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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That rockpile is a heap of blocks in a cave, roughly conical or part-conical in shape [25].?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for domain (Keyword) returned 77 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 77
Corrosion by mixing of waters., 1964, Bogli Alfred
Karst caves are prior to all due to corrosion. According to the well-known formula a CO2 supply is always needed. This type of dissolution explains only the corrosion in free circulation and, under reserve, the one in pressure conducts in the vadose zone. All corrosion in the phreatic domain is excluded, except for some rare cases in the upper levels. The corrosion by mixing of waters of different content in bicarbonates is effective in the entire karst, from the lowermost to the uppermost parts. Also the corrosion due to the lowering of temperature and by mixing of waters at different temperature has to be take into account. Excpet for some exceptional cases (e.g. thermal waters), this effect is very reduced.

The birth of Biospeleology., 1964, Motas Constantin
Modern biospeleology dates from May 15, 1907, with the publication of Racovitza's "Essai sur les problmes biospologiques." In this paper he posed; if he did not answer; every question raised by life in the subterranean world. He outlined a program of biospeological research, made an analysis of the conditions of existence in the subterranean domain and their influence upon cavernicoles, discussed the evolution of subterranean biota, their geographical distribution, etc. Racovitza modified Schiner's (1854) classification, dividing cavernicoles into troglobites, troglophiles and trogloxenes, terms later adopted by a great number of biospeologists. The "Essai", called "Racovitza's famous manifest" by Vandel, was considered the birth certificate of biospeology by Antipa (1927) and by Jeannel (1948), its fundamental statute. Jeannel also made major contributions to the young science through his extensive and detailed studies. The names of Racovitza and Jeannel will always be linked as the uncontested masters of biospeology, the founders of Biospeologica, and the authors of Enumration des grottes visites. Apart from Schiner, whose ecological classification of cavernicoles was utilized and modified by Racovitza, they had another forerunner in Vir, a passionate speleologist who often accompanied Martel in his subterranean explorations, once meeting with a serious accident in which he was on the brink of death. Vir (1897, 1899) studied subterranean faunas, establishing the world's first underground laboratory, where he carried on unsuccessful or ill-interpreted experiments. We consider Racovitza and Jeannel's criticism of him too severe. Let us be more lenient with our forerunners, since their mistakes have also contributed to the progress of science, as well as exempting us from repeating them.

Rapport sur l'etat actuel des connaissances dans le domaine des caracteres physiques des roches karstiques, 1975, Kiraly L.

Le karst mconnu du domaine aride et semi-aride, 1983, Jennings, J. N.
Knowledge of semiarid-arid karst is poor, especially as regards process rates. Explanation of well-developed karst here must then depend on independent environmental history. Impoverishment in carbonate karst with decreasing rainfall is demonstrable but the factor of inadequate cave exploration has to be weighed. Distinction between desert and karst factors presents problems. Individuality in dryland karst is more a question of changing relative importance of phenemena found more widely than of distinctive forms. Such process studies as exist suggest wide variation. Gypsum karst develops as well in semiarid as humid climate and halite karst is expressed best in arid.

Lattice Deformation and Curvature in Stalactitic Carbonate., 1983, Broughton Paul L.
The cause of lattice curvature is related to the nature of growth on a curved surface, peculiar to stalactites and stalagmites. Lattice curvature in stalactitic carbonate results from the coalescence of sub-parallel to divergent syntaxial overgrowth crystallites on the growing surface of stalactites and stalagmites. Moderate lattice mismatch results in an undulose extinction, or subcrystal domains, whereas more divergent growth favours marked lattice curvature recognized by its optical brush-extinction. Extreme lattice mismatch between the precursor crystallites results a columnar crystal boundary instead of lattice curvature.

Les palokarsts des Alpes occidentales du Trias l'Eocne, 1984, Guendon, J. L.
WESTERN ALPS PALEOKARSTS FROM TRIASSIC TO EOCENE - In western Alps, before complete emersion during the Oligocene and Miocene, the marine sedimentation has been locally interrupted by three important continental phases: 1/ during Early Jurassic, in "brianonnais" domain; 2/during middle Cretaceous, in Provence area; 3/ during early Tertiary, in subalpine range and Jura. These locally and temporary regression are the consequence of tectonic activities in relation to the movements of eurasiatic and italo-african plates, which are at the edge of the alpine oceanic basin (Tethys). After an abstract on the tectonic and sedimentological history of western Alps, a description is given of continental formations (bauxites, fire-clay, clay with flints, siderolitic formations, white and ochrous sands, siliceous and ferruginous crusts) and karst phenomena elaborated during these regressions.

Qualit physico chimique et bactriologique des sources du domaine de Plat (Haute-Savoie), 1990, Buissonvodinh, J.
PHYSICO CHEMISTRY AND BACTERIOLOGY OF THE DOMAIN OF PLATE SPRINGS (HAUTE SAVOIE, FRANCE) - On the high alpine karst of Plat (Haute-Savoie), eight springs on four catchments have been submitted to physico-chemical and bacteriological analysis. The skiing resort of Flaine is situated on one of the catchments, the others are not very frequented (mountain pasture, cattle). These springs have a good physico-chemical quality but only one is drinkable. Pathological germs contained in human and animal excrements contaminate the others. This phenomenon is amplified by the ground and earth leaching due to rainstorms. On the other hand, the skiing resort of Flaine could be responsible of a chronic pollution of the Salles spring. All traditional frequentation of this area makes the water unusable and undrinkable, and all additional development on the karst could only aggravate this situation and compromise the use of water.

Barrages en terrains karstiques; problemes geomorphologiques et geotechniques dans le domaine Mediterranean, 1992, Nicod J.

Rospo Mare (Adriatique), un palokarst ptrolier du domaine mditerranen, 1993, Dubois P. , Sorriaux P. , Soudet H. J.
The oil paleokarst of Rospo Mare (Adriatic Sea) The oil field of Rospo Mare is located in the Adriatic Sea, 20 km of the Italian coast. The reservoir lies at the depth of 1300m and consists of a paleokarst of Oligocene to Miocene age, which developed within Cretaceous limestones, now covered with 1200m of mio-pliocene sequences. The oil column is about 140m high. The karstic nature of the reservoir was identified through vertical, cored drill holes which allowed the analysis of the various solutional features and the sedimentary infilling (speleothems, terra rossa, marine clays), as well as their vertical distribution. Erosion morphology at the top of the karst is highly irregular, including paleovalleys as well as many pit-shaped sinkholes. Observations concerning the upper part of the reservoir were compared to a paleokarst of the same age, outcropping widely onshore, in nearby quarries. Detailed knowledge of that morphology through geophysics helped to optimise the development of the field through horizontal drilling. The paleokarst of Rospo Mare is an integral part of the pre-miocene paleokarst assemblages of the periphery of the Mediterranean, which were formed in tropical conditions.

Karst may become a very serious disaster in tunneling if there is no prediction or warning. We developed an expert system, based on expertise of Chinese experts in karst science and in underground engineering, for prediction of karst debacles when a tunnel is excavated through a carbonate rock area. This system has been demonstrated and affirmed by domain experts

Rillenkarren in the British Isles, 1996, Vincent P. ,
This paper presents the first descriptions of rillenkarren in the British Isles. Rillenkarren are widely developed at two 'classic' karst locations, namely: the Burren coast of Co. Clare, Ireland, and the Morecambe Bay area of north west England. Rillenkarren are also found on hard Cretaceous chalks of Northern Ireland and Carboniferous limestones on the Anglesey coast, north Wales. The limestones at all sires are very hard, extremely pure and dolomite poor. A logit regression model is developed, based on published rillenkarren data from the Napier Range, Western Australia. The model suggests that the two rock properties, % calcite in the rock fabric and % calcite in the micrite cement are key variables in explaining the presence of rillenkarren. Within the context of the model, these two explanatory variables define a feasible domain for the development of rillenkarren. British rillenkarren data satisfy the conditions of this model

Palaeosecular variation observed in speleothems from western China and northern Spain, PhD thesis, 1996, Openshaw, S. J.

This study has produced records of the palaeosecular variation (PSV) of the earth's magnetic field from Speleothems from China and Spain. The ultimate aim of this project was to produce contemporaneous PSV records which would show that Speleothems accurately record ambient geomagnetic field behaviour. From Sichuan Province, China, five Speleothems were collected of which four were studied for their records of PSV. Eight Spanish Speleothems from the Cantabrian coast were collected but their weak magnetisation allowed only one record of PSV to be produced.
All speleothem sub-samples were weakly magnetised and had, on average, initial intensities of <100 x 10-8 Am2kg-1. Despite this, the majority of sub-samples were stable during stepwise alternating-field and thermal demagnetisation and each displayed a single component of magnetisation after removal of any secondary overprints. Rock magnetic experiments were hampered by low mineral concentrations but suggested that the remanences of each speleothem were carried by a mixture of multi and single-domain (titano-) magnetite and also by haematite present in significant quantities. The primary method of remanence acquisition appeared to be a depositional remanence sourced from flooding. This was corroborated by a linear relationship between sub-sample intensities and weight % acid insoluble detritus.
A selection of sub-samples from each speleothem were dated using uranium-thorium disequilibrium and alpha spectrometry. For the majority of sub-samples the low concentrations of uranium, high levels of detrital contamination and initially low chemical yields raised the associated dating inaccuracies above the quoted level for alpha spectrometry of 5-10%. Two Spanish Speleothems had high uranium concentrations and little, or no, detrital contamination. Percent age errors of these Speleothems ranged from 1 to 6%. Comprehensive experiments on the efficiencies of three electrodeposition methods were also undertaken. The most efficient method was found to be a modified version of the Hallstadius method (Hallstadius, 1984), which consistently achieved chemical yields between 40 and 90% for uranium and thorium.
In order to correct more analytically for the presence of detrital contamination, the leachate/leachate method of Schwarcz and Latham (1989) was tested. The maximum likelihood estimation data treatment technique (Ludwig and Titterington, 1994) was used to calculate dates from these analyses. Tests on Mexican speleothem SSJ2 gave excellent results allowing a revised dating scheme to be adopted. Tests on some sub-samples from Chinese Speleothems were generally unsuccessful due to analytical errors.
The isotope 210Pb was used to date the top surface of one speleothem. A constant growth rate was inferred which was significantly less than that calculated from the 230Th - 234U dating method. This was thought to be due to the former techniques inability to resolve growth rates of periods of less than 200 years.
Despite the dating errors associated with each speleothem the records of PSV compare well with each other and with contemporaneous records from China, Japan and also the UK (for the Spanish record). In addition. agreement with PSV data modelled from observatory records suggested that westward drift of the non-dipole geomagnetic field was predominant during the past 10ka.

One-dimensional springflow model for time variant recharge, 1997, Bhar Ak, Mishra Gc,
The linear mathematical model for springflow suggested by Bear (1979) can simulate springflow for an initial instantaneous recharge. A springflow model has been developed, using the Bear model and Duhamel's approach, which can simulate springflow for time variant recharge. The suggested model can also be used to compute the time variant recharge to the springflow domain from a given springflow time series. The inverse problem, which contains linear recharge terms and nonlinear depletion terms, has been solved using the Newton-Raphson method for solving a set of nonlinear equations. The model has been tested to compute recharge for Kirkgoz spring, a first magnitude karst spring in the Mediterranean region of Turkey. The estimated annual recharge computed by the model on a monthly basis compared well with the annual recharge which had been estimated (Korkmaz, 1990) using the Bear model

Hydrogeologue versus speleologue, ou de qui releve I'etude et I'exploration des eaux souterraines karstiques ?, 1997, Bakalowicz M.
Tracing tests and sometimes investigations such as exploration of karst conduits for instance, are done by cavers in France in the aim of defining protection areas for karst water supply or exploitation conditions of karst groundwater. The cavers who promote such investigations over all consider that the only direct approach, that of the cave explorer, gives the real knowledge about karst and allows to understand, to exploit and to protect karst groundwater. After defining the originality of karst and its function as an aquifer, one explains the part of the potential actors of its knowledge, of its exploration and of its management, and especially the part of cavers and of hydrogeologists. That paper tries to define the boundaries of the domain in which the actors take a part. It also indicates to decision makers and to managers that their responsability is directly engaged when defining the conditions of each other contributions. Investigations and management of groundwater in karst areas absolutely need an obvious definition of the part plaid by cavers and by hydrogeologists. Cavers should not play a direct part in hydrogeological investigations, as it occurs sometimes, but they should contribute to them, in co-operation with hydrogeologists. Proposals are made about cave and karst feature data base and about tracing test experiments.

Karst aquifer genesis - Modelling approaches and controlling parameters, 1997, Sauter M. , Liedl R. , Clemens T. , Hiickinghaus D.
The quantification of regional groundwater flow and the transport of dissolved substances in a karst system generally poses problems in parameter identification as well as in the modelling of the above processes. On the other hand, available qualitative and quantitative geological information on the history of the development of karst aquifers, which can provide information on the distribution of karstitied horizons within the modelled domain, are generally not considered. A model has been developed, capable of simulating the interactions between the different processes, i.e. flow, transport coupled with carbonate dissolution, taking into account the varying boundary conditions, e.g. changes in geological and geomorphological (base level) and climatic conditions (recharge depth, temperature). A sensitivity analysis of the duration of karstification to changes in climatic parameters and physico-chemical constants of carbonate dissolution shows that the equilibrium concentration of calcium and the initial diameter of the conduits are very dominant factors.

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