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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That undercut karren is these are rinnenkarren (solution grooves) that have been transformed by humus filling and by their side walls having been hollowed under by biogenic co2 [3].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for copper (Keyword) returned 20 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 20
Identification of the origin of oreforming solutions by the use of stable isotopes, 1977, Sheppard S. M. F. ,
SynopsisThe four major different types of water -- magmatic, metamorphic, sea water and/or connate, and meteoric water -- have characteristic hydrogen (D/H) and oxygen (18O/16O) isotope ratios. Applied to the analysis of isotopic data on hydrothermal minerals, fluid inclusions and waters from active geothermal systems, these ratios indicate that waters of several origins are involved with ore deposition in the volcanic and epizonal intrusive environment. Water of a single origin dominates main-stage mineralization in some deposits: magmatic -- Casapalca, Peru (Ag-Pb-Zn-Cu); meteoric -- Butte, Montana (Cu-Zn-Mn), epithermal deposits, e.g. Goldfield, Tonopah, Nevada (Ag-Au), Pachuca, Mexico (Ag-Au), San Juan Mountains District, Colorado (Ag-Au-Pb-Zn); sea water -- Troodos, Cyprus (Fe-Cu), Kuroko, Japan (Fe-Cu-Pb-Zn). Solutions of more than one origin are important in certain deposits (magmatic and meteoric -- porphyry copper and molybdenum deposits) and are present in many. In the porphyry Cu-Mo deposits the initial major ore transportation and alteration processes (K-feldspar-biotite alteration) are magmatic-hydrothermal events that occur at 750-500{degrees}C. These fluids are typically highly saline Na-K-Ca-Cl-rich brines (more than 15 wt % equivalent NaCl). The convecting meteoric-hydrothermal system that develops in the surrounding country rocks with relatively low integrated water/rock ratios (less than 0.5 atom % oxygen) subsequently collapses in on a waning magmatic-hydrothermal system at about 350-200{degrees}C. These fluids generally have moderate to low salinities (less than 15 wt % equivalent NaCl). Differences among these deposits are probably in part related to variations in the relative importance of the meteoric-hydrothermal versus the magmatic-hydrothermal events. The sulphur comes from the intrusion and possibly also from the country rocks. Deposits in which meteoric or sea water is the dominant constituent of the hydrothermal fluids come from epizonal intrusive and sub-oceanic environments where the volcanic country rocks are fractured or well jointed and highly permeable. Integrated water/rock ratios are typically high, with minimum values of 0.5 or higher (atom % oxygen) -- the magmatic water contribution is often drowned out'. Salinities are low to very low (less than 10 wt % equivalent NaCl), and temperatures are usually in the range 350-150{degrees}C. The intrusion supplies the energy to drive the large-scale convective circulation system. The sulphur comes from the intrusion, the country rocks and/or the sea water. Argillic alteration, which occurs to depths of several hundred metres, generated during supergene weathering in many of these deposits is isotopically distinguishable from hydrothermal clays

The Concentration of Cadmium, Copper, Lead and Zinc in Sediments from some Caves and Associated Surface Streams on Mendip, Somerset, 1978, Stenner R. D.

Determination of the Causes of Air Flow in Coppermine Cave, Yarrangobilly, 1984, Michie, N. A.

Observations of air flow through Coppermine Cave, Yarrangobilly, are reported. A model is presented of the cave as a two entrance system with air flow dominated by air density differentials with little sensitivity to surface wind. The measurement technique and data analysis are described.


A MIDDLE PROTEROZOIC PALEOKARST UNCONFORMITY AND ASSOCIATED SEDIMENTARY-ROCKS, ELU BASIN, NORTHWEST CANADA, 1991, Pelechaty S. M. , James N. P. , Kerans C. , Grotzinger J. P. ,
A major palaeokarst erosion surface is developed within the middle Proterozoic Elu Basin, northwestern Canada. This palaeokarst is named the sub-Kanuyak unconformity and truncates the Parry Bay Formation, a sequence of shallow-marine dolostones that were deposited within a north-facing carbonate platform under a semi-arid climate. The sub-Kanuyak unconformity exhibits up to 90 m of local relief, and also formed under semi-arid conditions when Parry Bay dolostones were subaerially exposed during a relative sea-level drop of about 180 m. Caves and various karren developed within the meteoric vadose and phreatic zones. Their geometry, size and orientation were largely controlled by northwest- and northeast-trending antecedent joints, bedding, and lithology. Near-surface caves later collapsed forming valleys, and intervening towers or walls, and plains. Minor terra rossa formed on top of highs. Karstification was most pronounced in southern parts of Bathurst Inlet but decreased northward, probably reflecting varying lengths of exposure time along a north-dipping slope. The Kanuyak Formation is up to 65 m thick, and partially covers the underlying palaeokarst. It consists of six lithofacies: (i) breccia formed during collapse of caves, as reworked collapse breccia and regolith; (ii) conglomerate representing gravel-dominated braided-fluvial deposits; (iii) sandstone deposited as braided-fluvial and storm-dominated lacustrine deposits; (iv) interbedded sandstone, siltstone and mudstone of sheet flood origin; (v) dolostones formed from dolocretes and quiet-water lacustrine deposits; and (vi) red-beds representing intertidal-marine mudflat deposits. Rivers flowed toward the northwest and northeast within karst valleys and caves; lakes were also situated within valleys; marine mudflat sediments completely cover the palaeokarst to the north. A regional correlation of the sub-Kanuyak unconformity with the intra-Greenhorn Lakes disconformity within the Coppermine homocline suggests that similar styles of karstification occurred over an extensive region. The Elu Basin palaeokarst, however, was developed more landward, and was exposed for a longer period of time than the Coppermine homocline palaeokarst

Thesis Abstract: Copper tolerant mycoflora in the Alderley Edge mine complex [Cheshire], 1996, Hollingworth S.

Chromophores Producing Blue Speleothems at Cliefden, NSW, 2002, Turner, Ken
Osborne (1978) has described in some detail the blue stalactites that occur in Murder and Boonderoo Caves at Cliefden, NSW and reports "that the colour is due to some impurity in the aragonite and not to refractive effects". In this study, small samples from the Boonderoo and Taplow Maze blue speleothems have been chemically analysed. Based on these chemical analyses it is suggested that the major chromophore is copper, with secondary contributions from chromium (Taplow Maze only) and perhaps nickel.

Chromophores Producing Blue Speleothems at Cliefden, NSW, 2002, Turner, Ken

Osborne (1978) has described in some detail the blue stalactites that occur in Murder and Boonderoo Caves at Cliefden, NSW and reports "that the colour is due to some impurity in the aragonite and not to refractive effects". In this study, small samples from the Boonderoo and Taplow Maze blue speleothems have been chemically analysed. Based on these chemical analyses it is suggested that the major chromophore is copper, with secondary contributions from chromium (Taplow Maze only) and perhaps nickel.


Contribution to knowledge of the content of heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Zn and Cd) in speleological objects in the Risnjak national park (Croatia), 2004, Vrbek Boris, Buzjak Nenad

Samples of silt were taken from six speleological objects in the Risnjak National Park in Gorski kotar area (NW Croatia). The samples were taken from almost inaccessible rock fissures and shafts in order to find the most natural sediment outside the reach of anthropogenic pollution. The samples were examined in the Laboratory of the Forest Research Institute, where standard pedological analyses were performed, and the content of several heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Zn and Cd) was determined. The results indicate relatively low values of the content of lead, copper and zinc, while the values of cadmium in the sediment were increased above the limit level of 2 mgkg-1 in the majority of speleological objects. The content of other heavy metals (Pb, Cu and Zn) in mgkg-1 was lower than previously determined in samples taken from other speleological objects on the Croatian territory. Also, the content of heavy metals was lower in relation to surface soil samples taken from the humus horizon and mineral part of the soil under the parent rock of limestone, when sampling the soils of the Risnjak National Park


Les karsts latritiques de Nouvelle-Caldonie, 2005, Genna Antonin, Bailly Laurent, Lafoy Yves, Aug Thierry
The lateritic karsts of New Caledonia - The metallogenetic role of karst phenomena is known for a long time. The main ore bodies formed in this way contain aluminium, lead-zinc, nickel, or copper. In New Caledonia, the humid tropical climate was the reason for the development of various karst types within carbonate formations and ultramafic rocks of the caledonian ophiolite. Nickel concentrated in altered pockets is mined since the 19th century. The genesis of the ore was debated controversially, and different geological models had been proposed. Initially, the ores were interpreted as being hydrothermal deposits. Then, they were considered supergene, with meteoric fluids using pre-existing fractures. They also were considered as being contemporaneous to radially expanding neotectonic activity. The lateritic alteration of the peridotites began on a Miocene paleosurface. By means of a structural analysis, we show that the listric faults containing the mineralisation are due to karstic collapses. A detailed analysis of the complete karst buildup is made, where hydrauic fracturing plays a dominant role in the dynamics and structurisation of the karst.

Magmatic and Hydrothermal Chronology of the Giant Rio Blanco Porphyry Copper Deposit, Central Chile: Implications of an Integrated U-Pb and 40Ar/39Ar Database, 2005, Deckart K, Clark Ah, Celso Aa, Ricardo Vr, Bertens An, Mortensen Jk, Fanning M,
The history of hypabyssal intrusion and hydrothermal activity in the northeastern and central parts of the be-hemothian (sensu Clark, 1993) Rio Blanco-Los Bronces porphyry copper-molybdenum deposit is clarified on the basis of integrated U-Pb and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology. Isotope dilution thermal ion mass spectrometry (ID-TIMS) U-Pb dates for zircon separates and ID-TIMS and sensitive high resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) dates for single zircon grains in pre-, syn- and late-mineralization volcanic and intrusive host rocks in the Rio Blanco, Don Luis, and Sur-Sur mining sectors provide a temporal framework for interpretation of incremental-heating and spot-fusion 40Ar/39Ar dates for, respectively, magmatic biotite and hydrothermal biotite, muscovite, and orthoclase. The ore deposit is hosted in part by 16.77 {} 0.25 to 17.20 {} 0.05 (2{sigma}) Ma andesitic volcanic strata of the Farellones Formation, but the major host rocks are units of the San Francisco batholith, including the 11.96 {} 0.40 Ma Rio Blanco granodiorite (mine terminology), the 8.40 {} 0.23 Ma Cascada granodiorite, and the 8.16 {} 0.45 Ma diorite. Hypabyssal dacitic intrusions (late porphyries) emplaced into the batholith yield 206Pb/238U ID-TIMS dates ranging from 6.32 {} 0.09 Ma (quartz monzonite porphyry), through 5.84 {} 0.03 Ma (feldspar porphyry) to 5.23 {} 0.07 Ma (Don Luis porphyry). The late-mineralization Rio Blanco dacite plug yields a SHRIMP zircon age of 4.92 {} 0.09 Ma. The 40Ar/39Ar plateau ages for phenocrystic biotites in quartz monzonite porphyry, feldspar porphyry, and Don Luis porphyry, as well as the preore diorite, range only from 5.12 {} 0.07 to 4.57 {} 0.06 Ma. All are significantly younger than the corresponding zircons and exhibit no correlation with intrusive sequence. The 40Ar/39Ar ages for hydrothermal biotite and orthoclase veins within the San Francisco batholith units fall in a narrow interval from 5.32 {} 0.27 to 4.59 {} 0.11 Ma. Hydrothermal sericites (muscovite), one associated with chalcopyrite, yielded spot-fusion ages of 4.40 {} 0.15 Ma (Rio Blanco granodiorite hosted) and 4.37 {} 0.06 Ma (Don Luis porphyry hosted). Comparison with the ID-TIMS and SHRIMP zircon ages indicates that most of the 40Ar/39Ar ages, even 95 percent plateaus, do not record initial magmatic cooling or hydrothermal alteration-mineralization events, evidence for quasipervasive reheating to at least 300{degrees}C by successive intrusions. Published Re-Os ages for two molybdenite samples range from 5.4 to 6.3 Ma and overlap extensively with the zircon U-Pb ages for the late porphyries. They imply that Cu-Mo mineralization overlapped temporally with the emplacement of, at least, quartz monzonite porphyry and feldspar porphyry units of the late porphyry suite and was, therefore, contemporaneous with the rise of dacitic melts to subvolcanic levels. Hydrothermal activity is inferred to have continued until 4.37 {} 0.06 Ma, following intrusion of the Don Luis porphyry and the early stages of emplacement of the Rio Blanco dacite plug complex. Hypogene Cu-Mo mineralization therefore probably persisted for 2 m.y. The geochronologic data do not resolve whether ore formation was continuous or episodic, but the observed crosscutting relationships between intensely altered and mineralized country rocks and less altered and mineralized late porphyry bodies support a model in which the ascent of metal-rich brines from an unexposed zone of the parental magma chamber was periodically stimulated by magma perturbation and hypabyssal intrusion

Escherichia coli survival in mantled karst springs and streams, northwest Arkansas Ozarks, USA, 2005, Davis Rk, Hamilton S, Van Brahana J,
Recent studies indicate fecal coliform bacterial concentrations, including Escherichia coli (E. coli), characteristically vary by several orders of magnitude, depending on the hydrology of storm recharge and discharge. E. coli concentrations in spring water increase rapidly during the rising limb of a storm hydrograph, peak prior to or coincident with the peak of the storm pulse, and decline rapidly, well before the recession of the storm hydrograph. This suggests E. coli are associated with resuspension of sediment during the onset of turbulent flow, and indicates viable bacteria reside within the spring and stream sediments. E. coli inoculated chambers were placed in spring and stream environments within the mantled karst of northwest Arkansas to assess long term (> 75 days) E. coli viability. During the 75-day study, a 4-log die-off of E. coli was observed for chambers placed in the Illinois River, and a 5-log die-off for chambers placed in Copperhead Spring. Extrapolation of the regression line for each environment indicates E. coli concentration would reach 1 most probable number (MPN)/100 g sediment at Copperhead Spring in about 105 days, and about 135 days in the Illinois River, based on a starting inoculation of 2.5 x 107 MPN E. coli/100 g of sediment. These in situ observations indicate it is possible for E. coli to survive in these environments for at least four months with no fresh external inputs

Environmental Reconstruction of Karst using a Honeysuckle species widely used in Traditional Chinese Medicine, 2006, Xie Yunqiu, Zhang Cheng, L Yong, Deng Zhenping
As in the deserts of Northwestern China, there is a need to reconstruct the fragile karst of Southwestern China using sustainable techniques that protect the environment and develop the economy. One means of achieving this is to plant species used in traditional Chinese herbal medicine. The characteristics of Honeysuckle used in traditional Chinese medicine, when produced on the Donggangling Formation at Nongla Village in Mashan County, in Guangxi Province of Southwestern China, match those of Honeysuckle grown in traditional production areas of China, and comply with the specification set for the Honeysuckle by the P.R. China Codex. Added properties of the Honeysuckle are the accumulation of phosphorus and potassium, in addition to the accumulation of elements such as calcium, magnesium, copper, zinc and so on. Further discussion considers extending the areas in which this Honeysuckle is currently grown, and its limitations in the karst region of Southwestern China where 60% - 70% of calcareous soil may be suitable for its cultivation.

Environmental Reconstruction of Karst using a Honeysuckle species widely used in Traditional Chinese Medicine, 2006, Yunqiu Xie, Cheng Zhang, Yong L. , Zhenping Deng

As in the deserts of Northwestern China, there is a need to reconstruct the fragile karst of Southwestern China using sustainable techniques that protect the environment and develop the economy. One means of achieving this is to plant species used in traditional Chinese herbal medicine. The characteristics of Honeysuckle used in traditional Chinese medicine, when produced on the Donggangling Formation at Nongla Village in Mashan County, in Guangxi Province of Southwestern China, match those of Honeysuckle grown in traditional production areas of China, and comply with the specification set for the Honeysuckle by the P.R. China Codex. Added properties of the Honeysuckle are the accumulation of phosphorus and potassium, in addition to the accumulation of elements such as calcium, magnesium, copper, zinc and so on. Further discussion considers extending the areas in which this Honeysuckle is currently grown, and its limitations in the karst region of Southwestern China where 60% - 70% of calcareous soil may be suitable for its cultivation.


MICROORGANISMS AS SPELEOGENETIC AGENTS: GEOCHEMICAL DIVERSITY BUT GEOMICROBIAL UNITY, 2009, Boston P. , Spilde M. , Northup D. , Curry M. , Melim L. , Rosaleslagarde L.

Caves provide habitats for a variety of native microorganisms. Many may be simply living in the subsurface, utilizing various sources of detrital organic matter without exerting much impact on their surroundings. However, some speleologically signi?cant microbial communities appear to interact extensively with their rocky environments. These organisms can exert in?uence on the pace, extent, or nature of cave formation, contribute to precise forms that secondary cave decorations may take, potentially act as major agents of subsurface weathering, and sometimes produce a unique type of cave soil, speleosol. Sulfates and sul?des, iron and manganese, carbonates, copper minerals, or silica, may dominate the geochemistry and lithology of a site, but although the details of the chemistry and microbial diversity may differ, a suite of similar ecological themes with speleological consequences can be seen at work in each. These unifying geomicrobiological themes may be useful in assessing the potential biological interactions to be expected in new types of cave environments and may provide analytical tools in the future to help unravel the geochemistry, hydrology, and geology of such systems both on Earth and other Solar System bodies.


Artificial caves of the Aktashskaya Gora area (Tatarstan), 2009, Gunko . .

Mines of XVIII century in copper-rich sandstones in the Aktashskaya gora area are described in the paper. Their significance as historic mining-geological monuments is demonstrated.


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