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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 11 Jul, 2012
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That producers is green plants, the basic link in any food chain; by means of photosynthesis, green plants manufacture the food on which all other living things ultimately depend. they are available in the cave community only in the twilight zone, or as debris that falls or washes in. a few types of bacteria also manufacture food from nonliving substances and therefore serve as producers in some cave communities [23]. see also consumer.?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Geochemical and mineralogical fingerprints to distinguish the exploited ferruginous mineralisations of Grotta della Monaca (Calabria, Italy), Dimuccio, L.A.; Rodrigues, N.; Larocca, F.; Pratas, J.; Amado, A.M.; Batista de Carvalho, L.A.
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
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Your search for croatia (Keyword) returned 105 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 105
Two new Monolistrinae (Crustacea, Isopoda) of underground waters of Croatia., 1971, Deelemanreinhold C. L.
A new subspecies and a new species are described: Monolistra (Monolistra) caeca meridionalis nov. subspec. was found in three caves in the northern part of Croatia, Yougoslavia. It is distinguishable from the typical form principally by the thin, acuminate form of the protuberance of the protopodite of the IInd male peraeopod, by the endopodite of the Ist pleopod which bears 3-4 setae (1-2 in M. c. caeca), by the somewhat wider endopodite of the IIIrd pleopod and by the shorter, only slightly curved uropods. A sketch shows the situation of 6 newly discovered localities in northern Croatia, 3 of the typical form and three of the new subspecies. Microtistra sketi is the 6th species known of its genus and lives in a cave, in stagnant water of a periodic spring, tributary to the river Gacka in Croatia. The number (three pairs), and the length of the spines of the carapace and the pointedness of the epimers of the pereion are intermediate between those of the spiny forms living in Slovenia and the tubercular species M. pretneri Sket from Dalmatia and M. schottlaenderi (Stammer) from the vicinity of Trieste.

Two new Monolistrinae (Crustacea, Isopoda) of underground waters of Croatia., 1971, Deelemanreinhold C. L.
A new subspecies and a new species are described: Monolistra (Monolistra) caeca meridionalis nov. subspec. was found in three caves in the northern part of Croatia, Yougoslavia. It is distinguishable from the typical form principally by the thin, acuminate form of the protuberance of the protopodite of the IInd male peraeopod, by the endopodite of the Ist pleopod which bears 3-4 setae (1-2 in M. c. caeca), by the somewhat wider endopodite of the IIIrd pleopod and by the shorter, only slightly curved uropods. A sketch shows the situation of 6 newly discovered localities in northern Croatia, 3 of the typical form and three of the new subspecies. Microtistra sketi is the 6th species known of its genus and lives in a cave, in stagnant water of a periodic spring, tributary to the river Gacka in Croatia. The number (three pairs), and the length of the spines of the carapace and the pointedness of the epimers of the pereion are intermediate between those of the spiny forms living in Slovenia and the tubercular species M. pretneri Sket from Dalmatia and M. schottlaenderi (Stammer) from the vicinity of Trieste.

Cavernicolous Pseudoscorpions from Macedonia., 1974, Curcic Bozidar P. M.
A cavernicolous pseudoscorpion of the genus Neobisium Chamberlin 1930 is living in Kalina Dupka cave in the Bistra Highland of western Macedonia. This pseudoscorpion clearly differs from the other members of the subgenus Blothrus Schiodte 1849, and belongs to the new species N. (B.) princeps, the principal features of which are described in this study. The nearest relatives of this species are N. (B.} spelaeum (Schiodte) 1849, and N. (B.) stygium Beier 1931, both from Slovenian and Croatian caves. From chelal dentition N. (B.) princeps may be considered as the most primitive element of the princeps-stygium-spelaeum series. This new species is in a subterranean mode of life of extreme specialization. Relating to biogeography, it belongs to the endemic pseudoscorpion fauna in Macedonia. After finding pseudoscorpions in Zmejovica cave (Porece mountainous area), we confirmed the presence of the species N. (E.) karamani (Hadli) 1929 in west Macedonia. Morphologic analysis of male specimens from that new locality enabled us to complete description of this species previously based on a single female specimen. The comparison of Hadzis species with N. (E.) remyi Beier 1939 from west Serbian caves, with N. (E.) brevipes (Frivaldsky) 1866 and N. (E.) leruthi Beier 1931 from Turda and Bihar caves in southern Carpathians, leads to the conclusion that these pseudoscorpions belong to a closely related species group. Judging by actual distribution of these species, the possibility exists that a wide area in the ancient Balkanic dry land had been populated by the initial form of that series. As for its preferences for habitat N. (E.) karamani is an exclusive inhabitant of subterranean environment. Relating to biogeography, it may be considered as a relic of Mediterranean Tertiary fauna and its endemic differentiation as developed under the conditions of the evolution of karst relief in southern countries of the Balkan Peninsula. In conclusion, from actual knowledge and the results of this study caves in Macedonia are inhabited by three endemic species of pseudoscorpions of genus Neobisium (Blothrus), namely: N.(B.) ohridanum Hadzi 1940,N. (B.) karamani (Hadzi) 1929, and N. (B.) princeps Curcic 1974. Judging by known blothroid pseudoscorpions, it is possible Macedonia represents one of the centres of origin and genesis for autochthonous and residual fauna of the Tertiary age.

Rotifer fauna in the periphyton of Karst rivers in Croatia, Yugoslavia, 1987, Erben R,

COMPARISON OF THE C-14 ACTIVITY OF GROUNDWATER AND RECENT TUFA FROM KARST AREAS IN YUGOSLAVIA AND CZECHOSLOVAKIA, 1989, Horvatincic N. , Srdoc D. , Silar J. , Tvrdikova H. ,
C-14 activity of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in water and in recent tufa samples in several karst areas of Yugoslavia and Czechoslovakia was measured. Groundwater from 11 karst springs were measured for their isotopic content (C-14, H-3, C-13), chemical composition (HCO3, Ca2, Mg2) and physico-chemical properties (temperature, pH). Seasonal variations of the C-14 activity of DIC in two karst springs in Plitvice Lakes area, Yugoslavia, were measured systematically from 1979-1987. C-14 activity of recent tufa samples from several locations downstream were also measured. The activity of DIC in karst spring water in both countries ranged from 63-87 pMC, which is attributed to differences in geologic structure of the recharge area, topsoil thickness and composition. Grouping of C-14 activities of DIC ca (824)% is evident. Tritium activity at all the springs indicated short mean residence time (1-10 yr). Concentration of HCO3, Ca2 and Mg2 in spring water varied with geomorphology. C-14 activity of streamwater and recent tufa increased downstream from karst springs due to the exchange between atmospheric CO2 and DIC

THE CATCHMENT-AREA OF THE SV-IVAN-KARST SPRING IN ISTRIA (CROATIA), 1993, Bonacci O, Magdalenic A,
This paper discusses the results of a geological, hydrogeological, and hydrological analysis of the catchment boundaries and area of the Sv. Ivan karst spring. The underground watershed has been determined by geological and hydrogeological methods. The control used was the hydrologic water budget analysis appropriate for karst basins with limited data (Turc, 1954). The Sv. Ivan spring includes one main spring and several intermittent springs. The water in the main spring penetrates the flysch layers which limit the spring's discharge; therefore, the discharge of the main spring is fairly uniform. The ratio between minimum and maximum yearly discharges ranges from 1:3.3 to 1:12.8. Only a part of the water flows through the main spring while the other springs in the zone are overflows. The catchment area of Sv. Ivan spring zone is defined as 65 km2

KARST SPRINGS HYDROGRAPHS AS INDICATORS OF KARST AQUIFERS, 1993, Bonacci O,
By analysing the hydrographs of karst springs it is possible to identify aquifer characteristics and, accordingly, the main features of a karst rock-fissure massif. Consequently, relevant data can be obtained by analysing hydrograph recession curves. This paper presents a detailed analysis and explanation of numerous cases of break points on recession curves via various values of the recession coefficient alpha in Maillet's (1905) equation. The paper also identifies the relationship between alpha and a linear reservoir coefficient by employing groundwater hydrograph methods. It is shown that the linear reservoir coefficient changes with time in accordance with changes of the flow conditions in the karst massif

HYDROLOGICAL EXPLANATION OF THE FLOW IN KARST - EXAMPLE OF THE CRNOJEVICA SPRING, 1993, Bonacci O, Zivaljevic R,
This paper deals with various methods of solving the complex problems of the hydrological transformation of rainfall into runoff in karst terrains. As an example of a typical karst catchment, the Crnojevica spring, located in deep Dinaric karst, is used to illustrate, explain and solve several hydrological problems in karst. The introduction deals with the geographical, geological and meteorological factors which conditioned a specific system of surface and underground flows, typical for karst terrains. The paper also explains some basic activities related to the identification of such a system. Special attention has been paid to the karst terrain of the Cetinje polje and its flooding, which occurred in February 1986. This flood initiated numerous intensive investigations which made it possible to define the catchment area of Crnojevica spring and the volume of the underground karst reservoir

THE VRANA LAKE HYDROLOGY (ISLAND OF CRES - CROATIA), 1993, Bonacci O,
The Vrana Lake on the island of Cres in the Adriatic Sea represents a specific phenomenon of karst hydrology. The island of Cres covers an area of 404.3 km2 with an average volume, of 220 x 10(6) m3 of fresh water in the lake. The island has an average rainfall of 1,063 mm, with a Mediterranean climate. The lake has a bottom reaching a depth of 62 m below mean sea level. The average water level is 14 m above mean sea level. The most probable theories on the origin of the lake and its hydrologic-hydrogeologic functioning state that it is a flooded polje in karst. The water budget method was used to define the lake catchment area at approximately 25 km2. During the last six years, there has been drastic decrease of about 3 m in the lake's water level. This phenomenon was analyzed and it was calculated that 53 percent of the water-level decline was caused by water discharges from the lake to satisfy water supply demands, and 47 percent was due to a period of low precipitation during the analyzed period

BRIEF COMMUNICATION - ADDITIONAL CRANIAL REMAINS FROM VINDIJA-CAVE, CROATIA, 1994, Smith F. H. , Ahern J. C. ,
Two additional cranial specimens from Vindija cave, Croatia, are described. One specimen is a zygomatic, providing the first information about the midfacial anatomy of the Vindija hominids. The other specimen is a frontal/supraorbital torus fragment. Both specimens exhibit morphology typically associated with Neandertals. They derive from level G, and provide further indication that both the level G, and G, hominids at Vindija represent Neandertals. (C) 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc

Hydrogeology Of Slanac Spring, Croatia, 1995, Bonacci O, Fritz F, Deni'_ V,

Ground water behaviour in karst: example of the Ombla Spring (Croatia), 1995, Bonacci O.

GROUND-WATER BEHAVIOR IN KARST - EXAMPLE OF THE OMBLA SPRING (CROATIA), 1995, Bonacci O,
The hydro-electric power plant (HEPP) which will exclusively use water from a karst underground storage basin will be built in the vicinity of the abundant karst spring Ombla in Croatia. This paper presents the results obtained by hydrogeologic, hydrologic and hydraulic investigations related to the principles of ground water circulation in the karst. The analyses included the determination of the effective porosity n(e) of the karst aquifer and the definition of the volume of large conduits and small fractures in the karst which form the aquifer volume. The position and dimensions of large karst conduits have also been defined. It was established that in three small springs, Zaton, Zavrelje and Slavljan, water overflows from the Ombla Spring in periods of high ground water levels, It was also discovered that at certain periods the Dupuit expression for steady-state flow in an unconfined aquifer can be used. In accordance with this, it was possible to determine the values of hydraulic conductivity, K (in m s(-1)), for the Ombla aquifer. They range from 2 x 10(-3) to 5 x 10(-3) m s(-1) and are inversely proportional to the Ombla Spring discharge. Continuous measurements of the ground water level by several piezometers located in the karst hinterland of the Ombla Spring and simultaneous measurement of the discharge made it possible to define discharge curves of the Ombla Spring dependent upon the ground water levels at Various locations. Characteristic features of the discharge curves made the identification of the position and dimensions of the main karst conduits possible

Meteoric phreatic speleothems and the development of cave stratigraphy: An example from Tounj Cave, Dinarides, Croatia, 1996, Babic L, Lackovic D, Horvatincic N,
Speleothems occurring in some caves of the carbonate Dinarides line all channel surfaces, and have been deposited from meteoric waters under phreatic conditions. Such phreatic speleothemic deposition modifies common experience (l) that meteoric phreatic conditions cause dissolutional widening of cave voids, and (2) that speleothems imply vadose conditions. The phreatic speleothems described here postdate an early polygenetic evolution of the cave voids, and predate the last, vadose stage. They were likely produced during the late/postglacial warming period, when dissolved carbonate was amply supplied, and when there was much water available for saturation of underground voids. Phreatic speleothems may be used as a tool for time correlation of internal deposits, both within one cave and within a karst region. They indicate an important stage in the history of the ground-water regime of an area. In general, phreatic speleothems help in better understanding of the development of subterranean voids and related karst/palaeokarst

Sea water intrusion in coastal karst springs: Example of the Blaz spring (Croatia), 1997, Bonacci O, Rojebonacci T,
Brackish karst springs are common along every karstic sea shore consisting of limestone and dolomite. On the Croatian sea coast there are more than 300 permanent or temporary brackish karst springs. From the standpoint of water supply, the problem of karst spring water salinization is quite significant because large quantities of high quality fresh water are not available to be used either as drinking water or for industrial and agricultural purposes. The salinity of brackish karst springs situated along the Adriatic coast varies from 10 to more than 18 000 mg Cl 1(-1) with an unfavourable distribution during the year. In the wet winter period, when water quantities in the region are abundant, the salinity is exceedingly low. In the warm and dry summer period the chloride concentration is high. At that season, when a shortage of flesh water in the region occurs, especially due to tourism, karst spring water is so salty that it cannot be used at all. The mechanism of sea water intrusion is relatively well known but the problem of karst springs desalinization has not been solved in practice. The Ghyben-Herzberg relationship is formulated exclusively on the basis of hydrostatic equilibrium, and its use under dynamic conditions is limited. The dynamics of fresh water circulation towards karst spring exits are very specific for each individual spring. Using numerous hydrological, hydrometric, hydrogeological and speleological investigations of the brackish Blaz (Croatia) karst spring, this paper gives the plausible position and dimensions of the main karst conduits through which sea water penetrates into the spring exit

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