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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 11 Jul, 2012
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That stoping is the upward migration of the ceiling in a passage or room by the action of slabs falling [13].?

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Karst environment, Culver D.C.
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Your search for decline (Keyword) returned 41 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 41
Subsidence associated with the abstraction of fluids, 1988, Bell Fg,
Subsidence of the ground surface due to the withdrawal of groundwater, oil, gas or brine from sedimentary deposits has ccurred in many parts of the world. The abstraction of groundwater has been the principal cause of subsidence, primarily because more groundwater is abstracted than all the other liquids put together. Subsidences of several metres have been recorded, for example, in California due to the exploitation of oil, as well as groundwater. Such ground movements represent a notable problem in engineering geology. Generally these subsidences take place slowly but the occurrence at the surface of sinkholes as a result of water tables being lowered in limestone terrains is a rapid process. In the case of groundwater, gas or oil abstraction the reduction in pore pressure in the voids due to the decline in head leads to an increase in effective load on the sediments concerned, bringing about consolidation, which is reflected at the surface as subsidence. On the other hand when mineral deposits are worked by solution mining the rock material itself is removed which, if uncontrolled, resultsin subsidence. The removal of fluids from sediments frequently has resulted in the formation of fissures at the surface. Indeed there are cases on record where faults are alleged to have been formed. Such fissures often occur around the periphery of the subsidence trough

Drought Damage in a Tasmanian Rainforest on Limestone, 1989, Duncan Fred, Kiernan Kevin

Widespread but patchily distributed drought death of forest trees occurred in early 1988 on a limestone ridge at Mole Creek in Tasmania. A close juxtaposition of damaged and undamaged vegetation probably reflects differences in the speed of soil moisture decline down the length of individual soil-filled solution tubes in which trees are rooted. Possible palaeoecological, geomorphological and sivicultural implications are briefly reviewed.


Le karst de Vaucluse (Haute Provence), 1991, Mudry J. , Puig J. M.
The catchment area of the Fontaine de Vaucluse system is more than 1100km2 wide, with an average altitude of 870m. The thickness of the Lower Cretaceous limestone (1500m) gives the system a very thick (800m) unsaturated zone. Karstification is highly developed (four shafts are more than 500m deep) as well as on the valley (pit of 300m depth inside the spring). The bottom of the shafts of the Plateau does not reach the saturated zone of the karst, as their flows are the chemical content of the seepage water. The maximum hydraulic gradient from the Plateau to the spring is low, only 0.3%. Dye tracings permit the assignment of the Ventoux-Lure rang (including its calcareous northern slope with a southward dipping) and the Vaucluse Plateau in the catchment area. The water balance computed by altitude belts shows that the rainfall strongly increases with altitude: 120mm at 200m, 1380mm over 1800m. The dynamic of the system, studied by discharge and physical and chemical content, shows of a well karstified media, that reacts with slight inertia upon the rainy periods, and that is made up of important reserves, particularly within the unsaturated zone, that supply long decline and depletion episodes.

HYDROGEOLOGIC CHARACTERISTICS AND DEFORESTATION OF THE STONE FOREST KARST AQUIFERS OF SOUTH CHINA, 1992, Huntoon P. W. ,
Stone forest aquifers comprise an important class of shallow, unconfined karstic aquifers in the south China karst belt. They occur under flat areas such as floors of karst depressions, stream valleys, and karst plains. The frameworks for the aquifers are the undissolved carbonate spires and ribs in epikarst zones developed on carbonate strata. The ground water occurs within clastic sediments which infill the dissolution voids. The aquifers are thin, generally less than 100 meters thick, and are characterized by large lateral permeabilities and small storage. The result is that the aquifers are difficult to manage because recharge during the rainy season moves rapidly out of the aquifers. Water levels fall sharply as the dry season progresses and the ground-water supply falls off accordingly. The magnitude and duration of the seasonal recharge pulse that replenishes the stone forest aquifers have been severely impacted by massive post-1958 deforestation in the south China karst region. Water that was formerly retained beyond the wet season in the forested uplands, later to be released to the stone forest aquifers under the lowland plains, now passes quickly through the system during the wet season. The loss of this seasonal upland storage has resulted in both a reduction in the volume of recharge to the lowland stone forest aquifers and a shortening of the seasonal recharge event. The result is accelerated water-level declines in the stone forest aquifers as the dry season progresses which, in turn, causes premature dewatering of wells and decreased spring discharges. This response is compounded by increased ground-water withdrawals as the people attempt to offset the declining supply. Management of the total water-supply system requires not only tinkering with the aquifer, but massive reforestation efforts to restore dry season water retention in the upland parts of the watersheds

THE VRANA LAKE HYDROLOGY (ISLAND OF CRES - CROATIA), 1993, Bonacci O,
The Vrana Lake on the island of Cres in the Adriatic Sea represents a specific phenomenon of karst hydrology. The island of Cres covers an area of 404.3 km2 with an average volume, of 220 x 10(6) m3 of fresh water in the lake. The island has an average rainfall of 1,063 mm, with a Mediterranean climate. The lake has a bottom reaching a depth of 62 m below mean sea level. The average water level is 14 m above mean sea level. The most probable theories on the origin of the lake and its hydrologic-hydrogeologic functioning state that it is a flooded polje in karst. The water budget method was used to define the lake catchment area at approximately 25 km2. During the last six years, there has been drastic decrease of about 3 m in the lake's water level. This phenomenon was analyzed and it was calculated that 53 percent of the water-level decline was caused by water discharges from the lake to satisfy water supply demands, and 47 percent was due to a period of low precipitation during the analyzed period

Ring of cenotes (sinkholes), Northwest Yucatan, Mexico; its hydrogeologic characteristics and possible association with the Chicxulub impact crater, 1995, Perry Eugene, Marin Luis E. , Mcclain Jana, Velazquez Guadalupe,
A 180-km-diameter semicircular band of abundant karst sinkholes (Ring of Cenotes) in Northwest Yucatan, Mexico, coincides approximately with a concentric ring of the buried Chicxulub structure, a circular feature manifested in Cretaceous and older rocks, that has been identified as the product of the impact of a bolide. The ring, expressed in Tertiary rocks, marks a zone of high permeability as shown by (1) the sinkholes themselves, (2) breaks in the coastal dune system and high density of springs where the ring intersects the coast, and (3) water-level transects characterized by a decline in water level toward the ring. Any direct relation that exists between the Ring of Cenotes and the Chicxulub structure bears on regional hydrogeology. If the layer or zone responsible for the ring is deeply buried, it may act as a barrier to the movement of ground water across the main flow direction. Shallower zones of horizontal permeability could result in less complete diversion of ground water. Through its influence on Yucatan aquifer characteristics, the ring may provide a link between modern environmental problems and astrogeology. Possible origins for the Ring of Cenotes are (1) faulting, perhaps reactivated by post-Eocene-mid-Miocene basin loading, (2) permeability in a buried reef complex developed in the shallow Paleocene sea around the crater rim, or (3) breccia collapse occasioned by consolidation or by solution of evaporite components. If the ring developed on ancient faults, it may outline hydrothermal systems and mineral deposits produced during Paleocene cooling of the Chicxulub melt sheet

The nutritional status of healthy and declining stands of Banksia integrifolia on the Yanakie Isthmus, Victoria, 1997, Bennett Lt, Attiwill Pm,
Banksia integrifolia L.f. has been in decline an calcareous sands of the Yanakie Isthmus, southern Victoria, since early 1980. Early studies indicated that the decline is associated with a particular soil condition possibly a nutritional imbalance involving Fe. However, in foliage samples collected from the three main soil types of the Isthmus, declining trees had similar concentrations of Fe but lower concentrations of Ca than healthy trees. Comparisons were made of seasonal variation in concentrations of macro- and micro-nutrients in foliage and litterfall from healthy trees (to minimise secondary changes associated with decline) within healthy and declining sites on the same soil type. On average, litterfall and the nutrient content of litterfall was greatest within the canopy area of B. integrifolia of the healthy stand. Banksias of the healthy stand also had greater concentrations of N, P, K and Na in fully-expanded leaves, resorbed greater proportions of phloem-mobile nutrients from senescent leaves and accumulated more Ca in senescent leaves. However, there was no evidence of nutritional imbalance in healthy trees within declining stands. It is argued that the lower foliar Ca in declining trees on three soil types and lower nutritional status of healthy trees within declining stands were due to lower productivity and lower water use and were therefore a result or an indication of decline rather than a cause

Karst and hydrogeology of Lebanon, 1997, Edgell Hs,
Karst is very well-developed in Lebanon in thick, exposed, fractured and folded Jurassic, Cretaceous, and Eocene carbonates, as well as in localized, coastal Miocene limestones. This karstification not only results from the predominant calcareous lithology, but is also caused by the high, northerly trending ranges of he country, which cause abundant precipitation, as heavy rain and thick snow, to fall on Mt. Lebanon, Jabal Barouk, Jabal Niha, and Mt. Hermon. Lesser amounts fall on the Anti-Lebanon, Beqa'a Valley and the coastal hills of the country. Some 80% of precipitation occurs from November through February. The karst water emerges from five first-magnitude springs (Ain ez Zarqa (11 m(3)/sec), Ain Anjar (max. 10m(3)/sec), Nabaa Ouazzani (max. 6m(3)/sec), Nabaa Arbaain (mau. 3 m(3)/sec) and Nabaa Barouk (max. 3m(3)/sec), plus hundreds of second-and third-magnitude springs, and thousands of smaller springs. The large springs are all karstic and contribute to 13 perennial springs in the main Lebanese ranges, and 2 in the Anti-Lebanon. These include major rivers, such as the Nahr el Litani, Nahr el Assi (Orontes) and Nabr el Hasbani (upper Jordan River). More than two-thirds of the area of Lebanon (i.e. 6900 km(2)) is karstified and includes surface karst features, such as poljes, uvalas, dolines, blind valleys, natural bridges, and ponors, as well as smaller features, like karren and hoodoos. Subsurface karst features include many types of solutional shafts and galleries, grottoes, subsurface lakes and rivers and most types of speleothems. There are at least 15 aquifers in Lebanon, of which 14 are in karstified carbonate strata. The 1700m thick limestone/dolomite core of the ranges and over 2000m thickness of flanking, or overlying, Cretaceous limestones provide the majority of these aquifers, while significant aquifers are also found in thick Eocene limestones. High transmissivity values (T = or > 1.83 x 10(-1) m(2)) occur in these karstic aquifers, as is shown by the rapid decline in spring flow over the dry summer and autumn months, and their very quick recharge by winter and spring rains and heavy snow on the Lebanese ranges

Age and Origin of Carlsbad Cavern and Related Caves from 40Ar/39Ar of Alunite., 1998, Polyak V. J. , Mcintosh W. C. , Given N. , Provencio P.
40Ar/39Ar dating of fine-grained alunite that formed during cave genesis provides ages of formation for the Big Room level of Carlsbad Cavern [4.0 to 3.9 million years ago (Ma)], the upper level of Lechuguilla Cave (6.0 to 5.7 Ma), and three other hypogene caves (11.3 to 6.0 Ma) in the Guadalupe Mountains of New Mexico. Alunite ages increase and are strongly correlative with cave elevations, which indicates an 1100-meter decline in the water table, apparently related to tectonic uplift and tilting, from 11.3 Ma to the present. 40Ar/39Ar dating studies of the hypogene caves have the potential to help resolve late Cenozoic climatic, speleologic, and tectonic questions.

Active deposition of calcareous tufa in Wessex, UK, and its implications for the 'late-Holocene tufa decline', 1998, Baker A, Simms Mj,
Recent publications have suggested that deposition of calcareous tufa and travertine in the British Isles has declined since the mid-Holocene. Several causal mechanisms have been postulated which include changes in both palaeoenvironmental and palaeoecological conditions. Results presented here for actively depositing tufa in the Wessex region of southwest England suggest that there has been significant under reporting of contemporary tufa deposition. This factor must be taken into consideration in any investigation of a possible tufa decline in the late Holocene. Geochemical and environmental conditions at 26 tufa deposition sites are reported in order better to elucidate the climatic and environmental factors which constrain contempor ary tufa deposition, and to achieve a better understanding of the controls on Holocene deposition

Seasonal Effects on the Geochemical Evolution of the Logsdon River, Mammoth Cave, Kentucky., 1998, Anthony, Darlene M. , Ms

The following research describes the collection and evaluation of geochemical data from the Logsdon River, an open-flow conduit that drains a portion of the Turnhole Spring drainage basin within the Mammoth Cave karst aquifer of south-central Kentucky. This spatial survey of nearly 10 km of continuous base-level conduit included seasonal sampling of carbon dioxide partial pressures (PCO2), dissolved ions, and saturation indices for calcite (SIcal). The highest PCO2 are found at the upstream site closest to the Sinkhole Plain recharge area, which creates undersaturated conditions. Rapid outgassing of CO2 into the cave atmosphere creates oversaturated conditions for several thousand meters. This change in chemistry results in the accumulation of travertine in these areas. A boost in PCO2 roughly half-way through the flow path returns the water to slightly undersaturated conditions. The most likely source for additional CO2 is in-cave organic decay, as the boost also occurs during winter months when microbial activity in the soil is at a minimum. A general decline in Ca2+, Mg2+, and HCO3- concentrations occurred over the distance through the Logsdon River conduit. This decline may reflect a diluting of water by localized inputs from the Mammoth Cave Plateau and precipitation of travertine along the flow path. Although values for all parameters are greater in summer than winter, the trend in evolution is similar for both seasonal extremes.
The nature of the transition from summer to winter conditions in the aquifer was investigated by way of an intensive study of the geochemistry at the Logsdon River monitoring well. The relationship between conductivity (spC) and pH was evaluated during both seasons in an attempt to predict the activity of hydrogen for any given water sample, based on continuous spC measurements at the well. Data collected during the 1997-98 seasonal transitions supported a single, nonlinear regression equation that may represent two distinct seasonal regimes.


A Scottish speleothem record of the H-3 eruption or human impact? A comment on Baker, Smart, Barnes, Edwards and Farrant, 1999, Dugmore Aj, Coles Gm, Buckland Pc,
Studies of a stalagmite sample from Sutherland, Scotland, have identified a period of enhanced growth that lasted for four years and has been dated to 1135 {} 130 BC (Baker et al., 1995). This episode is unique within this sample and has not been observed elsewhere. The authors correlate it with the Icelandic volcanic eruption at 1021 130/-100 Bc that produced the Hekla-3 (H-3) tephra. There is, however, no direct evidence for a causal relationship between volcanic activity in general, or the H-3 eruption in particular, and the growth patterns of the stalagmite. As an alternative to the volcanic explanation of enhanced growth, we suggest that the speleothem could reflect environmental changes associated with woodland decline and the spread of blanket peat

Natural water softening processes by waterfall effects in karst areas, 2000, Zhang D. D. , Peart M. , Zhang Y. J. , Zhu A. , Cheng X. ,
The reduction of water hardness, which occurs at waterfalls on rivers in karst areas, is considered to be a result of the waterfall effects. These consist of aeration, jet-flow and low-pressure effects. Waterfall effects bring about two physical changes in river water: an increase in the air-water interface and turbulence. A series of experiments was designed and implemented in order to investigate whether these effects and associated physical changes may cause a reduction of water hardness. From an experiment involving the enlargement of interface area, the plot of air-water interface areas against conductivity revealed that the higher the air-water interface, the more rapidly conductance declines (and Ca2 is precipitated). A bubble producer was designed and used to simulate bubbles that are produced by aeration and low-pressure effects and a faster decline of water hardness was observed at the location with bubbles in this experiment. When a supersaturated solution was passed through a jet-stream producer, a rapid reduction of water hardness and an increase of pH appeared. Field measurements were used to support the laboratory experiments. Work on the Ya He River and at the Dishuiyan Waterfalls revealed that places with aeration had the quickest hardness reduction and the highest average rate of calcite deposition

Influence of contaminated Vistula River water on the groundwater entering the Zakrzowek limestone quarry, Cracow region, Poland, 2000, Motyka J. , Postawa A. ,
Chemical composition of water inflows in the Zakrzowek quarry, developed in fractured and karstified Upper Jurassic limestones, is controlled by infiltration of polluted water from the Vistula River and by infiltrating meteoric water. The river water TDS value is 2.5 g/dm(3). The quarry waters have 0.6-2.0 g/dm(3) TDS. Highly mineralised waters belong to Cl-Na type. With decreasing TDS the percentage of sulphates, calcium, magnesium and hydrocarbonates increases. This seems to result from various processes including dilution of polluted river water, leaching of aquifer rocks, and ion exchange. The transfer time of river water to the quarry is about 100-120 days. Concentration of contaminants contained in the river water declines during the migration through limestones to the quarry

The distribution of plants in Scoska Cave, North Yorkshire, and their relationship to light intensity, 2001, Pentecost Allan, Zhaohui Zhang
The flora of a small limestone cave was investigated. A total of 59 species was recorded (4 algae, 3 lichens, 47 bryophytes, 4 ferns, 1 angiosperm) making it bryologically the richest cave in Britain and one of the richest in Europe. All but nine of the species had been recorded from other European caves. Species-richness declined irregullarly from the entrance (relative irradiance with respect to open sky 12%) to 34m depth (rel. irradiance 0.004%). Bryophytes were found at 0-16m depth where relative irradiance declined to 0.2% and only algae were encountered at 34m depth. While irradiance, which declined exponentially, was the major factor controlling plant distribution, substratum characteristics and surface moisture were also important.

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