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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That evaporation opportunity is the amount of water made available for discharge into the atmosphere [16].?

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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for crete (Keyword) returned 134 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 134
Anomalous behaviour of specific electrical conductivity at a karst spring induced by variable catchment boundaries: the case of the Podstenjšek spring, Slovenia, , Ravbar, N. , Engelhardt, I. , Goldscheider, N.

Anomalous behaviour of specific electrical conductivity (SEC) was observed at a karst spring in Slovenia during 26 high-flow events in an 18-month monitoring period. A conceptual model explaining this anomalous SEC variability is presented and reproduced by numerical modelling, and the practical relevance for source protection zoning is discussed. After storm rainfall, discharge increases rapidly, which is typical for karst springs. SEC displays a first maximum during the rising limb of the spring hydrograph, followed by a minimum indicating the arrival of freshly infiltrated water, often confirmed by increased levels of total organic carbon (TOC). The anomalous behaviour starts after this SEC minimum, when SEC rises again and remains elevated during the entire high-flow period, typically 20–40 µS/cm above the baseflow value. This is explained by variable catchment boundaries: When the water level in the aquifer rises, the catchment expands, incorporating zones of groundwater with higher SEC, caused by higher unsaturated zone thickness and subtle lithologic changes. This conceptual model has been checked by numerical investigations. A generalized finite-difference model including high-conductivity cells representing the conduit network (“discrete-continuum approach”) was set up to simulate the observed behaviour of the karst system. The model reproduces the shifting groundwater divide and the nearly simultaneous increase of discharge and SEC during high-flow periods. The observed behaviour is relevant for groundwater source protection zoning, which requires reliable delineation of catchment areas. Anomalous behaviour of SEC can point to variable catchment boundaries that can be checked by tracer tests during different hydrologic conditions.


Agressive action of water on carbonate rocks, gypsum and concrete, 1939, Laptev F. F.

The cavernicolous Mycetophilidae (Diptera) of the biospeleological collection (IV-VIII series of ''visited caves'')., 1967, Burghelebalacesco Anca
Study of the Mycetophilidae of the Biospeologica collection (Series IV te VIII of "Grottes visites" was the objective of the present study. Thirty species have been identified, including Exechia peyerimhoffi n. sp. and Rhymosia pseudocretensis n. sp. The cave fauna contains several rare species; Exechia pollicata Edw., E. unguiculata Lundst., and Rhymosia cretensis Lundst. The ovipositors of Exechia coremura Edw. and E. landrocki Lundst. are figured for the first time.

Some Calcreted Drip-Pit Formations, 1974, Bull P. A.

The occurrence of Metacyclops subdolus Kiefer (Crustacea: Copepoda) in subterranean waters of Greece with remarks on its systematic status., 1978, Pesce Giuseppe L.
The paper gives new localities for the Copepod Metacyclops subdolus from Greece and Crete together with the main morphological and ecological features of the species.

Detailed tectonic trends on the central part of the Hellenic Outer Ridge and in the Hellenic Trench System, 1982, Kenyon N. H. , Belderson R. H. , Stride A. H. ,
Extensive new sonograph coverage in the Eastern Mediterranean allows a re-assessment of the complex relief outside the Hellenic Arc. The trenches to the SE and SW of Crete are similar in their plan view appearance, each having predominantly sinuous or curved structures that are interpreted as the surface expression of major thrusts. Thrusting, possibly imbricate, is also suggested on the central, shallowest part of the Hellenic Outer Ridge where interlocking convex-outward, curved structures occur, along with other faults and folds. These are thought to relate to decollement-type displacement within or beneath evaporite sediments. The structural style deduced from the morphology is consistent with a continuing outward radial push of the Hellenic Arc to the SW, S and SE, rather than with a migration to the SW and strike-slip on the SE side of the arc as proposed by other workers

Relation dbit / niveau de la mer de l'mergence littorale d'Almyros Agios Nikolaos (Crte, Grce), 1983, Bezes C. , Joseph C.
RELATION FLOW-SEA LEVEL OF SALT KARSTIC RESURGENCE BY MULTIPLE REGRESSION WITH THE WATER TABLE - The Amlyros Agios Nikolaos spring is a brackish karstic resurgence on the eastern coast of Crete. Its flow varies in the reverse order versus the sea level. The circulation of the out effect recession curve of the spring was done with the building of a multiple regression between the sea level, the spring flow and the water table. An adjustment about the mean sea level ensures the preservation of outflow.

Calcrete, 1983, Goudie A. S.

Taylor Creek Silcrete Cave, North of Melbourne, Central Victoria, 1983, Webb J. A. , Joyce E. B.

Taylor Creek Cave is formed within sediments of the Red Bluff Sand, a Pliocene unit overlain by Newer Volcanics. The cave consists of a single low chamber, 12m long and 5m wide, that has been excavated in friable sandstone under a resilient silcrete roof; it has formed by an unusual combination of piping and stream erosion. Taylor Creek initially exposed the silcrete surface, then piping below the silcrete caused tunnel formation in the sandstone. Collapse of overlying material into this tunnel captured Taylor Creek, causing it to flow beneath the silcrete and thereby enlarge the cave to its present size.


Phnomnes hydro-karstiques dans l'Eocne du pimont nord de la Montagne Noire, 1984, Gazelle, F.
HYDRO-KARSTIC PHENOMENA IN THE EOCENE FORMATIONS OF THE NORTH PIED-MONT OF THE MONTAGNE NOIRE - The presence of limestone formations on the northern slope of the Montagne Noire is extremely discrete but nonetheless sufficient to give significant hydro-karstic phenomena (losses, resurgences, sinkholes...), which disrupt the surface hydrology. The abundance of water supplied by the mountain to the limestone plays a determining role.

Pile foundation problems in Kuala Lumpur Limestone, Malaysia, 1987, Bergado Dt, Selvanayagam An,
The geology and karstic nature of the Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia) limestone are described in relation to pile foundation problems of heavily loaded structures. The presence of cavities, pinnacles, cantilever slabs, floating slabs and pockets of soft silty clay and loose sand in the underlying limestone bedrock presents formidable challenges to foundation engineers. Other problems include insufficient seating and damage to pile tips due to irregular and sloping bedrock surfaces. There is also the added difficulty of detecting the location and extent of cavities. Empirical design methods and local construction techniques have been successfully used such as: (i) bridging limestone cavities and slabs by filling with concrete, (ii) utilizing numerous small diameter high yield stress piles to distribute the loads and to withstand high driving stresses, (iii) filling cavities with concrete, and (iv) using micropiles to redistribute the loads. Two case histories are presented, consisting of an access ramp and a tall building. In each of these case histories, the soil investigation methods, the pile bearing capacity calculations, the selection of pile types, the pile load tests, the pile driving criteria, and construction problems are outlined and discussed. The pile foundation used consisted of H-section, high yield stress, 355 x 368 mm, driven steel piles with capacities of 750 kN to 1280 kN for the access ramp structures and the same H-section steel piles with pile capacities of 965 kN to 1070 kN for the tall building

The Source of the Jenolan River, 1988, Kiernan, Kevin

Geomorphological and Hydrological investigation of un-mapped limestone outcrops and enclosed depressions that occur between North Wiburds Bluff and the headwaters of Bindo Creek has confirmed the presence of significant karst well to the north of the boundary of the Jenolan Caves Reserve and that karst drainage could conceivably breach the Great Dividing Range. The limestone becomes progressively less well dissected northwards with the karst being very subdued at the northern end of the belt. Fluoroscein testing has shown that a streamsink at the southern end of this area drains directly to Central River in Mammoth Cave, and thence to imperial Cave and Blue Lake. This indicates that at least some of the limestone in this area is continuous beneath the surficial covers with the main Northern Limestone rather than being a discrete lens. The situation has important management implications in view of expanding forestry operations in the area since these have the potential to seriously increase the sediment load of waters that pass through wild caves and the Jenolan tourist caves complex.


Les montagnes refuges calcaires de Mditerrane orientale et du Moyen-Orient (Grce, Crte, Turquie, Iran), 1990, Maire, R.
The mountain shelters in the karst regions of Greece, Crete, Turkey and Iran - The concept of mountain shelters in karst region exists from the Prehistory, especially with rock-shelters and karstic caves. In the high karsts of Greece, Crete, Taurus (Turkey) and Zagros (Iran), the highlanders have survived during the invasions and wars because of their natural bastions. At the junction of civilisations and religions (Christians and Moslems), the karst biotope, one of the natural environment the most used by human people to guard against enemy and to breed (sheep-farming). Because of grazing and destruction of forests (particularly by Byzantine people and Venitians), the mediterranean karst mountain grew poorer.

Modeling of regional groundwater flow in fractured rock aquifers, PhD Thesis, 1990, Kraemer, S. R.

The regional movement of shallow groundwater in the fractured rock aquifer is examined through a conceptual-deterministic modeling approach. The computer program FRACNET represents the fracture zones as straight laminar flow conductors in connection to regional constant head boundaries within an impermeable rock matrix. Regional scale fracture zones are projected onto the horizontal plane, invoking the Dupuit-Forchheimer assumption for flow. The steady state flow solution for the two dimensional case is achieved by requiring nodal flow balances using a Gauss-Seidel iteration. Computer experiments based on statistically generated fracture networks demonstrate the emergence of preferred flow paths due to connectivity of fractures to sources or sinks of water, even in networks of uniformly distributed fractures of constant length and aperture. The implication is that discrete flow, often associated with the local scale, may maintain itself even at a regional scale. The distribution of uniform areal recharge is computed using the Analytic Element Method, and then coupled to the network flow solver to complete the regional water balance. The areal recharge weakens the development of preferential flow pathways. The possible replacement of a discrete fracture network by an equivalent porous medium is also investigated. A Mohr's circle analysis is presented to characterize the tensor relationship between the discharge vector and the piezometric gradient vector, even at scales below the representative elementary volume (REV). A consistent permeability tensor is sought in order to establish the REV scale and justify replacement of the discrete fracture network by an equivalent porous medium. Finally, hydrological factors influencing the chemical dissolution and initiation of conduits in carbonate (karst) terrain are examined. Based on hydrological considerations, and given the appropriate geochemical and hydrogeological conditions, the preferred flow paths are expected to develop with time into caves.


Revision of the genus Troglophilus (Orthoptera, Rhaphidophoridae) in Crete, Greece, 1991, Kollaros Dimitrios, Legakis Anastassios, Paragamian Kaloust
The genus Troglophilus (Orthoptera, Rhaphidophoridae) from Crete is revised using new data from specimens collected recently. The three previously reported species are considered to be only one, T. spinulosus, on the basis of morphological, ecological and distributional similarities. The species is more fully described and notes are given on its ecology.

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