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Enviroscan Ukrainian Institute of Speleology and Karstology

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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That hydraulic profile is a vertical section of the potentiometric surface [16].?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

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What is Karstbase?



Browse Speleogenesis Issues:

KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for endokarst (Keyword) returned 77 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 77
Carte hydrogomorphologique, hydrogologie et hydrochimie du karst de Dorvan (Ain), 1983,
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Gibert J. , Laurent R. , Maire R.
PRESENTATION OF THE HYDROGEOMORPHOLOGICAL MAP AT 1/100,000 ON KARST OF DORVAN (SOUTHERN JURA, AIN, FRANCE. Main researches about hydrology and hydrochemistry on this karst - The Dorvan massif is a low mountain Jurassian karst with a wet temperate climate and a little nival influence. The surface relief is covered with important decalcification clay. The drainage of the karst is assumed by superimposed systems, according to the excavation of the Torcieu watergap. The flow of the main outlet (Pissoir) is a pluvial type, which presents an annual cycle with a maximum in winter and a minimum in summer. The specific discharge is 31.4 l/s/km2. The dissolution rate is high: 81 mm/ky. 50% of the corrosion interests the epikarst, 50% interests the endokarst. During the Pleistocene, the glaciations played a direct or indirect role on the evolution of the Dorvan karst: nivo-karst during the Wrm; fluvio-glacial up-building of the Torcieu watergap and correlated water logging of the lower karst during Wrm and Tardiglacial periods; probable direct action of glaciers during the Riss.

Le karst des Monts Padurea Craiulu (Roumanie), 1986,
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Badescu, D.
THE KARST OF PADUREA CRAIULUI MOUNTAINS AND THE SYSTEM OF TINOASA-CIUR-TOPLITZA DE ROSIA (ROMANIA) - Padurea Craiului mountains represent one of the most interesting karstic area of Romania. The existence of limestones affected by a lot of tectonics accidents had done these mountains to have distinct morphological aspects. The relative developed hydrographic network, together with the geological structure and the favourable tectonic, brought about a lot of endokarstic and exokarstic phenomena too. This is very clear in Runcuri plateau, which lodges the karstic systems Tinoasa-Ciur-Toplitza. The influence of the tectonic is demonstrated by the underground observations about the fissures. The development of these systems, as well as the morphology of the caves, are influenced by the structure and texture of the different jurassic limestones.

Les cavits de la Sierra d'Aralar (Pays Basque espagnol), 1986,
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Ugarte, F. M.
CAVES OF THE SIERRA OF ARALAR (NAVARRA-GUIPUZCOA, SPAIN). CORRELATION BETWEEN UNDERGROUND FORMATIONS AND GEOLOGICAL STRUCTURES - The study of numerous cavities of the Sierra of Aralar permits to give importance to: 1/ the relations between the subterranean morphology and the structural network; 2/ the relations with the actual morphoclimatic conditions of the middle-mountain exokarst; 3/ the part of the heritages of the Quaternary cold-periods. Following important speleological research carried out by the Aranzadi Society of Science (San Sebastian) in the central mountains of the sierra d'Aralar the majority of the PKH (Karst phenomenons) have been located and mapped (PKH = 2,78 km2). As a result of this work, we have attempted to correlate endokarstic landscape with geological structure

Dissolution spcifique la priphrie des Grands Causses franais, 1989,
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Maurin, Y.
Specific denudation on the periphery of the Great Causses (France) - This paper deals with the results of the specific denudation on the carbonate formations, on the western border of the Great Causses of France: Can de lHospitalet, Can de Tardonenche, le Lempezou, Causse des Bonbons, Valdonnez basin. The results are obtained form the hydrochemical measurements taken form the hydrological cycles of 1982-1983. These results are then compared with those of other local and regional karsts. They show that there is important erosion linked to a well-developed endokarst. This situation contrasts with a deficiency of exokarst phenomena.

Le karst du gypse des Andes de Mendoza-Neuquen (Argentine), 1992,
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Salomon J. N. , Bustos R.
THE GYPSUM KARST OF MENDOZA-NEUQUEN (ANDES, ARGENTINA) - Gypsum and anhydrite formations are highly developed in the Andes at the latitude of Santiago (Chile) and Mendoza (Argentina), where they have played a fundamental part in the various stages of the Andes orogeny. After a brief description of the geological background of the cordillera and some information on the main gypsum formations (Tabanos, Auquilco, Huitrin, Papol), the authors deal with the specific climatic context of the high cordillera: a cold and dry atmosphere (high altitude) apparently hardly propitious to the appearance of karstic phenomena. The latter nevertheless do exist and are often well-developed (Pozo de las Animas). They come mainly in the shape of domes and dolines whilst in the bottom of the valley numerous ferruginous crusts are noteworthy. Although the endokarst suffers from the fragility of the rock, a number of caves have developed, some of which are outstanding (Cueva del Leon, 1km).

Le puits de Flenu : la plus grande structure endokarstique du monde (1200 m) et la problmatique des puits du Houiller (Belgique), 1994,
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Quinif, Y.
In the Hainaut province, in Belgium, great vertical and cylindrical structures pass through the productive Westphalian. They are several coal-miners. They contain rocks from the lower Cretaceous cover, for example die Wealdian formations (clays, lignites and sands). Those pits result from deep karst in the dinantian limestones under the Namuro--Westphalian.

Kannosui Spring and endokarstification of the Hokezu mountains, Western Shikoku, Japan, 1995,
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Kashima Naruhiko

Etapes et facteurs de la splogense dans le sud-est de la France, 1995,
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Blanc, J. J.
The examination of karstic erosion surfaces and of some caves presents three stages of unequal duration in the speleogenesis processes : 1) Oldest paleokarsts linked to a tropical and oxydizing climate (Cretaceous, Eocene, Oligocene and Miocene) are affected by the tectonic effects in relation with the western European and liguro-provencal riftings, the mediterranean opening phases and the main karstic levelling. 2) The Messinian crisis, characterized by a significant lowering of the water-table level, is responsible for a major vertical network development and the first canyon sinking phase; hence the erosion of the high surfaces and the drying up of networks. The formation of new over-sized karst is the result of this evolution. 3) From Pliocene (5.3 My) to Quaternary and present time (passive mediterranean margins), the karstic evolution tends towards new drainages and volumes adjusted to the next climatic and eustatic control, with several oscillations and discontinuities. After a compression period, there is a slowing down of the tectogenesis. We can observe orientation flow changes and speleogenesis induced by cold and wet climatic phases. From Tardiglacial times, speleogenesis mechanisms have slowed down.

Observations morphologiques sur le gosystme karstique du Rupt du Puits (Meuse, Lorraine), 1995,
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Jaillet S. , Gamez P.
The karst system of Rupt-du-Puits is situated east of the Paris basin (Barrois and Perthois), in the Portlandian limestones covered by sands and clays of Lower Cretaceous. It presents 21 km of surveyed passages in several networks (catchment = 13 km2). In this typical covered karst (cryptokarst), we observe two kinds of alimentation: rapid (swallow holes) and slow (wet soils). On the exokarst, the valleys move by retreat of swallow holes and karst stepping. In the endokarst, the variations of the base level determine several stages of stream piracy (elbows of capture). The karst morphology depends on climatic changes and the evolution of the drainage pattern during the Upper Pleistocene.

Les karsts portugais, problmes et perspectives, 1996,
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Cunha, L.
The Portuguese karsts owing to their geomorphological, speleological, hydrogeological and environmental problems, deserve to be better known and studied by the international scientific and speleological community. We present a brief synthesis of the Portuguese karsts in three parts: 1) the presentation of the main scientific works, mainly from the pionner thesis written by Alfredo Fernandes Martins in 1949 on the Estremadura limestone massif, which was the starting point of karst geomorphological studies in Portugal; 2) a brief description of the main characteristics of the karst areas in the western Mesozoic border (Sico and Estremadura), especially the pre--Cretaceous paleokarsts (recent and incomplete exhumation) and the importance of endokarst and exokarst (Estramadura); 3) some further research approaches are proposed, aiming at a deeper and more synthetical knowledge of the Portuguese karsts.

Interprtation morphomtrique et splo_gense : exemple de rseaux karstiques de Basse-Provence (directions de galeries, modle et maillage structural), 1997,
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Blanc Jeanjoseph, Monteau Raymond
Successive tectonic phases on limestone massifs are at the origin of a fracturation grid with several pattern dimensions, and linear or organized drain directions. Mechanical reactivations are observed from Oligocene until Plio-Quaternary on a former "pyreneo-provenale" structure (Eocene). Statistical analysis of gallery and fracture directions, cave levels and descent stages (overdeepening) show several erosional stages occurring after the formation of the Antevindobonian erosional surface. The active speleogenesis during Oligocene and Miocene was controlled by tectonics in connection with European rifting and mediterranean opening. In Messinian a short and significant lowering of mediterranean base level (and water table) made drastic erosion and created vertical pits. The horizontal cave level dug during the stabilization phase of Pliocene, now perched over underground rivers, shows a new overdeepening because of glacio-eustatic Quaternary oscillations. Compressive or distensive mechanical reactivations (Upper Miocene, Pliocene, Quaternary) modified the drainage and consequently the cave organization: self-piracy, confluence and diffluence. In the endokarst, the drainage inversion can be detected in late Upper continental Miocene and early Messinian (6,5 Ma), in correlation with the tilting and extension of the continental margin. Five caves in Provence are studied: Sabre, Petit Saint-Cassien, Rampins, Planesselve river, and Tete du Cade networks.

Karsts et palokarsts du bassin de Mialet (Bordure cvenole, Gard) : formation et volution dun karst dmantel, 1997,
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Bruxelles, Laurent
The Mialet basin is a limestone massif of 62 km2 on the edge of the Cevennes Mountains, made of 400 m of limestones and dolomites. Two allochtonous rivers (Gardons) cross and dissect it. Many caves are to be found at each level and their formation cannot be explained with today's topography. Surface karstic features (dolines) are rare but karstic fillings and many speleothems can be observed on the surface. These deposits are former karst (paleokarst) cut by rivers incision. Recent karstic systems are organized differently but new subterranean circulations sometimes flow in old galleries and declog them.

Formation des rseaux karstiques et creusement des valles : lexemple du Larzac mridional, Hrault, France, 1997,
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Camus, Hubert
The Causses and mediterranean Garrigues present a long continental evolution from late Cretaceous. The karstic network analysis and the dynamic study give geomorphological indicators to reconstruct the paleogeography of this area when the geological indicators are not present. The paleoclimatic action and the tectonic movements make the actual landscape melting a lot of ages and genesis different elements. The endokarst preserves sedimentological and paleoclimatic witnesses and also hollowing shapes that traduce the successive steps of the paleogeographic evolution. The network's levels of the South Larzac are connected with the landscape karstic forms : poljes, canyons, peripheric valleys. The reef limestone of the Seranne and the dolomite of the Monts de St-Guilhem explain this good conservation of the endokarst and of the landscapes.

The carbonated palaeosurface of the ''Arbailles'' massif (Pyrennes-Atlantiques): An example of Neogene hydrographic network dried up by uplift and karstification, 1997,
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Vanara N. , Maire R. , Lacroix J. ,
The ''Arbailles'' massif constitutes a folded area of Jurassic and lower Cretaceous limestones, which belongs to the north-Pyrenean zone. The top karst surface was dug by a palaeofluviatile system from the Albian marlous limestone cover and dried up by uplift (infiltration). This hydrographic network recorded the main events of uplift by staged valley levels (950, 850, 730 and 380 m). Some old endokarstic infillings can be seen on the residual cone karst showing the erosion of a thick limestone layer. The alterite pockets contain elements of former cuirasses which originated in former hydromorphic depressions. These polygenic deposits contain two kinds of mineral families coming from alterations of both Albian marlous limestones and Triassic Mendibelza conglomerates. During the Upper Oligocene and Miocene (after the Middle Lutetian orogenesis), the ''Arbailles'' massif was a chemical weathering surface in a wet and tropical climate in relation upstream with Mendibelza conglomerates and downstream with Cenomanian flyschs. The Plio-Quaternary uplift, of 1000 m, caused the alterite and cuirasse erosion, the drying up of the fluviatile system (Lower Pleistocene), the genesis of a cone karst and the formation of underground systems

Endokarst processes in the Alburni massif (Campania, southern Italy): evolution of ponors and hydrogeological implications, 1997,
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Santangelo N. , Santo A. ,
The Alburni carbonatic massif located within the southern Apennines chain, represents one of the most important Italian karstic areas. Within an area of about 280 square kilometres more than 200 caves are known and many important basal springs are present. This paper concerns ponor systems which are among the best developed endokarst morphologies in the area. In particular it deals with their morphological evolution and with their role in the underground hydrological circulation of the massif. The ponors can be defined as ''contact ponors'' since their entrances are always located at the contact between permeable carbonatic rocks and impermeable flysch formations. Two categories of ponors are present, active and inactive ones, latter due to erosion and lowering of the boundary between impermeable and permeable deposits. The ponors are located on the Alburni highland at a mean altitude of 1100 metres and they transfer water collected by catchment basin laying on flysch deposits down to the main basal springs, the altitudes of which range from 250 to 70 metres a.s.l. The structural setting of the massif strongly influences both the main directions along which the caves develop and the underground hydric circulation flows. Surface and underground morphostructural data have been compared, showing a general agreement, with frequency peaks at the N50 degrees and N140 degrees directions, though the underground data also outline the existence of a more ancient N90 degrees trend. As shown by speleological survey and tracing tests, the underground drainage is strongly influenced by the presence of karstic channels, and its preferential flow direction points towards the southern sector of the massif, according to the general dipping of the strata

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