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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 11 Jul, 2012
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That dead cave is a dry cave in which all solution and precipitation has ceased [10].?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

What is Karstbase?



Browse Speleogenesis Issues:

KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
Engineering challenges in Karst, Stevanović, Zoran; Milanović, Petar
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Geochemical and mineralogical fingerprints to distinguish the exploited ferruginous mineralisations of Grotta della Monaca (Calabria, Italy), Dimuccio, L.A.; Rodrigues, N.; Larocca, F.; Pratas, J.; Amado, A.M.; Batista de Carvalho, L.A.
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
See all featured articles from other geoscience journals

Search in KarstBase

Your search for debris flows (Keyword) returned 7 results for the whole karstbase:
Shallow-marine carbonate facies and facies models, 1985, Tucker M. E. ,
Shallow-marine carbonate sediments occur in three settings: platforms, shelves and ramps. The facies patterns and sequences in these settings are distinctive. However, one type of setting can develop into another through sedimentational or tectonic processes and, in the geologic record, intermediate cases are common. Five major depositional mechanisms affect carbonate sediments, giving predictable facies sequences: (1) tidal flat progradation, (2) shelf-marginal reef progradation, (3) vertical accretion of subtidal carbonates, (4) migration of carbonate sand bodies and (5) resedimentation processes, especially shoreface sands to deeper subtidal environments by storms and off-shelf transport by slumps, debris flows and turbidity currents. Carbonate platforms are regionally extensive environments of shallow subtidal and intertidal sedimentation. Storms are the most important source of energy, moving sediment on to shoreline tidal flats, reworking shoreface sands and transporting them into areas of deeper water. Progradation of tidal flats, producing shallowing upward sequences is the dominant depositional process on platforms. Two basic types of tidal flat are distinguished: an active type, typical of shorelines of low sediment production rates and high meteorologic tidal range, characterized by tidal channels which rework the flats producing grainstone lenses and beds and shell lags, and prominent storm layers; and a passive type in areas of lower meteorologic tidal range and higher sediment production rates, characterized by an absence of channel deposits, much fenestral and cryptalgal peloidal micrite, few storm layers and possibly extensive mixing-zone dolomite. Fluctuations in sea-level strongly affect platform sedimentation. Shelves are relatively narrow depositional environments, characterized by a distinct break of slope at the shelf margin. Reefs and carbonate sand bodies typify the turbulent shelf margin and give way to a shelf lagoon, bordered by tidal flats and/or a beach-barrier system along the shoreline. Marginal reef complexes show a fore-reef--reef core--back reef facies arrangement, where there were organisms capable of producing a solid framework. There have been seven such phases through the Phanerozoic. Reef mounds, equivalent to modern patch reefs, are very variable in faunal composition, size and shape. They occur at shelf margins, but also within shelf lagoons and on platforms and ramps. Four stages of development can be distinguished, from little-solid reef with much skeletal debris through to an evolved reef-lagoon-debris halo system. Shelf-marginal carbonate sand bodies consist of skeletal and oolite grainstones. Windward, leeward and tide-dominated shelf margins have different types of carbonate sand body, giving distinctive facies models. Ramps slope gently from intertidal to basinal depths, with no major change in gradient. Nearshore, inner ramp carbonate sands of beach-barrier-tidal delta complexes and subtidal shoals give way to muddy sands and sandy muds of the outer ramp. The major depositional processes are seaward progradation of the inner sand belt and storm transport of shoreface sand out to the deep ramp. Most shallow-marine carbonate facies are represented throughout the geologic record. However, variations do occur and these are most clearly seen in shelf-margin facies, through the evolutionary pattern of frame-building organisms causing the erratic development of barrier reef complexes. There have been significant variations in the mineralogy of carbonate skeletons, ooids and syn-sedimentary cements through time, reflecting fluctuations in seawater chemistry, but the effect of these is largely in terms of diagenesis rather than facies

Hydrological response of small watersheds following the Southern California Painted Cave Fire of June 1990, 1997, Keller E. A. , Valentine D. W. , Gibbs D. R. ,
Following the Painted Cave Fire of 25 June 1990 in Santa Barbara, California which burned 1214 ha, an emergency watershed protection plan was implemented consisting of stream clearing, grade stabilizers and construction of debris basins. Research was initiated focusing on hydrological response and channel morphology changes on two branches of Maria Ygnacio Creek, the main drainage of the burned area. Research results support the hypothesis that the response of small drainage basins in chaparral ecosystems to wildfire is complex and flushing of sediment by fluvial processes is more likely than by high magnitude debris flows. During the winter of 1990-1991, 35-66 cm of rainfall and intensities up to 10 cm per hour for a five-minute period were recorded with a seasonal total of 100% of average (normal) rainfall (average = 63 cm/year). During the winter of 1991-1992, 48-74 cm of rainfall and intensities up to 8 cm per hour were recorded with a seasonal total of 115% of normal. Even though there was moderate rainfall on barren, saturated soils, no major debris flows occurred in burned areas. The winter of 1992-1993 recorded total precipitation of about 170% of normal, annual average intensities were relatively low and again no debris flows were observed. The response to winter storms in the first three years following the fire was a moderate but spectacular flushing of sediment, most of which was derived from the hillslopes upstream of the debris basins. The first significant storm and stream flow of the 1990-1991 winter was transport-limited resulting in large volumes of sediment being deposited in the channel of Maria Ygnacio Creek; the second storm and stream flow was sediment-limited and the channel scoured. Debris basins trapped about 23 000 m(3), the majority coming from the storm of 17-20 March 1991. Sediment transported downstream during the three winters following the fire and not trapped in the debris basins was eventually flushed to the estuarine reaches of the creeks below the burn area, where approximately 108 000 m(3) accumulated. Changes in stream morphology following the fire were dramatic as pools filled with sediment which greatly smoothed longitudinal and cross-sectional profiles. Major changes in channel morphology occur following a fire as sediment derived from the hillslope is temporarily stored in channels within the burned area. However, this sediment may quickly move downstream of the burned region, where it may accumulate reducing channel capacity and increasing the flood hazard. Ecological consequences of wildfire to the riparian zone of streams in the chaparral environment are virtually unknown, but must be significant as the majority of sediment (particularly gravel necessary for fish and other aquatic organisms) entering the system does so in response to fires. (C) 1997 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

Upper Quaternary water level history and sedimentation in the northwestern Black Sea, 2000, Winguth C. , Wong H. K. , Panin N. , Dinu C. , Georgescu P. , Ungureanu G. , Krugliakov V. V. , Podshuveit V. ,
A regional water level curve for the northwestern Black Sea covering lowstands of the past 900 ka has been inferred from shelf terraces and coastal onlaps identified in seismic data. Corrections for sediment compaction, isostatic response to sediment load and thermal subsidence were included. A water level lowstand of -151 m was found for the last glaciation, ca 30 m lower than the global sea level stand at the Last Glacial Maximum. Water level could develop independently in the Black Sea due to its isolation from the global oceans when the water level of the Black Sea was lower than its outlet.In addition, a deepsea fan complex in the northwestern Black Sea was investigated by seismic reflection, showing that it can be divided into the Danube fan and the Dniepr fan (also fed by the rivers Dniestr and Southern Bug). Eight seismic sequences were distinguished in the northwestern Black Sea and their thicknesses and facies distributions mapped. The two lowermost sequences consist mainly of unchannelized mass transport deposits (slumps, slides, debris flows), while the six upper sequences with their typical channel-levee systems as well as overbank and mass transport deposits constitute the deepsea fan complex. Correlation of fan development with the regional water level curve yields an inferred age of ca 900 ka BP for the Danube fan; development of the Dniepr fan started probably about 100 ka later. Computed average sedimentation rates range between 1.19 and 2.19 m/ka for the Danube fan and between 1.07 and 2.03 m/ka for the Dniepr fan. The corresponding rates for sediment accumulation are 68-141 t/a and 41-82 t/a. Mean denudation rates in the drainage area are computed to be 0.027-0.105 mm/a and 0.017-0.127 mm/a, respectively

The Shaimerden Supergene Zinc Deposit, Kazakhstan: A Preliminary Examination, 2003, Boland Mb, Kelly Jg, Schaffalitzky C,
The Shaimerden supergene zinc deposit in the southern Urals Mountains is located in the province of Kostanai in northwest Kazakhstan. It lies at the southern end of the Kostanai megasyncline, a north-northeast-trending, structurally controlled area of lower Paleozoic clastic and carbonate sedimentary rocks and volcanic rocks. A zinc-lead resource estimated at 4,645,100 tonnes at 21.06 percent Zn has been defined. The deposit is hosted within a sequence of intertidal to open-marine carbonates and evaporites of Visean (Early Carboniferous) age. Although drilling to date has not intersected a fault, significant faulting in the area is suggested by the presence of polymict debris flows comprising a wide range of carbonate facies and by large variations in micropaleontologic dates. Sulfide deposits replaced hydrothermally dolomitized carbonates and were subsequently reworked into polymict conglomerates of probable Carboniferous age that were deposited in a marine environment. Weathering of the sulfide mineral deposits took place during the Triassic Period, following uplift during the late Paleozoic. The weathering occurred in situ, and small intervals of relict sulfides were preserved in the center of the deposit. The degree of weathering increases outward from the center of the deposit, which passes from massive sulfide to massive hemimorphite-smithsonite to weathered clays with hemimorphite-smithsonite fragments. The supergene minerals are overlain by bauxitic clays of Cretaceous age and Quaternary silty soils and sands

The Great Barrier Reef: The Chronological Record from a New Borehole, 2004, Braithwaite Cjr, Dalmasso H, Gilmour M, Harkness Dd, Henderson Gm, Kay Rl, Kroon D, Montaggioni Lf, Wilson Pa,
A new borehole, 210 mbsf (meters below sea floor) deep, drilled in Ribbon Reef 5 on the Great Barrier Reef off Cooktown, NE Australia, reveals a shallowing-upwards succession, the younger part of which is punctuated by a series of erosion surfaces. Nine depositional units have been defined by lithological changes and are numbered sequentially from the base of the hole upwards. Aminostratigraphy, magnetostratigraphy, radiocarbon dating, uranium series dating, and modeling together with strontium ratios have been applied in an attempt to establish a chronology of accumulation. Carbonate deposition began about 770 ka ago in a relatively deep-water slope environment and is represented by a series of debris flows. Lithoclasts within these rocks, indicate that older limestones already existed in the area. Subsequent accretion involved the downslope accumulation of grainstones and wackestones, sometimes cross-laminated, characterized by intervals with abundant rhodoliths and scattered, probably reworked, corals. Four units at the base of the hole reflect deposition that probably began during isotope stage 16 and continued through stage 15 from about 770 to about 564 ka. Unit 5 probably extended to stage 11 (about 400 ka), and unit 6 to stage 9 ([~] 330 ka). Typical reefal associations of corals and calcareous algae were established in this area only above depths of about 100 m in the borehole, units 5-4. The succession is apparently unbroken to an erosion surface at 36 mbsf indicating subaerial emergence. The lack of evidence of emergence below this surface reflects progressive accretion or progradation or both. Two younger erosion surfaces define further periods of lowered sea level. Unit 7 is attributed to deposition during isotope stage 7, but erosion during stage 8 resulted in the preservation of only 8 m of unit 7 limestones. Unit 8 is correlated with stage 5 ([~]125 ka), and unit 9 is interpreted as Holocene (post 7,700 ka). The limited thicknesses of units 7, 8, and 9 are considered to reflect erosion. The progressive shallowing brought the depositional surface within the zone exposed during lowstands, and there is no sedimentological evidence that aggradation was restricted by a lack of accommodation

Weathering, geomorphic work, and karst landscape evolution in the Cave City groundwater basin, Mammoth Cave, Kentucky, 2005, Groves C. , Meiman J. ,
Following the pioneering work of Wolman and Miller [Wolman, M.G., Miller, J.P., 1960. Magnitude and frequency of forces in geomorphic processes. J. Geol., 68, 54-74.] in evaluation of geomorphic work and the frequencies and magnitudes of forces that drive it, a large number of quantitative studies have focused on the evolution of fluvial systems and transport of elastic sediment. Less attention has been given to understanding frequencies and magnitudes of processes in rock weathering, including investigation of rates at which solutes are removed from landscapes under various flow distributions as an analog to Wolman and Miller's [Wolman, M.G., Miller, J.P., 1960. Magnitude and frequency of forces in geomorphic processes. J. Geol., 68, 54-74.] concept of geomorphic work. In this work, we use I year of high-resolution flow and chemical data to examine the work done in landscape evolution within and at the outlet of Kentucky's Cave City Basin, a well-developed karst landscape/aquifer system that drains about 25 km(2). We consider both removal of solutes contributing to landscape denudation based on calcium mass flux as well as predicted dissolution rates of the conduit walls at the outlet of this basin based on limestone dissolution kinetics. Intense, short-duration events dominate. Storms that filled the Logsdon River conduit occurred < 5% of the year but were responsible for 38% of the dissolved load leaving the system and from 63% to 100% of conduit growth for various scenarios of sediment influence. Landscape denudation is a linear function of the amount of water moving through the system, but conduit growth rates, and thus rates of recharge area evolution from fluvial to karst surface landscapes, depend both on the amount of water available and the distribution of precipitation. © 2004 Published by Elsevier B.V

Evidence for habitual use of fire at the end of the Lower Paleolithic: Site formation processes at Qesem Cave, Israel, 2007, Karkanas, P. , Shahackgross, R. , Ayalon, A. , Barmatthews, M. , Barkai, R. , Frumkin, A. , Gopher, A. , And Stiner, M. C.
The Amudian (late Lower Paleolithic) site of Qesem Cave in Israel represents one of the earliest examples of habitual use of fire by middle Pleistocene hominids. The Paleolithic layers in this cave were studied using a suite of mineralogical and chemical techniques and a contextual sedimentological analysis (i.e., micromorphology). We show that the lower ca. 3 m of the stratigraphic sequence are dominated by clastic sediments deposited within a closed karstic environment. The deposits were formed by small scale, concentrated mud slurries (infiltrated terra rosa soil) and debris flows. A few intervening lenses of mostly in situ burnt remains were also identified. The main part of the upper ca. 4.5 m consists of anthropogenic sediment with only moderate amounts of clastic geogenic inputs. The deposits are strongly cemented with calcite that precipitated from dripping water. The anthropogenic component is characterized by completely combusted, mostly reworked wood ash with only rare remnants of charred material. Micromorphological and isotopic evidence indicates recrystallization of the wood ash. Large quantities of burnt bone, defined by a combination of microscopic and macroscopic criteria, and moderately heated soil lumps are closely associated with the woodash remains. The frequent presence of microscopic calcified rootlets indicates that the upper sequence formed in the vicinity of the former cave entrance. Burnt remains in the sediments are associated with systematic blade production and faunas that are dominated by the remains of fallow deer. Use-wear damage on blades and blade tools in conjunction with numerous cut marks on bones indicate an emphasis on butchering and prey-defleshing activities in the vicinity of fireplaces.

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