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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That sinkhole plain is (american.) plain on which most of the local relief is due to closed depressions and nearly all drainage is subterranean [10].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for drip water (Keyword) returned 64 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 64
Spatial variability in cave drip water hydrochemistry: Implications for stalagmite paleoclimate records, , Baldini Jul, Mcdermott F, Fairchild Ij,
The identification of vadose zone hydrological pathways that most accurately transmit climate signals through karst aquifers to stalagmites is critical for accurately interpreting climate proxies contained within individual stalagmites. A three-year cave drip hydrochemical study across a spectrum of drip types in Crag Cave, SW Ireland, reveals substantial variability in drip hydrochemical behaviour. Stalagmites fed by very slow drips ( 2[no-break space]ml/min) sites, apparently unconnected with local meteorological events. Water from these drips was typically undersaturated with respect to calcite, and thus did not result in calcite deposition. Data presented here suggest that drips in this flow regime also experience flow re-routing and blocking, and that any stalagmites developed under such drips are unsuitable as mid- to high-resolution paleoclimate proxies. Most drip sites demonstrated seasonal [Ca2] and [Mg2] variability that was probably linked to water excess. Prior calcite precipitation along the flowpath affected the chemistry of slowly dripping sites, while dilution predominantly controlled the water chemistry of the more rapidly dripping sites. This research underscores the importance of understanding drip hydrology prior to selecting stalagmites for paleoclimate analysis and before interpreting any subsequent proxy data

STABLE ISOTOPES IN CAVE POOL SYSTEMS - CARLSBAD-CAVERN, NEW-MEXICO, USA, 1990, Ingraham N. L. , Chapman J. B. , Hess J. W. ,
The stable isotopic ratios of drip water, pool water and water vapor collected in remote areas of Carlsbad Cavern, New Mexico, were used to develop a conceptual model of the hydrologic conditions of the cave pools. When considered in terms of open and closed pool systems, the data indicate that the pools in Carlsbad Cavern appear to leak more water than they evaporate. The pools in Carlsbad Cavern range between -43 and -31% in delta-D, -7.4 and -5.9% in delta-O-18, and have EC-values of 365-710 mu-S cm(-1). The water vapor is consistently 80-82% more depleted in D than associated pool water and appears to be under direct isotopic control by the pools. Most of the drip water ranges between -51 and -44% in delta-D, between -8.0 and -6.9% in delta-O-18, and have EC-values of 310-350 mu-S cm(-1), regardless of location of collection in the cave. Drip water collected on popcorn formations (which in this case are formed by evaporation of wall seep) have stable isotopic compositions similar to local pool water; however, they have EC-value of up to 1060 mu-S cm(-1). In addition, a small, closed pool near the Lake of the Clouds has stable isotopic compositions similar to those of the Lake and elevated EC-values of up to 9500 mu-S cm(-1). The degree of stable isotopic enrichment that evaporating waters can obtain in the Cavern is limited by exchange with the water vapor which, in turn, appears to be controlled by the pools

The sulfate speleothems of Thampanna cave, Nullarbor Plain, Australia, 1991, James, Julia M.

Examination of gypsum speleothems and chemical analysis of the cave drip waters (ions to chloride mole ratios, tot. dissolved solids, nitrate) confirm that the major source of the sulfate in Thampanna cave (Western Australia) is from seawater transported by rain.


Variations in the discharge and organic matter content of stalagmite drip waters in Lower Cave, Bristol, 1997, Baker A, Barnes Wl, Smart Pl,
Six drip waters, which were actively depositing stalagmites in Lower Cave, Bristol, were analysed both for discharge and luminescence properties. Drip discharges were determined for two different years, and show a complex response to surface precipitation variations. Inter annual variability in drip discharge is demonstrated to be significantly higher than intra-annual variability, and discharge was demonstrated both to increase and decrease non-linearly with increased precipitation. Drip waters demonstrate a correlation between their luminescence intensity and drip discharge, with increased luminescence in winter as more organic matter is flushed through the aquifer. The strength of the relationship between luminescence intensity and discharge increases with increased discharge. The results presented here have implications for the palaeoenvironmental interpretation of annual growth laminae and the growth rates of stalagmite samples.

Symposium Abstract: The Hydrology of Speleothem forming drip waters; Crag Cave, Kerry, South West Ireland, 1998, Tooth A. F. , Ward C. M.

Spatial and Temporal Variations in the Dissolved Organic Carbon Concentrations in the Vadose Karst Waters of Marengo Cave, Indiana, 1998, Toth, V. A.
In order to better understand the organic content of microbands in speleothems, seasonal variations in the organic concentrations of vadose drip waters were examined in relation to climatic and environmental variables. Seasonal variations in the organic concentrations of the vadose waters were observed by documenting the fluctuations of Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) and its corresponding fluorescence. Tracer dye tests established that the larger drips depositing calcite in Marengo Cave were fed by waters with a short residence time. A strong seasonal variation in DOC concentrations and natural fluorescence was detected at quickly responding sites. Slow, constant drip sites displayed a weaker seasonality. Further investigation is required to distinguish low fluorescing DOC and to determine if the same fluorophors identified in the vadose water can be identified in the organics trapped in the recipient calcite. The overall conclusions are that fluorescence is well correlated with DOC when the fluorescence range is high but it is not a strong indicator of DOC at low fluorescence values; that the value of fluorescence as a predictor of DOC may vary significantly with individual sampling sites; and that the highest fluorescence values occur in springtime and the weakest in summer and fall.

Symposium Abstract: Controls on the annual geochemical variation of speleothem-forming karstic drip waters at P8, Castleton, Deryshire, 1999, Tooth A. F.

Karst processes on Cayman Brac, a small oceanic carbonate island, PhD Thesis, 1999, Tarhulelips, Rozemarijn Frederike Antoinette

Cayman Brac is a good example of a small oceanic carbonate island which has undergone several periods of submergence and emergence since the Tertiary, resulting in the geological formations being well karstified. This study investigated several karst phenomena on the island including the occurrence and morphology of caves, the water chemistry and microclimate inside the caves, periods of speleothem growth and dissolution, and bell holes. Caves occur throughout the island at various elevations above sea level. Using elevation as a criterion, the caves were divided into Notch caves, located at, or one-two metres above, the Sangamon Notch, and Upper caves, located at varying elevations above the Notch. Analysis of the morphology, age and the relative abundance of speleothem in the caves further supports this division. The close proximity of the Notch and the Notch caves is coincidental: speleothem dating by U-series methods shows that the caves predate the Notch. They are believed to have formed between 1400 and 400 ka, whereas a late Tertiary to Early Quaternary age is assigned to the Upper caves. Speleothem on the island has suffered minor, moderate and major dissolution. Minor dissolution is due to a change in the degree of saturation of the drip water feeding the speleothem, whereas the last two are caused by flooding or condensation corrosion. Many of the speleothems in fact experienced several episodes of dissolution followed by regrowth. The latest episode appears to be caused by condensation corrosion rather than flooding. Eleven speleothems containing growth hiatuses were dated by U-series methods. The results indicate that growth cessation did not occur synchronously. Furthermore, the timing of the hiatuses during the Quaternary is not restricted to glacial or interglacial periods. Oxygen and carbon stable isotope analyses of seven of the samples reveal an apparent shift towards a drier and warmer climate around 120 ka. However, more data and further collaborative evidence is desirable. Of six samples with hiatuses, five show a bi-modal distribution of stable isotope values: before and after the hiatus. Oxygen isotope analyses of modern drip water found inter-sample variations of over 2[per thousand]. This is due to cave environmental factors such as evaporation, infiltration velocity and roof thickness. Inside the caves δ 18 O of drip water decreases with increasing distance from the entrance and thus decreasing external climatic influence. This distance-climatic effect is also reflected in the δ18 O calculated for modern calcite: -5.3, -6.5 and -7.6[per thousand] VPDB at 3, 10 and 20 m respectively. The morphology of bell holes, found only in certain Notch caves, was studied in detail. It is proposed that the bell holes are formed by condensation corrosion, probably enhanced by microbiological activity. The study represents a comprehensive and thorough analyses of karst features on a small oceanic island, and provides information useful for climatic reconstruction during the Quaternary


Chemistry measurements of dripping water in Postojna Cave, 1999, Vokal Barbara, Obelić, Bogomil, Genty Dominique, Kobal Ivan

Environmental factors influencing speleothem formation such as air and water temperature as well as water properties at the surface and in the cave (pH, electrical conductivity, Ca2+, HCO3- and Mg2+ ion concentrations and drip rates) were measured during an entire year in order to follow seasonal variations. The influence of the thickness of cave roof on the water properties was also taken into consideration, and the difference between various cave water types (pool, stalactite drip waters and fast-drip waters) was followed. Monthly water samples were collected at three locations in the cave and also from the river Pivka and spring of MoËilnik. Rainwater samples were also collected and analyzed. From the results it was found that the temperature of cave waters is more or less constant during the year. Mean values of pH for all karst waters are 7.8 ± 0.2. There is a good correlation between the chemical parameters (Ca2+ and HCO3- ion concentrations and electric conductivity) and the different types of cave waters. The ratio Mg/Ca concentrations and the saturation index were determined, too.


Thesis Abstract: Controls on the geochemistry of speleothem forming karstic drip waters, 2000, Tooth A.

Microbiology and geochemistry in a hydrogen-sulphide-rich karst environment, 2000, Hose Louise D. , Palmer Arthur N. , Palmer Margaret V. , Northup Diana E. , Boston Penelope J. , Duchene Harvey R. ,
Cueva de Villa Luz, a hypogenic cave in Tabasco, Mexico, offers a remarkable opportunity to observe chemotrophic microbial interactions within a karst environment. The cave water and atmosphere are both rich in hydrogen sulphide. Measured H2S levels in the cave atmosphere reach 210 ppm, and SO2 commonly exceeds 35 ppm. These gases, plus oxygen from the cave air, are absorbed by freshwater that accumulates on cave walls from infiltration and condensation. Oxidation of sulphur and hydrogen sulphide forms concentrated sulphuric acid. Drip waters contain mean pH values of 1.4, with minimum values as low as 0.1.The cave is fed by at least 26 groundwater inlets with a combined flow of 200-300 l/s. Inlet waters fall into two categories: those with high H2S content (300-500 mg/l), mean PCO2=0.03-0.1 atm, and no measurable O2; and those with less than 0.1 mg/l H2S, mean PCO2=0.02 atm, and modest O2 content (up to 4.3 mg/l). Both water types have a similar source, as shown by their dissolved solid content. However, the oxygenated water has been exposed to aerated conditions upstream from the inlets so that original H2S has been largely lost due to outgassing and oxidation to sulphate, increasing the sulphate concentration by about 4%. Chemical modelling of the water shows that it can be produced by the dissolution of common sulphate, carbonate, and chloride minerals.Redox reactions in the cave appear to be microbially mediated. Sequence analysis of small subunit (16S) ribosomal RNA genes of 19 bacterial clones from microbial colonies associated with water drips revealed that 18 were most similar to three Thiobacilli spp., a genus that often obtains its energy from the oxidation of sulphur compounds. The other clone was most similar to Acidimicrobium ferrooxidans, a moderately thermophilic, mineral-sulphide-oxidizing bacterium. Oxidation of hydrogen sulphide to sulphuric acid, and hence the cave enlargement, is probably enhanced by these bacteria.Two cave-enlarging processes were identified. (1) Sulphuric acid derived from oxidation of the hydrogen sulphide converts subaerial limestone surfaces to gypsum. The gypsum falls into the cave stream and is dissolved. (2) Strongly acidic droplets form on the gypsum and on microbial filaments, dissolving limestone where they drip onto the cave floors.The source of the H2S in the spring waters has not been positively identified. The Villahermosa petroleum basin within 50 km to the northwest, or the El Chichon volcano [small tilde]50 km to the west, may serve as source areas for the rising water. Depletion of 34S values (-11.7[per mille sign] for sulphur stabilized from H2S in the cave atmosphere), along with the hydrochemistry of the spring waters, favour a basinal source

Controls on the geochemistry of speleothem-forming karstic drip waters, PhD thesis, 2000, Tooth, A.

Research was performed at Crag Cave, Castleisland, southwest Ireland, and P8 Cave, Castleton, Derbyshire, in order to determine the main factors responsible for modifying rainwater geochemistry during flow through soil and karstic aquifer zones. Monitoring was performed on a daily basis in summer and winter at Crag Cave, and on a monthly basis over one year at P8 Cave. At both sites, biannual peaks in karst system Ca2+ concentrations occurred due to: (i) promotion of microbial CO2 production by increased summer temperatures, and (ii) retardation of gaseous exchange by ponding of elevated winter rainfall input leading to an unseasonable build up in soil zone CO2. Therefore, speleothems at both sites may form biannual bands in hydrological years subject to elevated winter rainfall input.

In addition to variations in carbonate weathering due to fluctuations in CO2 levels, cation yields in Crag Cave matrix soil water were controlled by dolomite dissolution (Mg2+), plant uptake (K+), and evapotranspiration balanced by enhanced winter marine aerosol input (Na+). Strontium isotope analysis indicates that Sr2+ was derived from a 50:50 silicate/carbonate mixture, whereas the relatively light ?13C signal was related to direct evolution of CO2 into the aqueous phase in water-logged pores.

Within the Crag Cave aquifer variations in karst water geochemistry were controlled by dilution, flow switching, prior precipitation of calcite, and dolomite dissolution along the flow path. Strontium isotope analysis indicates that dissolution in the aquifer dominated, with Sr2+ being sourced from a 25:75 silicate/carbonate mixture. Light karst water 13C values were constrained by the supply of light soil gas to the aquifer.

Elevation in the Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca ratios in the Crag Cave speleothem record compared to present day analogues indicates that the former Holocene climate was drier, whereas heavier 87Sr/86Sr ratios and 13C values suggest variation in soil hydrology over time.


Symposium Abstract: Sources of pollen in stalactite drip water in two caves in South West France, 2001, Genty D. , Diot Mf. , O'yl W.

Sources of pollen in stalactite drip water in two caves in southwest France, 2001, Genty D. , Diot Mf. , O'yl Willford

Morphologic and dimensional linkage between recently deposited speleothems and drip water from Browns Folly Mine, Wiltshire, England, 2001, Baldini, J. U. L.

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