition, 1975 - Communications, 1976, Eavis A. J. , Wilde K. A.

Cave to Surface Communications, 1985, Allum, Ron

The reasons for needing a cave to surface communication system are many, including safety, search and rescue, surveying, science, exploration and commentary. Ideally a unit should be lightweight, portable, robust, easy to operate, have adequate range and be able to communicate speech intelligibly in both directions. The unit described here was designed specifically for use on the 1983 Cocklebiddy Cave expedition. When considering design parameters for a communication system there are many limitations, but in a cave as large as Cocklebiddy these can be less of a restriction. The unit as used does not meet all of the above criteria as an ideal system for all caves, but it worked well in Cocklebiddy Cave, conveying our speech intelligibly with tolerable noise and interference levels.


Themes in Prehistory of the Nullarbor Caves, Semi-Arid Southern Australia, 1986, Davey, Adrian

The 200,000 square kilometre Nullarbor Plain is a largely and relatively inhospitable tract of semi-arid land on the southern coast of Australia. It is also one of the world's largest and probably oldest karst landscapes. It contains a substantial number of caves, some of them very large. The sheer size of the plain together with its lack of surface water have made it a powerful ecological, physical and psychological barrier to the dispersal of evolving plants and animals and to human trade, settlement and communications. Because the plain is otherwise easily perceived as featureless, the more obvious of the caves have played an unusually prominent part in human exploration and occupation of the region. Aboriginal prehistory of cave exploration and use extends over many millenia. Two themes are especially interesting: quarrying underground as one of the earliest, and the role of water and shade in an inhospitable environment as the most persistent. The advent of European, Afghan and other cultures on this part of the southern coastline during the last four centuries has diversified the relevant historic themes. Victorian British discovery and exploration is the first stage in modern recognition of the caves, although long after the region was first discovered. The next and perhaps most remarkable phase brings together developments in Australian aviation and the adaptation of a grounded mariner to the land and air. Eventually the action moves on to the development of organised speleology. Other sub-themes in human interactions with the caves in this large waterless area include what may turn out to be either art or vandalism. They also include attempted grand solutions to the problem of water, by improbable engineering, as well as adventures of tourism, recreation and science.


Sport and Scout Caving - The Present Dilemma, 1987, Crabb, Evalt

This paper traces the evolution of organised caving as a post World War 2 phenomenon, and the changes in practice and attitude that have occurred. These practices are contrasted against stated behavioural codes. Parallel to this, the development of caving as a scouting activity is discussed, with reference to the general principles and practices of scouting. The author has been working toward evolving policies and practices within scouting which are consistent with the needs of conservation and the underlying philosophies of scouting. Implementation of these attitudes in one area is fully detailed, with some comment on the success and acceptability of the program. This training program is contrasted against the foreshadowed N.S.W. Branch Policy on Rock-Related Activities. The sequential discussion highlights some weaknesses within clubs and A.S.F., particularly in our methods of communication. There are no firm proposals, but possible directions for future discussions are indicated. It is the intention of this paper to give a historical perspective to some of the present perceived conflicts; in reality, the only conflict is between our oft-expressed aim of conservation of caves (i.e. safeguard the karst heritage of Australia), and our visible activity - use of caves for recreational activity. Both the intensity of expression of our concern, and lessening of self-constraint on recreational activity have greatly magnified with time; we are fast approaching a 'crossroads' scenario where our credibility is at great risk.


Symposium Abstract: VLF Radio for underground communications, 1992, Gibson A. D.

BRIEF COMMUNICATION - ADDITIONAL CRANIAL REMAINS FROM VINDIJA-CAVE, CROATIA, 1994, Smith F. H. , Ahern J. C. ,
Two additional cranial specimens from Vindija cave, Croatia, are described. One specimen is a zygomatic, providing the first information about the midfacial anatomy of the Vindija hominids. The other specimen is a frontal/supraorbital torus fragment. Both specimens exhibit morphology typically associated with Neandertals. They derive from level G, and provide further indication that both the level G, and G, hominids at Vindija represent Neandertals. (C) 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc

Karstmorphological research in the Mecsek Mountains, South Hungary, 1999, Barta Ká, Roly, Tarnai Tamá, S

Besides less investigated and less known karst areas are Mecsek Mountains in South Hungary. For four years research has been conducted to confirm the existence of a cave system several kilometres in length beyond the most abundant karst spring of the Western Mecsek, the Vízfö Spring. Attempts have been made to find the optimal site for opening an entrance to the cave. The article is meant to show the methods and achievements of preliminary geomorphological and hydrological field surveys, which were preceded by a thorough study of literature. Parallel to clearing the entrance to the cave, observations of karst processes and features were also made. The article presents the findings concerning the impacts of young tectonic movements on the extension and links of the catchment area, the communication between surface and underground water-courses and cave formation.


Speleogenesis under deep-seated and confined settings, 2000, Klimchouk A. B.
The terms deep-seated, hypogenic and artesian speleogenesis refer to closely related and overlapping (although not entirely equivalent) concepts. Concerning groundwater hydrodynamics, the vast majority of deep-seated and hypogenic karst develops under confined settings, or settings that are unconfined but paragenetic or subsequent to confinement. Certain diagnostic features of confined groundwater circulation and deep-seated environments distinguish these conditions from those formed in unconfined settings. The last few decades have seen a growing recognition of the variety and importance of hypogenic dissolution processes and of speleogenesis under confined settings which commonly precedes unconfined development. Views of artesian speleogenesis are controversial. It was commonly ignored as a site for cave origin because the classic concept of artesian flow implies long lateral travel distances for groundwater within a soluble unit, resulting in a low capacity to generate caves within the confined area. However, the recognition of aspects derived from non-classical views of artesian flow, namely the role of cross-formation hydraulic communication within artesian basins, the concept of transverse speleogenesis, and the inversion of hydrogeologic function of beds in a sequence, allows a revision of the theory of artesian speleogenesis and views on the origin of many cave types. Under artesian speleogenesis, discharge through a cave is always hydraulically controlled, being constrained either by the hydraulic capacity of the passages or by that of the major confining bed or other overlying formations. In contrast to normal phreatic conditions, the discharge and enlargement rate do not increase dramatically after the kinetic breakthrough in the early evolution of conduits. Dissolution rates depend mainly on the mass balance rather than on solution kinetics during the artesian stage. Artesian speleogenesis is immensely important to speleo-inception, but it also accounts for the development of some of the largest known caves in the world and of many smaller caves. Typical conditions of recharge, the flow pattern through the soluble rocks, and groundwater aggressiveness favor uniform, rather than competing, development of conduits, resulting in maze caves where the proper structural prerequisites exist. The most common flow pattern favoring artesian speleogenesis is upward cross-formation flow in areas of topographic/potentiometric lows. The hydrodynamic influence of prominent valleys or depressions may extend more than a thousand meters below the surface. Artesian speleogenesis and flow through soluble beds are commonly transverse, with conduit development occurring across the beds rather than laterally. Cross-formational flow favors a variety of dissolution mechanisms that commonly involve mixing. Hydrogeochemical mechanisms of speleogenesis are particularly diverse and potent where carbonate and sulfate beds alternate and within or adjacent to hydrocarbon-bearing basins.

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