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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 11 Jul, 2012
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That activated charcoal, activated carbon is a granular material usually produced by the roasting of cellulose base substances, such as wood or coconut shells, in the absence of air. it has an extremely porous structure and is used in water conditioning as an adsorbent for organic matter and certain dissolved gases [6]. it is especially useful for adsorbing tracer dyes.?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
Engineering challenges in Karst, Stevanović, Zoran; Milanović, Petar
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Geochemical and mineralogical fingerprints to distinguish the exploited ferruginous mineralisations of Grotta della Monaca (Calabria, Italy), Dimuccio, L.A.; Rodrigues, N.; Larocca, F.; Pratas, J.; Amado, A.M.; Batista de Carvalho, L.A.
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
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Your search for ecosystems (Keyword) returned 71 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 71
The ecological classification of cave and fissure water in the underground water habitats., 1967, Husmann Siegfried
Bodies of waters in caves and in crevices of rocks are distinguished from the other subsoil water ecosystems ("eustygon", "stygorhithron", "stygopotamon") under the names "troglostygon" and "petrostygon". The colonisation of subsoil water biotopes involves a fundamental principle which controls the development of the main biotopes for the stygobiont undergroundwater organisms. According to this ecological rule, which is described in detail and formulated, the several interstitial biotopes (for example "eustygopsammal," "rhithrostygopsammal," "potamostygopsephal") are to be considered as the real biotopes of the stygobiont subsoil water organisms; waters in caves, on the contrary, are secondary biotopes of these animals. Caves which contain marine water are described as ecostystem "Thalassotroglon" in their relation to "limnotroglon" (= "stygotroglon"). In this why the contact between "limnospeology" and "thalassospeology" is established, and the limnic and marine microcavernal biotopes; "thalassopsammal" and "thalassopsephal"; are also taken in consideration. "Limnospeology" and "thalassospeology" as limnological and thalassological investigations of subsoil water are characterized as biological fields of work, which serve for the investigation of an ecological unit.

The ecological classification of cave and fissure water in the underground water habitats., 1967, Husmann Siegfried
Bodies of waters in caves and in crevices of rocks are distinguished from the other subsoil water ecosystems ("eustygon", "stygorhithron", "stygopotamon") under the names "troglostygon" and "petrostygon". The colonisation of subsoil water biotopes involves a fundamental principle which controls the development of the main biotopes for the stygobiont undergroundwater organisms. According to this ecological rule, which is described in detail and formulated, the several interstitial biotopes (for example "eustygopsammal," "rhithrostygopsammal," "potamostygopsephal") are to be considered as the real biotopes of the stygobiont subsoil water organisms; waters in caves, on the contrary, are secondary biotopes of these animals. Caves which contain marine water are described as ecostystem "Thalassotroglon" in their relation to "limnotroglon" (= "stygotroglon"). In this why the contact between "limnospeology" and "thalassospeology" is established, and the limnic and marine microcavernal biotopes; "thalassopsammal" and "thalassopsephal"; are also taken in consideration. "Limnospeology" and "thalassospeology" as limnological and thalassological investigations of subsoil water are characterized as biological fields of work, which serve for the investigation of an ecological unit.

Microecosystems in Lehman Cave, Nevada, 1969, Stark, N.

Bat Guano Ecosystems, 1972, Poulson, Thomas L.

Australian Aquatic Cavernicolous Amphipods, 1985, Knott, Brenton

The purpose of this paper is to acquaint speleologists with preliminary results of recent researches into the amphipodan fauna from aquatic ecosystems of Australian caves, with particular reference to Western Australia. Attention is focussed particularly on the systematic and zoogeographic significance of this fauna.


Metabolic efficiency and regulation of body weight: a comparison between life in hypogean and epigean ecosystems, 1991, Biswas Jayant
In the present study metabolic efficiency in the epigean and hypogean populations of Nemacheilus evezardi (Day) was examined. Different experiments were conducted, in both populations, by keeping them either in restricted oxygen or restricted feeding conditions, including starvation. Results clearly show that the rate of oxygen consumption for the hypogean population was significantly less as compared to its epigean counterpart. Further, results also suggest that the hypogean population has a tremendous capacity to maintain its metabolic activity and regulate its body weight under severe conditions characterized by an absence or a limited supply of food.

IMPACT OF PAST SEDIMENT ECOLOGY ON ROCK FRACTURATION AND DISTRIBUTION OF CURRENT ECOSYSTEMS (JURA, FRANCE), 1991, Gaiffe M, Bruckert S,
Differences in the fracture type of limestone rocks have resulted in the formation of several main plant soil ecosystems in the montane and subalpine zones of the Jura (800-1 700 m). The sites were on stable landscape with slope < 5%. Locations were chosen to reflect the variation in physical properties of the bedrock and lithic contact. The rock fractures (densities and size), the shape and size of the fragments and the hydraulic conductivities were described and analyzed to characterize the 3 main bedrocks in the area studied (table 1): 1), lapiaz, ie, large rock fragments separated from each other by wide fractures (figs 1-2), 'broken' rocks traversed by numerous fine fractures (fig 2-3), paving-stones crossed by infrequent narrow fractures (fig 3). The effects of rock fracturing on vegetation (table II) and soil formation were significant in reference to porosity and permeability relationships (figs 6-7). Under similar precipitation, meteoric waters flow through the soil and porosity is relative to fracture systems (figs 4, 5). The weathering of cobbles in the soil profiles and along the lithic contacts maintains different soil solution Ca levels and is an important variable in soil and ecosystem formation (table III). Regarding the regional orogenic phases and the tectonic origin of the fractures, we postulate that the different types of fracturation originated from the different chemical and mineralogic composition of the rocks. Significant differences exist in both the calcite and dolomite content, in the insoluble residue content (table IV) and in the percentage of organic matter of the carbonate-free residues (table V, fig 8). The results indicate that the differences in rock composition arose early at about the period of sedimentation. The origin of the differentiation might be due to the sedimentation conditions and environment (fig 9). It is concluded that the present-day plant soil ecosystems may be related to the marine sediment environments of the Jurassic period (fig 10)

RESOURCE USE IN THE TROPICAL KARSTLANDS OF CENTRAL BELIZE, 1993, Day M,
Rural tropical ecosystems are subject to many traditional land uses that employ the indigenous karst resources: rock, water, soil, vegetation, and wildlife. Individual resource pressures often arc subtle, but their combined impact can precipitate instability in the tropical karst environment, potentially resulting in disruption of food, water, and fuel supplies. The karst of central Belize was used intensively for some six centuries by Maya farmers. but between the 10th and 19th centuries AD most of it reverted to secondary forest. Commercial logging dominated the 19th and early 20th centuries, followed by the expansion of subsistence and commercial agriculture after 1945. In the 1980s resource use has accelerated as population and other pressures increase. Much karst remains forested, but there is increasing clearance for agricultural uses, particularly for citrus cultivation and small-scale mixed agriculture. Soil depletion has begun to occur, water resources are increasingly taxed, and some wildlife is threatened by habitat destruction and increased hunting. Lime production for the citrus industry has promoted quarrying, water extraction, and fuelwood use. Environmental stresses currently do not exceed the threshold of instability, but the rapidly developing rural economy warrants careful monitoring of resource pressures

Die Slowakischen Shauhohlen und ihre probleme., 1994, Racko Ivan
In 1960 the Slovak Caves Administration, which managed twelve Slovak Caves was founded. It was controlled by the Ministry of Culture of the Slovak Socialist Republic and comprised also the Museum of Slovak Karst and the Slovak Speleological Society; a free speleological organisation. In 1981 such an Administration became part of the State Centre for the Protection of Nature. The main task of this centre was obviously the protection of nature in Slovakia but unfortunately many problems remained unsolved. The social movement in November 1989 accelerated the process to solve such problems and the Forum of Professional Workers of Show Caves was set up in Slovakia. Thanks to a very hard work, the first objectives were achieved on July 1, 1990 when the Ministry of Culture of the Slovak Republic signed the Document of Establishment and the Statute of the Slovak Caves Administration. The task of this administration is to ensure a good management of the show caves together with their suitable protection. In cooperation with UNESCO, a sort of Chart for the protection of the karst areas should be developed in order to acknowledge Karst as a natural heritage of Earth because Karst is one of the most important ecosystems. Show caves can play a relevant role in the development of these feelings in the public opinion.

Hydrological response of small watersheds following the Southern California Painted Cave Fire of June 1990, 1997, Keller E. A. , Valentine D. W. , Gibbs D. R. ,
Following the Painted Cave Fire of 25 June 1990 in Santa Barbara, California which burned 1214 ha, an emergency watershed protection plan was implemented consisting of stream clearing, grade stabilizers and construction of debris basins. Research was initiated focusing on hydrological response and channel morphology changes on two branches of Maria Ygnacio Creek, the main drainage of the burned area. Research results support the hypothesis that the response of small drainage basins in chaparral ecosystems to wildfire is complex and flushing of sediment by fluvial processes is more likely than by high magnitude debris flows. During the winter of 1990-1991, 35-66 cm of rainfall and intensities up to 10 cm per hour for a five-minute period were recorded with a seasonal total of 100% of average (normal) rainfall (average = 63 cm/year). During the winter of 1991-1992, 48-74 cm of rainfall and intensities up to 8 cm per hour were recorded with a seasonal total of 115% of normal. Even though there was moderate rainfall on barren, saturated soils, no major debris flows occurred in burned areas. The winter of 1992-1993 recorded total precipitation of about 170% of normal, annual average intensities were relatively low and again no debris flows were observed. The response to winter storms in the first three years following the fire was a moderate but spectacular flushing of sediment, most of which was derived from the hillslopes upstream of the debris basins. The first significant storm and stream flow of the 1990-1991 winter was transport-limited resulting in large volumes of sediment being deposited in the channel of Maria Ygnacio Creek; the second storm and stream flow was sediment-limited and the channel scoured. Debris basins trapped about 23 000 m(3), the majority coming from the storm of 17-20 March 1991. Sediment transported downstream during the three winters following the fire and not trapped in the debris basins was eventually flushed to the estuarine reaches of the creeks below the burn area, where approximately 108 000 m(3) accumulated. Changes in stream morphology following the fire were dramatic as pools filled with sediment which greatly smoothed longitudinal and cross-sectional profiles. Major changes in channel morphology occur following a fire as sediment derived from the hillslope is temporarily stored in channels within the burned area. However, this sediment may quickly move downstream of the burned region, where it may accumulate reducing channel capacity and increasing the flood hazard. Ecological consequences of wildfire to the riparian zone of streams in the chaparral environment are virtually unknown, but must be significant as the majority of sediment (particularly gravel necessary for fish and other aquatic organisms) entering the system does so in response to fires. (C) 1997 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

Book Review: ''Ecosystems of the World, Vol. 30: Subterranean Ecosystems'' by H. Wilkens, D.C. Culver & W.F. Humphreys (Editors), 2000, Wood P. J.

Characteristics of karst ecosystems of Vietnam and their vulnerability to human impact, 2001, Tuyet D. ,
Karst in Vietnam covers an area of about 60,000 km(2), i.e. 18 % of the surface of the country. The country has an annual average temperature of 24 degreesC, an annual average rainfall of 2300 nun and a relative humidity of about 90%. Karst in Vietnam is typified by peak cluster-depression landscapes ranging in elevation from 200 to over 2000 m. Tower and coastal karst landscapes also exit. Because of naturally favourable conditions, karst ecosystems are diverse and very rich. Higher plants(cormophytes) are abundant. They are represented by approximately 2000 species, 908 genera, 224 families, 86 orders and 7 phyla. They form a thick vegetation cover of evergreen tropical rainforest. Knowledge about lower plants is limited. The fauna is rich and diverse. Phyla such as Protozoa, Vermes, Mollusca and Arthropoda are yet ill known. Preliminary results show that the phylum Chordata is represented by 541 species from 80 families, 40 orders and 5 classes. There exist many precious and rare mammals, in particular some endemic species such as Trachypithecus poliocephalus, T. delacouri, Rhinopithecus avanculus, Rhinolophus rouxi, Seotoma dineties and Silurus cuephuongensis. The class Insecta has about 2000 species. The fast population growth, particularly in the mountainous areas of the country, triggers an increasing demand for land and therefore threatens the ecosystem. To obtain land for farming, people have cut, burned and destroyed natural forest cover; resulting in occurrence of hazards such as soil-loss, water-loss, flash floods, mud-rock flows, rock-falls, severe drought, water logging and changes of karstic aquifers etc. Poaching precious animals and illegal logging are increasing. In contrast to other natural systems, karst ecosystems cannot be reestablished once damaged. Living karst landscapes will become rocky desert ones without life. Conservation of karstic environmental systems in general and karstic ecosystems in particular should not be the sole vocation of scientists but also a duty and responsibility of authorities and people from all levels. A good example of a multidisciplinary approach to karst-related problems is the implementation of the Vietnamese-Belgian Karst Project (VBEKAP): 'Rural development in the mountain karst area of NW Vietnam by sustainable water and land management and social learning: its conditions and facilitation'. The aim of this project is to improve living conditions of local people and sustained protection and management of the karst environment and ecosystem

Spatial and temporal patterns of bacterial density and metabolic activity in a karst aquifer, 2001, Simon K. S. , Gibert J. , Petitot P. , Laurent R. ,
Karst aquifers are heterotrophic ecosystems fueled by organic matter imported from the surface. The temporal pattern of floods influences organic matter import and the spatial distribution of organic matter and biofilms in aquifer structural zones. We investigated spatial and temporal patterns of bacterial density and activity as indicators of energy availability and microbial dynamics in a karst aquifer. During baseflow, bacterial density and microbial hydrolytic activity were similar in the upper and lower zones of the aquifer. Floods apparently scoured aquifer biofilms and trans ported soil bacteria into the aquifer, increasing inactive bacterial density in the water column. Respiring bacterial density did not respond to floods and changed little over time. The overall proportion of total bacteria that were respiring was very high on some dates, resulting from a reduction of inactive cell density during flood recession. Floods appear to be key events in scouring senescent microbial assemblages in karst aquifers and stimulating microbial recolonization of the aquifer matrix. We conclude that a conceptual model of karst aquifer structure and function should incorporate changes caused by alternation between flooding and drying in the aquifer

The hypogenic caves: a powerful tool for the study of seeps and their environmental effects, 2002, Forti P, Galdenzi S, Sarbu Sm,
Research performed in caves has shown the existence of significant effects of gas seeps, especially CO2 and H2S, within subterranean voids. Carbon dioxide causes important corrosive effects and creates characteristic morphologies (e.g., bell-shaped domes, bubble's trails), but is not involved in the deposition of specific cave minerals. On the other hand, in carbonate environments, hydrogen sulfide when oxidized in the shallow sections of the aquifer generates important corrosion effects and is also responsible for the deposition of specific minerals of which gypsum is the most common.Studies performed in the last few years have shown that H2S seeps in caves are associated with rich and diverse biological communities, consisting of large numbers of endemic species. Stable isotope studies (carbon and nitrogen) have demonstrated that these hypogean ecosystems are entirely based on in situ production of food by chemoautotrophic microorganisms using energy resulting from the oxidation of H2S.Although located only 20 m under the surface, Movile Cave does not receive meteoric waters due to a layer of impermeable clays and loess that covers the Miocene limestone in which the cave is developed. In the Frasassi caves, where certain amounts of meteoric water seep into the limestone, the subterranean ecosystems are still isolated from the surface. As the deep sulfidic waters mix with the oxigenated meteoric waters, sulfuric acid limestone corrosion is accelerated resulting in widespread deposition of gypsum onto the cave walls.Both these caves have raised a lot of interest for biological investigations regarding the chemoautotrophically based ecosystems, demonstrating the possibility of performing such studies in environments that are easily accessible and easy to monitor compared to the deep-sea environments where the first gas seeps were discovered

Nitrogen budgets and environmental capacity in farm systems in a large-scale karst region, southern China, 2002, Hatano Ryusuke, Shinano Takuro, Taigen Zheng, Okubo Masahiko, Zuowei Li,

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