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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 11 Jul, 2012
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That submarine spring is see spring, submarine.?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
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Search in KarstBase

Your search for constant (Keyword) returned 155 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 155
The role of tributary mixing in chemical variations at a karst spring, Milandre, Switzerland, , Perrin J. , Jeannin P. Y. , Cornaton F. ,
SummarySolute concentration variations during flood events were investigated in a karst aquifer of the Swiss Jura. Observations were made at the spring, and at the three main subterraneous tributaries feeding the spring. A simple transient flow and transport numerical model was able to reproduce chemographs and hydrographs observed at the spring, as a result of a mixing of the concentration and discharge of the respective tributaries. Sensitivity analysis carried out with the model showed that it is possible to produce chemical variations at the spring even if all tributaries have constant (but different for each of them) solute concentrations. This process is called tributary mixing. The good match between observed and modelled curves indicate that, in the phreatic zone, tributary mixing is probably an important process that shapes spring chemographs. Chemical reactions and other mixing components (e.g. from low permeability volumes) have a limited influence.Dissolution-related (calcium, bicarbonate, specific conductance) and pollution-related parameters (nitrate, chloride, potassium) displayed slightly different behaviours: during moderate flood events, the former showed limited variations compared to the latter. During large flood events, both presented chemographs with significant changes. No significant event water participates in moderate flood events and tributary mixing will be the major process shaping chemographs. Variations are greater for parameters with higher spatial variability (e.g. pollution-related). Whereas for large flood events, the contribution of event water becomes significant and influences the chemographs of all the parameters. As a result, spring water vulnerability to an accidental pollution is low during moderate flood events and under base flow conditions. It strongly increases during large flood events, because event water contributes to the spring discharge

Weathering under Constant Conditions, 1922, Cleland Hf,

Processes of limestone cave development., 1964, Howard Alan D.
Three processes successively predominate in enlarging original fractures within limestone into cavern passages: (I) early dissolving by acid produced by oxidizing reactions within the groundwater as it flows through the limestone; (2) dissolving caused by the initial undersaturation with respect to calcite of the groundwater when it enters the limestone; and (3) increased dissolving which occurs at the transition from laminar to turbulent groundwater flow. Only those original fractures in limestone which are widest and which have a high hydraulic gradient acting across them will be enlarged into cavern passages. Until all available surface drainage has been diverted underground, cavern development takes place under a constant hydraulic head, and the rate of limestone solution increases with time. After all available surface drainage has been diverted underground, the discharge through the cave, rather than the hydraulic head, remains constant, and the rate of limestone solution decreases toward a constant value. These principles apply to caverns formed both by water-table flow and by artesian flow.

The cave dwelling bats of Switzerland., 1965, Aellen Villy
Bats, familiar to speleologists, play an important part in animal ecology in caves. Indirectly by their guano, they provide a source of food for numerous cave-dwelling animals and directly, by their own more or less constant presence. 26 species of bats are known from Switzerland, 15 of which occur in caves. Miniopterus schreibersi is considered the only true cave-dweller. The exact distribution of the rare species, including those occurring outside caves, is found in the text and is also indicated on the accompanying maps.

Further investigations into Bacterial and Algal populations of caves in South Wales., 1967, Williams Mary Ann Mason
Some physical data collected over a period of a year in seven locations of the Ogof Ffynnon Ddu cave system in South Wales are reported, including humidity, air and water temperature, pH of the water, as well as the organic oxygen demand of the water. It is shown that seasonal variations in the physical constant in this particular cave system are not well marked. Algae and bacteria were isolated from the soil samples and from calcareous deposits. A total of 30 algal species, of which 13 belong to the Cyanophyta, 22 to the Chlorophyta, and 7 to the Chrysophyta~Baccilariophyceae were found. Thirty-eight heterotrophic and 7 autotrophic bacteria were isolated. The thin films on water surfaces, besides diatoms, contained several flagellates and some ostracods, while some protozoa were found associated with the bacteria and algae in the soft calcite deposits.

Stenasellus skopljensis thermalis ssp. n. (Crustacea, Isopoda) of a hot spring in Bosnia., 1971, Lattingerpenko Romana, Mestrov Milan
The new subspecies Stenasellus skopljensis thermalis, from Banja Luka (Bosnie, Yugoslavia) is described. From the ecological point of view this form differs from the others because it inhabits underground waters of elevated temperature (240C). Another constantly abundant species, St. hungaricus thermalis Mestrov, also occurs in Yugoslavia under the same ecological conditions, in the warm springs of Podsused near Zagreb. This indicates that these underground waters at elevated temperature are not accidental but preferred habitats for these forms, and confirms once again that thermal waters of this type are the biotopes-refuges in which certain relic forms are retained.

Stenasellus skopljensis thermalis ssp. n. (Crustacea, Isopoda) of a hot spring in Bosnia., 1971, Lattingerpenko Romana, Mestrov Milan
The new subspecies Stenasellus skopljensis thermalis, from Banja Luka (Bosnie, Yugoslavia) is described. From the ecological point of view this form differs from the others because it inhabits underground waters of elevated temperature (240C). Another constantly abundant species, St. hungaricus thermalis Mestrov, also occurs in Yugoslavia under the same ecological conditions, in the warm springs of Podsused near Zagreb. This indicates that these underground waters at elevated temperature are not accidental but preferred habitats for these forms, and confirms once again that thermal waters of this type are the biotopes-refuges in which certain relic forms are retained.

Saturated Calcite Solutions: a theoretical study evaluating the solubility product and other constants, 1973, Picknett R. G.

Temperate preference responses of some aquatic, cave-adapted Crustaceans from Central Texas and Northeastern Mexico., 1973, Elliot William R. , W. Mitchell Robert
The temperature preference responses of five species of troglobite crustaceans were studied in a 15-30C gradient. Stygonectes hadenoecus, S. russelli and Asellus reddelli had no discernible temperature preferenda. Speocirolana bolivari had a weak preference for 20-30C. Cirolanides texensis had a pronounced preference for 20-30C, temperatures much warmer than that of its habitat. The lack of temperature preferenda in three species agrees with the hypothesis that imprisoned troglobites tend to lose responses to those environmental variables which are constant in caves. S. bolivari may retain its temperature selectivity because of a slow rate of cave-adaptation. It is hypothised that C. texensis is recently descended from a tropical, epigean, freshwater ancestor.

Temperate preference responses of some aquatic, cave-adapted Crustaceans from Central Texas and Northeastern Mexico., 1973, Elliot William R. , W. Mitchell Robert
The temperature preference responses of five species of troglobite crustaceans were studied in a 15-30C gradient. Stygonectes hadenoecus, S. russelli and Asellus reddelli had no discernible temperature preferenda. Speocirolana bolivari had a weak preference for 20-30C. Cirolanides texensis had a pronounced preference for 20-30C, temperatures much warmer than that of its habitat. The lack of temperature preferenda in three species agrees with the hypothesis that imprisoned troglobites tend to lose responses to those environmental variables which are constant in caves. S. bolivari may retain its temperature selectivity because of a slow rate of cave-adaptation. It is hypothised that C. texensis is recently descended from a tropical, epigean, freshwater ancestor.

Karst Hydrogeology and Geomorphology of the Sierra de El Abra and the Valles-San Luis Potosí Region, México, PhD Thesis, 1977, Fish, Johnnie Edward

The general objective of this work was to develop a basic understanding of the karst hydrology, the nature and origin of the caves, the water chemistry, the surface geomorphology, and relationships among these aspects for a high relief tropical karst region having a thick section of limestone. The Valles-San Luis Potosí region of northeastern México, and in particular, the Sierra de El Abra, was selected for the study. A Cretaceous Platform approximately 200 km wide and 300 km long (N-S) delimits the region of interest. A thick Lower Cretaceous deposit of gypsum and anydrite, and probably surrounded by Lower Cretaceous limestone facies, is overlain by more than 1000 m of the thick-bedded middle Cretaceous El Abra limestone, which has a thick platform-margin reef. The Sierra de El Abra is a greatly elongated range along the eastern margin of the Platform. During the late Cretaceous, the region was covered by thick deposits of impermeable rocks. During the early Tertiary, the area was folded, uplifted, and subjected to erosion. A high relief karst having a wide variety of geomorphic forms controlled by climate and structure has developed. Rainfall in the region varies from 250-2500 mm and is strongly concentrated in the months June-October, when very large rainfalls often occur.
A number of specific investigations were made to meet the general objective given above, with special emphasis on those that provide information concerning the nature of ground-water flow systems in the region. Most of the runoff from the region passes through the karstic subsurface. Large portions of the region have no surface runoff whatsoever. The El Abra Formation is continuous over nearly the whole Platform, and it defines a region of very active ground-water circulation. Discharge from the aquifer occurs at a number of large and many small springs. Two of them, the Coy and the Frío springs group, are among the largest springs in the world with average discharges of approximately 24 m³/sec and 28 m³/sec respectively. Most of the dry season regional discharge is from a few large springs at low elevations along the eastern margin of the Platform. The flow systems give extremely dynamic responses to large precipitation events; floods at springs usually crest roughly one day after the causal rainfall and most springs have discharge variations (0max/0min) of 25-100 times. These facts indicate well-developed conduit flow systems.
The hydrochemical and hydrologic evidence in combination with the hydrogeologic setting demonstrate the existence of regional ground-water flow to several of the large eastern springs. Hydrochemical mixing-model calculations show that the amount of regional flow is at least 12 m³/sec, that it has an approximately constant flux, and that the local flow systems provide the extremely variable component of spring discharge. The chemical and physical properties of the springs are explained in terms of local and regional flow systems.
Local studies carried out in the Sierra de El Abra show that large conduits have developed, and that large fluctuations of the water table occur. The large fossil caves in the range were part of great deep phreatic flow systems which circulated at least 300 m below ancient water tables and which discharged onto ancient coastal plains much higher than the present one. The western margin swallet caves are of the floodwater type. The cave are structurally controlled.
Knowledge gained in this study should provide a basis for planning future research, and in particular for water resource development. The aquifer has great potential for water supply, but little of that potential is presently used.


Spontaneous and induced acivity patterns in troglobite beetles (Genera Aphaenops, Geotrechus,Speonomus)., 1978, Lamprecht G. , Weber F.
In Constant temperature the troglobite beetles Aphaenops cerberus and pluto, Geotrechus orpheus and Speonomus diecki are aperiodically active. By periodogram analysis neither circadian nor ultradian or infradian periodic components can be found. Moreover there are no relevant correlations between the lengths of successive activity bursts and rest pauses. Consequently the activity patterns are stochasticly structured.; In cases with constancy of activity respectively rest behaviour the probabilities for the transition from activity to rest and from rest to activity are computed using the Frequency histograms of lengths of activity bursts and rest pauses. The transition probability is time-invariant if the observed histogram can be approximated to the negative exponential function. Y=ae -fx . The transition probability increases continuously if the observed histogram can be approximated to the Poisson or normal function. -74% of the investigated frequency histograms of the length of activity bursts and 57% of the histograms of the lengths of rest pauses can be approximated to one of the tested functions. -Aphaenops and Geotrechus specimens do not react to changes of the illumination intensity. Conversely temperature cycles induce distinct activity periodicities. In Aphaenops the mean length of activity bursts is -on the average; less temperature dependent than the mean length of rest pauses. Moreover, in this species the mean length of bursts is weakly negatively correlated with the mean length of pauses.; The evolution and adaptive reactions of the random mechanism of activity control in troglobite animals are discussed.

Locomotor responses of the cave fish Astyanax jordani (Pisces, Characidae) to periodic and aperiodic light and temperature signals., 1978, Thins Georges, Weyers M.
The locomotory activity of adult cave fishes Astyanax jordani was recorded in isolation in the following light and temperature conditions: constant conditions (100 Lx; 200C), in a light cycle (LD:11/11 -10 Lx -100 Lx) and in a temperature cycle (11/11; 17/20, 19/22, 20/23, 27/30 C). All longitudinal time series extended for a minimum of 30 days. Results show: (1) That no circadian regulation appears in constant conditions; (2) that passive entrainment occurs in LD (Amplitude: 90 Lx) and in periodic temperature conditions (Amplitude: 3C). The entrainment effect damps out and varies individually; (3) that the mean activity increases with temperature; (4) The adjustment of activity to periodic signals is individually stable. These results suggest that A. Jordani is devoid of any endogenous oscillator of the circadian type. The observed thermal adaptation could have the following functions: (1) To increase the level of activity in function of the thermal level under the form of passive entrainment; (2) To enhance the exploratory behaviour of the fish in search of a thermal preference allowing the animal to keep inside a well defined zone of the subterranean biotope in relation to small local temperature changes.

Mating behaviour and barriers to hybridization in the cave beetle of the Speonomus delarouzeei complex (Coleoptera, Catopidae, Bathysciinae), 1988, Juberthiejupeau Lysiane
The complex Speonomus delarouzeei combines 6 species which were previously synonymized. Using behavioural data, based on 12 populations, the author assesses the validity of 4 species and points out the occurrence of 2 species as yet undescribed. Constant and important differences during the mating appear between these different species. They concern the number of behavioural steps, the duration, the number of clappings of antennae, the abdominal male movements and the rubbing of female abdomen. The results of crossing experiments between different species indicate a prezygotic reproductive isolation with atypical matings and no sperm deposit. Between the populations of S. delarouzeei s. str., having the same mating pattern some small differences observed do not represent barriers to hybridization and they may represent a speciation event at a very early stage.

Introduction une histoire des tudes karstiques, 1990, Renault, Ph.
History of speleo-karstology: an introduction - Before any historical study, it seems important to recall some general notions, studied in recent publications. History of sciences does not limit itself to a repertory of events or to statistics, even when those matters give the basic and main notions. It traces back the evolution of a thought acting upon nature. The historico-critical analysis shows that the noticed trajectories are irregular and moved by crisis for instance with Newton, Lavoisier, Einstein correspond to theory conflicts. Bachelard, Khun, Piaget, etc., bring the analytic elements particularly the notion of paradigm explaining the constant readjustments of scientific system. History of science, behind the stories, must identify the elements of epistemology, which explains the successive points of view of a discipline.

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