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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 11 Jul, 2012
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

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That compressive stress is normal stress tending to shorten the body in the direction in which it acts.?

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Karst environment, Culver D.C.
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Your search for economic importance (Keyword) returned 4 results for the whole karstbase:
Paleokarst - a Systematic and Regional Review, 1989,

Description
Prepared by some of the world's leading experts in the field, this book is the first summarizing work on the origin, importance and exploitation of paleokarst. It offers an extensive regional survey, mainly concerning the Northern Hemisphere, as well as a thorough analysis of the problems of research into paleokarst phenomena, with particular emphasis on theoretical contributions and practical exploitation. By concentrating on phenomena which have appeared in the course of geological history, the book represents a substantial development in the general theory of paleokarst and demonstrates the advantages of a comprehensive approach to the problem. Considerable emphasis is put on the economic importance of paleokarst phenomena, from the point of view of exploiting significant deposits of mineral raw materials, as well as from a civil engineering and hydrological point of view. Since the publication deals with a boundary scientific discipline, it is intended for specialists from various branches of science: geologists, paleontologists, economic geologists, geographers, mining engineers and hydrogeologists.

Contents
List of Contributors. Foreword.

Part I. Introduction.
Introduction (P. Bosák et al.). Paleokarst as a problem (J. Głazek, P. Bosák, D.C. Ford). Terminology (P. Bosák, D.C. Ford, J. Głazek).

Part II. Regional Review.
Paleokarst of Belgium (Y. Quinif). Paleokarst of Britain (T.D. Ford). Paleokarst of Norway (S.-E. Lauritzen). Paleokarst of Poland (J. Głazek). Paleokarst of Czechoslovakia (P. Bosák, I. Horáček, V. Panoš). Paleokarst of Hungary (G. Bárdossy, L. Kordos). Hydrothermal paleokarst of Hungary (P. Müller). Paleokarst of Italy. Selected examples from Cambrian to Miocene (M. Boni, B. D'Argenio). Paleokarst-related ore deposits of the Maghreb, North Africa (Y. Fuchs, B. Touahri). Paleokarst of Yugoslavia (D. Gavrilović). Paleokarst of Bulgaria (I. Stanev, S. Trashliev). Paleokarst of Romania (M. Bleahu). Paleokarst of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (R.A. Tsykin). Paleokarst of China (Zhang Shouyue). Paleokarst of Canada (D.C. Ford). Paleokarst of the United States (M.V. Palmer, A.N. Palmer).

Part III. Mineral Deposits Connected With Karst.
An introduction to karst-related mineral deposits (P. Bosák). Pb-Zn ores (S. Dżułyński, M. Sass-Gustkiewicz). Bauxites (G. Bárdossy). Iron ore deposits in paleokarst (G. Bárdossy, Y. Fuchs, J. Głazek). Clays and sands in paleokarst (P. Bosák). The oceanic karst: modern bauxite and phosphate ore deposits on the high carbonate islands (so-called ``Uplifted Atolls'') of the Pacific Ocean (F.G. Bourrouilh-le Jan). Paleokarst-related uranium deposits (Y. Fuchs).

Part IV. Hydrogeology and Engineering Hazards in Paleokarst Areas.
Paleokarst as an important hydrogeological factor (J. Zötl). Hydrogeological problems of opencast and underground mining of mineral deposits encountered during their exploration, development and exploitation stages (P. Bosák). Hydrogeological problems of the Cracow-Silesia Zn-Pb ore deposits (Z. Wilk). Hydrogeological problems of Hungarian bauxite and coal deposits (T. Böcker, B. Vizy). Paleokarst in civil engineering (A. Eraso). Interaction between engineering and environment in the presence of paleokarst: some case histories (J. Głazek).

Part V. Paleokarst as a Scientific Subject.
Special characteristics of paleokarst studies (I. Horáček, P. Bosák). Tectonic conditions for karst origin and preservation (J. Głazek). Problems of the origin and fossilization of karst forms (P. Bosák). Biostratigraphic investigations in paleokarst (I. Horáček, L. Kordos).

Part VI. Conclusions. Part VII. References. Part VIII. Indexes.
Author Index. Geographical Index. Subject Index.

Bibliographic & ordering Information
Hardbound, ISBN: 0-444-98874-2, 726 pages, publication date: 1989
Imprint: ELSEVIER


The sequence stratigraphy, sedimentology, and economic importance of evaporite-carbonate transitions: a review, 2001, Sarg J. F. ,
World-class hydrocarbon accumulations occur in many ancient evaporite-related basins. Seals and traps of such accumulations are, in many cases, controlled by the stratigraphic distribution of carbonate-evaporite facies transitions. Evaporites may occur in each of the systems tracts within depositional sequences. Thick evaporite successions are best developed during sea level lowstands due to evaporative drawdown. Type 1 lowstand evaporite systems are characterized by thick wedges that fill basin centers, and onlap basin margins. Very thick successions (i.e. saline giants) represent 2nd-order supersequence set (20-50 m.y.) lowstand systems that cap basin fills, and provide the ultimate top seals for the hydrocarbons contained within such basins.Where slope carbonate buildups occur, lowstand evaporites that onlap and overlap these buildups show a lateral facies mosaic directly related to the paleo-relief of the buildups. This facies mosaic, as exemplified in the Silurian of the Michigan basin, ranges from nodular mosaic anhydrite of supratidal sabkha origin deposited over the crests of the buildups, to downslope subaqueous facies of bedded massive/mosaic anhydrite and allochthonous dolomite-anhydrite breccias. Facies transitions near the updip onlap edges of evaporite wedges can provide lateral seals to hydrocarbons. Porous dolomites at the updip edges of lowstand evaporites will trap hydrocarbons where they onlap nonporous platform slope deposits. The Desert Creek Member of the Paradox Formation illustrates this transition. On the margins of the giant Aneth oil field in southeastern Utah, separate downdip oil pools have accumulated where dolomudstones and dolowackestones with microcrystalline porosity onlap the underlying highstand platform slope.Where lowstand carbonate units exist in arid basins, the updip facies change from carbonates to evaporite-rich facies can also provide traps for hydrocarbons. The change from porous dolomites composed of high-energy, shallow water grainstones and packstones to nonporous evaporitic lagoonal dolomite and sabkha anhydrite occurs in the Upper Permian San Andres/Grayburg sequences of the Permian basin. This facies change provides the trap for secondary oil pools on the basinward flanks of fields that are productive from highstand facies identical to the lowstand dolograinstones. Type 2 lowstand systems, like the Smackover Limestone of the Gulf of Mexico, show a similar relationship. Commonly, these evaporite systems are a facies mosaic of salina and sabkha evaporites admixed with wadi siliciclastics. They overlie and seal highstand carbonate platforms containing reservoir facies of shoalwater nonskeletal and skeletal grainstones. Further basinward these evaporites change facies into similar porous platform facies, and contain separate hydrocarbon traps.Transgressions in arid settings over underfilled platforms (e.g. Zechstein (Permian) of Europe; Ferry Lake Anhydrite (Cretaceous), Gulf of Mexico) can result in deposition of alternating cyclic carbonates and evaporites in broad, shallow subaqueous hypersaline environments. Evaporites include bedded and palmate gypsum layers. Mudstones and wackestones are deposited in mesosaline, shallow subtidal to low intertidal environments during periodic flooding of the platform interior.Highstand systems tracts are characterized by thick successions of m-scale, brining upward parasequences in platform interior settings. The Seven Rivers Formation (Guadalupian) of the Permian basin typifies this transition. An intertonguing of carbonate and sulfates is interpreted to occur in a broad, shallow subaqueous hypersaline shelf lagoon behind the main restricting shelf-edge carbonate complex. Underlying paleodepositional highs appear to control the position of the initial facies transition. Periodic flooding of the shelf interior results in widespread carbonate deposition comprised of mesosaline, skeletal-poor peloid dolowackestones/mudstones. Progressive restriction due to active carbonate deposition and/or an environment of net evaporation causes brining upward and deposition of lagoonal gypsum. Condensed sections of organic-rich black lime mudstones occur in basinal areas seaward of the transgressive and highstand carbonate platforms and have sourced significant quantities of hydrocarbons

Strategisch wichtige Wasserressourcen im Tennengebirge und ihr gesetzlicher Schutz vor Privatisierungen: Geologische, hydrologische und juristische Fakten, 2006, Dachs E. , Klappacher W. , Pavuza R. , Peer B.
The Tennengebirge Massif (Salzburg, Austria) is of outstanding economic importance regarding its drinking-water ressources and has the potential to supply a city or area with the population of for instance - Vienna with high quality drinking water. Strategically important headwaters - i.e. those that are large enough to satisfy the long-term need for drinking-water - are located at: (a) Pa Lueg and adjacent valley sediments, (b) Oberscheffau and Abtenau also including valley sediments, and (c) Lammerursprung and Wengerau. The geological and hydrological facts indicate that the karstwater body of the Tennengebirge Massif has to be considered as vertically and horizontally connected network of waterways with main springs of prime strategical importance mainly at the northern margin of the massif. As proven by karsthydrological tracer experiments, the drainage area of these important springs comprises the whole central plateau of the Tennengebirge Massif including its southern flank down to about 1000 - 1300 m above sea level where the clastical Werfen beds form the semi-permeable base of thick Triassic dolomites and limestones. Glaciofluvial valley sediments, adjacent to the Massif are alimented by superficial and underground karstwaters (Upper Lammertal, Lammerursprung, Wengerau), representing ground water bodies of prime importance for drinking-water supplies. The sterreichische Bundesforste AG is about to sell a large area of 800 hectars in the southeastern part of the Tennengebirge Massif to a private industrialist. Our analysis of the geological-hydrological facts clearly shows that this area is integral part of the strategical important and sensitive karstwater body of the Massif and the adjacent ground water body in the uppermost Lammer Valley. Based on these facts and on the subsequent application of Austrian law ( 1 Abs. 3 lit. 3a Bundesforstegesetz 1996) this sale is considered to be illegal.

Fish remains in cave deposits; how did they get there, 2011, Russ H. , Jones A. K. G.

Fish bones are commonly found in cave deposits. How they got there is an interesting question, and one that has, until recently, been largely overlooked. Previous interpretations of fish remains in caves have centred around their exploitation by humans, but there might be a number of other factors involved. These include natural events (such as flooding) or non-human agents of accumulation such as birds, bears, wolves or otters. Whereas there has been considerable research on some of these animals in relation to the economic importance of the fish they consume (e.g. bears and salmon), it is of little value to archaeologists attempting to determine which animals might have eaten the fish, as they do not record the body parts eaten, or the condition of specimens that survive digestion and are deposited in faeces. Controlled feeding experiments can help with interpretation, but these can be difficult logistically. Two experiments involving the Eurasian eagle owl (Bubo bubo) and the brown bear (Ursus arctos) and their potential taphonomic signatures are briefly described. Overall, fish remains are a valuable source of information about past human ecology, but there is still a considerable amount of research to be done before they can be interpreted fully.


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