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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That magnesite is a cave mineral - mgco3 [11].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for death (Keyword) returned 15 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 15
The birth of Biospeleology., 1964, Motas Constantin
Modern biospeleology dates from May 15, 1907, with the publication of Racovitza's "Essai sur les problmes biospologiques." In this paper he posed; if he did not answer; every question raised by life in the subterranean world. He outlined a program of biospeological research, made an analysis of the conditions of existence in the subterranean domain and their influence upon cavernicoles, discussed the evolution of subterranean biota, their geographical distribution, etc. Racovitza modified Schiner's (1854) classification, dividing cavernicoles into troglobites, troglophiles and trogloxenes, terms later adopted by a great number of biospeologists. The "Essai", called "Racovitza's famous manifest" by Vandel, was considered the birth certificate of biospeology by Antipa (1927) and by Jeannel (1948), its fundamental statute. Jeannel also made major contributions to the young science through his extensive and detailed studies. The names of Racovitza and Jeannel will always be linked as the uncontested masters of biospeology, the founders of Biospeologica, and the authors of Enumration des grottes visites. Apart from Schiner, whose ecological classification of cavernicoles was utilized and modified by Racovitza, they had another forerunner in Vir, a passionate speleologist who often accompanied Martel in his subterranean explorations, once meeting with a serious accident in which he was on the brink of death. Vir (1897, 1899) studied subterranean faunas, establishing the world's first underground laboratory, where he carried on unsuccessful or ill-interpreted experiments. We consider Racovitza and Jeannel's criticism of him too severe. Let us be more lenient with our forerunners, since their mistakes have also contributed to the progress of science, as well as exempting us from repeating them.

Drought Damage in a Tasmanian Rainforest on Limestone, 1989, Duncan Fred, Kiernan Kevin

Widespread but patchily distributed drought death of forest trees occurred in early 1988 on a limestone ridge at Mole Creek in Tasmania. A close juxtaposition of damaged and undamaged vegetation probably reflects differences in the speed of soil moisture decline down the length of individual soil-filled solution tubes in which trees are rooted. Possible palaeoecological, geomorphological and sivicultural implications are briefly reviewed.


Identification de formes karstiques de surface sur une reprsentation cartographique du Gran Sasso dItalia du XVIe sicle (Abruzzes, Italie centrale), 2002, Burri, Ezio
Identification of surface karst features on a XVIth century Gran Sasso dItalia map (Abruzzes, Central Italy) - In August 1573, Francesco De Marchi climbed for the first time the Corno Grande, the highest Gran Sasso peak, which is the highest limestone massif of the Apennins. From this exploration, he let a detailed description that was published after his death in 1599. A map, where some karst features are clearly mentioned and particularly some small karst lakes illustrated this description. Some other karst features, such as the large Campo Imperatore polje are described. In the same time of this climb he also explored Grotta a Male, one of the main caves of the area and gave a scientific description of it.

Stratigraphic investigations of carbon isotope anomalies and Neoproterozoic ice ages in Death Valley, California, 2003, Corsetti Fa, Kaufman Aj,
An unusual richness of biogeochemical events is recorded in Neoproterozoic-Cambrian strata of the Death Valley region, California, United States. Eight negative carbon isotope ({delta}13C) excursions are found in carbonate units between 1.08 Ga and the Precambrian/Cambrian boundary; four of these excursions occur in carbonates that contain textural features similar to those found globally in postglacial 'cap carbonates' (including one or more of the following: laminite with rollup structures, apparent 'tube rocks,' seafloor precipitates, and sheet-crack cements). However, only two of these units, the Sourdough limestone member of the Kingston Peak Formation and the Noonday Dolomite, rest directly upon glacial strata. The basal Beck Spring Dolomite and the Rainstorm Member of the Johnnie Formation each contain negative excursions and cap-carbonate-like lithofacies, but do not rest on known glacial deposits. If the negative {delta}13C excursions are assumed to record depositional processes, two equally interesting hypotheses are possible: (1) The Death Valley succession records four glacial pulses in Neoproterozoic time, but glacial units are not preserved at two stratigraphic levels. (2) Alternatively, other global oceanographic processes can cause negative excursions and cap-carbonate-like facies in addition to, or independent of, glaciation

Gruber's Karst Research, 2004, Juž, Nič, Stanislav

On the bicentennial of Gabriel Gruber's death his speleological and karstological research in Carniola are described. Gruber carefully studied his predecessors' researches of Carniolan karst and Cerknica Lake in particular. He provided several new ideas in the joint work of Tobias Gruber and his older half brother Gabriel. For the first time in historiography Gruber's karstological references were discussed. The special concern was put on the Gruber's model of the stalactite formation where he proved his extraordinary abilities in Newton's modern mathematics. Very sad stories about Gruber-Hacquet quarrels were connected with their different opinions about karst.


Bomb-spike dating of a mummified baboon in Ludwig Cave, Namibia., 2007, Hodgins Greg, Brook George A. , Marais Eugene
In 1982 a mummified adult female baboon was discovered on a ledge in Ludwig Cave in Namibia. A toe bone was removed for dating in July 1995. AMS radiocarbon dating of bone collagen, tendon, and skin indicates a post-modern age. Application of the atomic bomb-spike calibration curve suggests death in late 1977 and an age at death of around 19 years. Baboons roost in the cave and the mummified female, along with a mummified juvenile male discovered in 2002 and three rotting corpses discovered in 1995, were probably chased by other baboons or by leopards down a ca. 6 m drop during the rainy season, and were unable to climb the steep and very slippery slope to escape. The large number of baboons trapped in the cave in less than 20 years, and mummification of two individuals on dry, dusty ledges in the cave, may explain why large numbers of baboon skeletons have been discovered in ancient bone breccias (up to 4 Ma old) in a number of caves throughout Southern Africa.

The abode of malevolent spirits and creatures - Caves in Victorian Aboriginal social organization, 2007, Clark, Ian D.
A study of Aboriginal associations with Victorian caves finds that there is a rich cultural heritage associated with caves. This association has been found to be rich and varied in which caves and sink holes featured prominently in the lives of Aboriginal people - they were often the abodes of malevolent creatures and spirits and some were associated with important ancestral heroes, traditional harming practices, and some were important in the after death movement of souls to their resting places. Aboriginal names for caves, where known, are discussed.

Natural and anthropogenic hazards in the karst of Jamaica, 2007, Day Mj,
About two thirds of Jamaica is karst landscape, and karstic hazards affect much of the country and about half of the population, mostly in rural areas. The karst includes extensive areas of dolines and dry valleys, together with poljes and classical tropical tower and cockpit karst. With population and urbanization increases, and as infrastructure is developed, karstic hazards are becoming more prevalent and risks are increasing. One major natural hazard is seasonal drought, which disrupts water supplies, particularly in rural areas where groundwater resources are poorly developed and residents depend on rainwater and springs. Conversely, seasonal flooding, particularly that associated with tropical storms, causes property damage and human death, injury and displacement. Ground surface subsidence and collapse threatens developing infrastructure, dwellings and livestock, but the potential for catastrophic karstic failure of industrial facilities such as dams and retention ponds, including the storage facilities associated with bauxite mining and processing, appears to be relatively limited. Slope failure also occurs, but is not often recognized as a hazard and has not been studied in detail. Human impacts include quarrying, bauxite mining, groundwater abstraction, urbanization, agricultural development and tourism. Groundwater contamination is a serious anthropogenic hazard, particularly associated with the bauxite industry. Less than 10% of the karst area is within protected areas

Bomb-spike dating of a mummified baboon in Ludwig Cave, Namibia., 2007, Hodgins Greg, Brook George A. And Marais Eugene
In 1982 a mummified adult female baboon was discovered on a ledge in Ludwig Cave in Namibia. A toe bone was removed for dating in July 1995. AMS radiocarbon dating of bone collagen, tendon, and skin indicates a post-modern age. Application of the atomic bomb-spike calibration curve suggests death in late 1977 and an age at death of around 19 years. Baboons roost in the cave and the mummified female, along with a mummified juvenile male discovered in 2002 and three rotting corpses discovered in 1995, were probably chased by other baboons or by leopards down a ca. 6 m drop during the rainy season, and were unable to climb the steep and very slippery slope to escape. The large number of baboons trapped in the cave in less than 20 years, and mummification of two individuals on dry, dusty ledges in the cave, may explain why large numbers of baboon skeletons have been discovered in ancient bone breccias (up to 4 Ma old) in a number of caves throughout Southern Africa.

The abode of malevolent spirits and creatures - Caves in Victorian Aboriginal social organization, 2007, Clark I. D.

A study of Aboriginal associations with Victorian caves finds that there is a rich cultural heritage associated with caves. This association has been found to be rich and varied in which caves and sink holes featured prominently in the lives of Aboriginal people - they were often the abodes of malevolent creatures and spirits and some were associated with important ancestral heroes, traditional harming practices, and some were important in the after death movement of souls to their resting places. Aboriginal names for caves, where known, are discussed.


SHAFTS OF LIFE AND SHAFTS OF DEATH IN DINARIC KARST, POPOVO POLJE CASE (BOSNIA & HERZEGOVINA), 2007, LuČ, IĆ, I.

In literature, Popovo polje is considered as a distinctive phe­nomenon of Dinaric karst. It is situated in the south part of Dinaric karst, at the end of Trebišnjica watershed. Recorded within it are numerous other typical phenomena. Shafts, ponors and estavelle (all three are traditionally called jamas) played an important role in traditional life of people from Popovo polje. In the article, “jamas” are assessed based on whether they were a source of life and on the side of life or against it, i.e. were lethal for the lives of people of Popovo polje region. Included in the first category are shafts which were oasis of drinking water in summer time, shafts which were made suitable for fishing the endemic fish Popovo Minnows (Delminichthys ghetaldii) and shafts on top of which over 40 flour mills were built. On the other side, shafts of death are natural shafts which were used as mass graves in the World War II. Most literature deals precisely with these. Shafts were subject of comprehensive research of Popovo polje for the needs of Trebišnjica Hydro-system Proj­ect, and extremely important and interesting bio-speleological endeavors, but those aspects remained outside the perception of general public of Popovo polje.


Fossil population structure and mortality of the cave bear from the Mokrica cave (North Slovenia), 2007, Debeljak, I.

The fossil population structure of the cave bear from the Mokrica cave was evaluated to provide new data concerning the behaviour and mortality of this extinct species. Age at death was estimated for 128 different individuals by analysing cementum increments, root formation and crown wear of left M1 teeth. After the frequency distribution of specimens through one- year intervals, the mortality trends can be estimated for various lifetime periods, and interpreted in accordance with data for present-day bears. The original death assemblage was presumably juvenile-dominated. Extremely fragile molars of less than 6 month old cubs did not get preserved. Yearlings are the most numerous age class in the fossil population from the Mokrica cave. Mortality drastically dropped after cave bears survived their first hibernation in the second winter. The lowest mortality rate was observed in the 9-15 years age group, when cave bears would be expected to be in their prime. The oldest age recorded by cementum analysis is approximately 30 years, which indicates that the maximum life span was similar to present-day bears. Study of dental tissues shows that the mortality in the cave was seasonally restricted – the majority of deaths in the cave occured during winter and in early spring. Sex structure of the fossil population has been studied on the sample of 750 canines. The significantly higher proportion of males in the group of older juveniles and subadults could be explained by the fact that the weaning period is more critical for males also in present- day bears. In young adults and prime adults the mortality was presumably higher in females. The sex structure of adult bears, especially in the sample of older individuals, indicates that the Mokrica cave was used as winter den mostly by solitary males.


The abode of malevolent spirits and creatures - Caves in Victorian Aboriginal social organization, 2007, Clark, Ian D.

A study of Aboriginal associations with Victorian caves finds that there is a rich cultural heritage associated with caves. This association has been found to be rich and varied in which caves and sink holes featured prominently in the lives of Aboriginal people - they were often the abodes of malevolent creatures and spirits and some were associated with important ancestral heroes, traditional harming practices, and some were important in the after death movement of souls to their resting places. Aboriginal names for caves, where known, are discussed.


A large Cervidae Holocene accumulation in Eastern Brazil: an example of extreme taphonomical control in a cave environment, 2012, Hubbe Alex, Auler Augusto S.

A remarkable cervid bone accumulation occurs at a single passage (named Cervid Passage; CP) at Lapa Nova, a maze cave in eastern Brazil. CP lies away from cave entrances, is a typical pitfall passage and contains bone remains of at least 121 cervids, besides few bats, peccaries and rodents remains. There is no evidence of water (or sediment) flow at the site and in general bones lack post depositional alterations and display anatomical proximity, suggesting that the majority of the remains found inside CP (mainly cervids) are due to animals that after entering the cave got trapped in the site. Observations suggest that two entrances could have provided access to cervids (and the few other animals, besides bats), either by falling inside the cave or by entering by their own free will. Once inside the cave, the maze pattern would make route finding difficult, and of all passage intersections, only the one leading to CP would result in a non-return situation, starving the animal to death. Radiocarbon dates suggest that animal entrapment occurred during at least 5 thousand years, during the Holocene. The reasons why mainly cervids were found are unknown but they are probably related to the biology of this group coupled with the fact that caves provide several specific taphonomic processes that may account for a strong bias in bone accumulation. Indeed, the frequent occurrence of Cervidae in both the fossil and sub-fossil record in Brazilian caves may be related to an overall high faunal abundance or may suggest that these animals were especially prone to enter caves, perhaps in search of nutrients (as cave saltpetre) or water.


Evaluation of Strategies for the Decontamination of equipment for Geomyces destructans, the Causative Agent of the White-Nose Syndrome (WNS), 2013, Shelley V. , Kaiser S. , Shelley E. , Williams T. , Kramer M. , Haman K. , Keel K. , Barton H. A.

 

White-nose syndrome is an emerging infectious disease that has led to a
dramatic decline in cave-hibernating bat species. White-nose syndrome is caused by the
newly described fungal pathogen Geomyces destructans, which infects the ear, muzzle,
and wing membranes of bats. Although the exact mechanism by which the fungus causes
death is not yet understood, G. destructans leads to a high mortality rate in infected
animals.While the primary mechanism of infection appears to be bat-to-bat transfer, it is
still unclear what role human activity may play in the spread of this pathogen. Here we
evaluate the effectiveness of decontamination protocols that can be utilized by
speleologists to reduce the likelihood of spreading this dangerous pathogen to naı¨ve
bats or uninfected hibernacula. Our results show that pre-cleaning to remove muds and/
or sediments followed by the use of commercially available disinfectants can effectively
remove G. destructans from caving fabrics. Alternatively, immersion in water above
50 uC for at least 20 minutes effectively destroys the fungal spores. These results have
allowed the development of a decontamination protocol (http://www.fws.gov/
WhiteNoseSyndrome/cavers.html) that, when appropriately followed, can greatly
reduce the likelihood of the human mediated transfer of G. destructans from an
infected to uninfected site.


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