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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That ground-water table is the surface between the zone of saturation and the zone of aeration. also, the surface of an unconfined aquifer [6]. synonym: water table.?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for enso (Keyword) returned 38 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 38
Fungal communities on speleothem surfaces in Kartchner Caverns, Arizona, USA, , Vaughan Michael J. , Maier Raina M. , Pryor Barry M.

Kartchner Caverns, located near Benson, Arizona, USA, is an active carbonate cave that serves as the major attraction for Kartchner Caverns State Park. Low-impact development and maintenance have preserved prediscovery macroscopic cavern features and minimized disturbances to biological communities within the cave.. The goal of this study was to examine fungal diversity in Kartchner Caverns on actively-forming speleothem surfaces. Fifteen formations were sampled from five sites across the cave. Richness was assessed using standard culture-based fungal isolation techniques. A culture-independent analysis using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) was used to assay evidence of community homogeneity across the cave through the separation of 18S rDNA amplicons from speleothem community DNA. The culturing effort recovered 53 distinct morphological taxonomic units (MTUs), corresponding to 43 genetic taxonomic units (GTUs) that represented 21 genera. From the observed MTU accumulation curve and the projected total MTU richness curve, it is estimated that 51 percent of the actual MTU richness was recovered. The most commonly isolated fungi belonged to the genera Penicillium, Paecilomyces, Phialophora, and Aspergillus. This culturebased analysis did not reveal significant differences in fungal richness or number of fungi recovered across sites. Cluster analysis using DGGE band profiles did not reveal distinctive groupings of speleothems by sample site. However, canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) analysis of culture-independent DGGE profiles showed a significant effect of sampling site and formation type on fungal community structure. Taken together, these results reveal that diverse fungal communities exist on speleothem surfaces in Kartchner Caverns, and that these communities are not uniformly distributed spatially. Analysis of sample saturation indicated that more sampling depth is required to uncover the full scale of mycological richness across spelothem surfaces.


The sensoral outfit of subterranean Trechinae. II. Ultrastructure of the Elytral trichobothria., 1978, Juberthie Christian, Piquemal Francoise
The ultrastructure of trichobothria (Tm2, Tr2, Tr4) of the elytra has been studied in the troglobitic Coleoptera Geotrechus vulcanus and Aphaenops cerberus. Two bipolar neurons innervate these trichobothria. The first ends at the level of the hair base, and its distal segment contains a tubular body, characteristic of mechanoreceptive bristles. The other does not possess a tubular body, and its distal segment ends in the bristle canal; its function is unknown. The trichobothria possess one glial enveloping cell, one trichogen cell, and one tormogen cell; the latter two show an apical, common, large, receptor lymph cavity. The small trichobothria are innervated by a large mechanoreceptor neuron, and by 4 smaller neurons; its function is unknown. The trichobothria of blind Trechinae are highly specialized. A cuticular cup enshrines the hair base; hair and cup move together. The large amplitude swaying movements of the hair are controlled by a spongious tissue around the cup. The trichobothri of Trechinae and Periplaneta have the same type of cuticular dome-shaped structure, and differ from trichobothria that arise from a cavity in the cuticle.

Humidity responses and the role of Hamann's organ of cavernicolous Bathysciinae (Coleoptera Catopidae)., 1978, Luccarelli Marco, Sbordoni Valerio
The humidity responses of Bathysciola derosasi and Leptodirus hohenwarti, two species of troglobitic Bathysciinae showing different degrees of adaptation to cave environment, have been studied. Intact and antennectomised subjects were tested using choice-chambers with various combinations of relative humidity alternatives (i.e. 20-100%, 50-100%, 90-100%, 50-90% and, as controls, 100-100%) to investigate the role played by the sense organs situated on the 7th, 9th and 10th antenna segments. The results show that intact-antenna subjects of both species are very sensitive to humidity gradients and that their intensity of reaction varies according to the intensity of stimulus, as previously reported by Argano, Sbordoni and Cobolli Sbordoni (1969). The antennectomy experiments show that receptors situated on the 7th, 9th and 10th antenna segments (Hamann's organ) are involved in hygroreception. In Leptodirus. insects antennectomised below the 9th segment show a reduced intensity of reaction, while those antennectomised below the 7th segment show no positive response at all. This seems to indicate that receptors in the 9th and 10th antennal segments have additive roles beyond that of the 7th. Further research is needed to ascertain whether the antennal organs of Bathysciinae may have yet further additional sensory roles (e.g. chemioreception) as their complex structure suggests.

Observations on the behaviour patterns of the Cuban cave fish Lucifuga subterranea Poey (Pisces, Ophidiidae)., 1978, Piquemal M. , Thins Georges
The swimming behaviour and the sensory reactions of the blind Cuban cave fish Lucifuga subterranea Poey were studied on a single individual during a period of 6 months. Mechanical stimulation elicits but slight reactions. Gustatory substances in solution elicit fairly typical motor responses which are not followed by systematic exploration behaviour, the same being true for stimulations by odours of prey. The presence of moving prey provokes an oriented exploration with a slight plunging movement of the kind evidenced in other cave fishes. Actual seizing of the prey requires an active approach of the latter towards the anterior part of the body of the fish.

Modeling of regional groundwater flow in fractured rock aquifers, PhD Thesis, 1990, Kraemer, S. R.

The regional movement of shallow groundwater in the fractured rock aquifer is examined through a conceptual-deterministic modeling approach. The computer program FRACNET represents the fracture zones as straight laminar flow conductors in connection to regional constant head boundaries within an impermeable rock matrix. Regional scale fracture zones are projected onto the horizontal plane, invoking the Dupuit-Forchheimer assumption for flow. The steady state flow solution for the two dimensional case is achieved by requiring nodal flow balances using a Gauss-Seidel iteration. Computer experiments based on statistically generated fracture networks demonstrate the emergence of preferred flow paths due to connectivity of fractures to sources or sinks of water, even in networks of uniformly distributed fractures of constant length and aperture. The implication is that discrete flow, often associated with the local scale, may maintain itself even at a regional scale. The distribution of uniform areal recharge is computed using the Analytic Element Method, and then coupled to the network flow solver to complete the regional water balance. The areal recharge weakens the development of preferential flow pathways. The possible replacement of a discrete fracture network by an equivalent porous medium is also investigated. A Mohr's circle analysis is presented to characterize the tensor relationship between the discharge vector and the piezometric gradient vector, even at scales below the representative elementary volume (REV). A consistent permeability tensor is sought in order to establish the REV scale and justify replacement of the discrete fracture network by an equivalent porous medium. Finally, hydrological factors influencing the chemical dissolution and initiation of conduits in carbonate (karst) terrain are examined. Based on hydrological considerations, and given the appropriate geochemical and hydrogeological conditions, the preferred flow paths are expected to develop with time into caves.


A new Jujiroa from Sichuan, China (Coleoptera, Carabidae), 1994, Taglianti Augusto Vigna
Jujiroa iolandae n.sp. is described from Liujia Cave in China (Sichuan, near Huaying, between Chongqing and Nanchong). Strongly depigmented, with very reduced eyes and markedly elongated appendages, it is well distinguishable from Taiwanese and Japanese species, and from the two previously known species from China. One of these, J. suensoni from Shangxi, is quite different (its doubtful taxonomic position is perhaps to be referred to another genus or lineage); the other, J. rufescens from Jiangxi (Fujian), is more related to the new species, that differs by the longer and more sinuate pronotum, with fore and hind angles much more produced, by the presence of basal pore and the absence of first dorsal seta on elytra, and by the apical tooth acute, long and spine-like. The new species extends well westwards the range of the genus, hitherto extending from southeastern Japan (five described species from Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu), to Taiwan (seven species) and, in front, to Chinese Fujian.

VARIOUS APPROACHES FOR FLOW SIMULATIONS IN A KARST - APPLICATION TO ROSPO MARE FIELD (ITALY), 1994, Corre B,
Rospo Mare field is located in the Adriatic Sea, 20 km of the Abruzzes coast, at an average depth of 80 m. The reservoir is a karst which is essentially conductive; yet unlike a conventional porous medium, it cannot be simulated by the usual tools and techniques of reservoir simulation. Therefore, several approaches were used to describe the flow mechanism during the production period in greater detail. The first approach consisted of generating three-dimensional images which were constrained by both petrophysical and geological factors and then, using up-scaling techniques, obtaining the equivalent permeabilities (scalar or tensorial) of grid blocks located in different zones within the karst. This approach shows that within the infiltration zone it is possible, whatever the scale, to find an equivalent homogeneous porous medium; on the other hand, within the epikarst this equivalent medium does not exist below pluridecametric dimensions. Thus it is impossible to study the sweeping mechanism on a small scale, so we must use a deterministic model which describes the network of pipes in the compact matrix, in which a waterflood is simulated by means of a conform finite-element model. This constituted the second approach. The third and final approach consisted of inventing a system of equations to analytically solve the pressure field in a network of vertical pipes which are intersected by a production drain and submitted to a strong bottom water-drive. This model allows us to simulate the water-oil contact rise within the reservoir and study the flows depending on the constraints applied to the production well. It appears that cross flows occur in the pipes even during the production period

A high-resolution proxy record of rainfall and ENSO since AD 1550 from layering in stalagmites from Anjohibe Cave, Madagascar, 1999, Brook Ga, Rafter Ma, Railsback Lb, Sheen Sw, Lundberg J,
Two stalagmites from Anjohibe Cave have annual layers made up of inclusion-rich calcite over inclusion-free calcite or of darker aragonite over clear aragonite. Geochemical evidence indicates that the basal units are deposited slowly in the wet season and the upper units more rapidly in the dry season. For the period with rainfall and temperature data (ad 1951-1992), layer thickness correlates well with the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI), as well as rainfall, water surplus, and actual evapotranspiration (AET) at nearby Majunga. Com parison of the layer record for one stalagmite with 1866-1994 SOI data indicates that layer thickness correlates best with the frequency and intensity of warm, low-phase SO (El Nino) events, not with average SOI conditions. In addition, the 415-year layer thickness time-series from that speleothem agrees remarkably well with historical records of El Nino frequency, with Galapagos (Ecuador) coral records of sea-surface temperature in the eastern Pacific, and with accumulation rates on the Quelccaya Ice Cap of Peru, which are lower at times of high El Nino frequency

Recent active faults in Belgian Ardenne revealed in Rochefort Karstic network (Namur Province, Belgium), 2001, Vandycke S. , Quinif Y. ,
This paper presents observations of recent faulting activity in the karstic network of the Rochefort Cave (Namur Province, Belgium, Europe). The principal recent tectonic features are bedding planes reactivated as normal faults, neo-formatted normal faults in calcite flowstone, fresh scaling, extensional features, fallen blocks and displacement of karstic tube. The seismotectonic aspect is expanded by the presence of fallen blocks where normally the cavity must be very stable and in equilibrium. Three main N 070degrees fault planes and a minor one affect, at a decimetre scale, the karst features and morphology. The faults are still active because recent fresh scaling and fallen blocks are observable. The breaking of Holocene soda straw stalactites and displacements of artificial features observed since the beginning of the tourist activity, in the last century, also suggest very recent reactivation of these faults. This recent faulting can be correlated to present-day tectonic activity, already evidenced by earthquakes in the neighbouring area. Therefore, karstic caves are favourable sites for the observation and the quantification of recent tectonic activity because they constitute a 3-D framework, protected from erosion. Fault planes with this recent faulting present slickensides. Thus a quantitative analysis in term of stress inversion, with the help of striated faults, has permitted to reconstruct the stress tensor responsible for the brittle deformation. The principal NW-SE extension (sigma(3) horizontal) is nearly perpendicular to that of the present regional stress as illustrated by the analysis of the last strong regional earthquake (Roermond, The Netherlands) in 1992. During the Meso-Cenozoic, the main stress tectonics recorded in this part of the European platform is similar to the present one with a NE-SW direction of extension. The discrepancy between the regional stress field and the local stress in the Rochefort cave can be the result of the inversion of the sigma(2) and sigma(3) axes of the stress ellipsoid due to its symmetry or of a local modification at the ground surface of the crustal stress field as it has been already observed in active zones

UNDERGROUND TIMAVO RIVER MONITORING (CLASSICAL KARST), 2002, Cucchi Franco, Zini Luca

Some instruments that continuously measure height, temperature and conductivity of waters have been placed in 10 stations. The stations are located on the bottom of the cavities that reach the waters of the Timavo, the underground river that collects the hypogean waters of the Classical Karst. The preliminary analysis of the remarkable amount of data that has been collected up to now helps define the modalities of water circulation in depth better. There are three different types of flood wave, pumping effects in some tracts and mixing of different waters in other tracts.


Hydrogeologic and climatic influences on spatial and interannual variation of recharge to a tropical karst island aquifer, 2003, Jones I. C. , Banner J. L. ,
[1] The hydrology and geochemistry of groundwater in tropical island aquifers, such as on Barbados, are significantly influenced by tropical climatic conditions. Recharge to these aquifers is the product of regional and local climate patterns that control rainfall. Oxygen isotopes can be used to estimate the amount and timing of recharge on these islands because seasonal fluctuations of rainwater oxygen isotopic compositions are related to the amount of rainfall. This study shows that estimates of average annual recharge to the limestone aquifer on Barbados vary widely, displaying a more direct relationship to the distribution of rainfall throughout each year than to total annual rainfall. Recharge estimates are higher during years when rainfall is concentrated in the peak wet season months than during years when rainfall is more evenly distributed throughout the year. The El Nino-Southern Oscillation appears to be partially responsible for these rainfall and recharge fluctuations. Knowledge of interannual variation of recharge and processes responsible is important because recharge variation must be considered when setting groundwater management policies related to groundwater availability

Prediction of condensation in caves, 2005, Defreitas C. R. , Schmekal A.

Condensation is an important process in karst environments, especially in caves where carbon dioxide enriched air can lead to high rates of condensation corrosion. The problem is there has been very little research reported in the literature dealing with condensation as a microclimate process. This study addresses the problem and reports on a method for measuring and predicting condensation rates in a limestone cave. Electronic sensors for measuring condensation and evaporation of the condensate as part of a single continuous process of water vapour flux are tested and used to collect 12 months of data. The study site is the Glowworm tourist cave in New Zealand. Condensation is a function of the vapour gradient between rock surfaces in the cave and cave air. The size of the gradient is largely determined by air exchange with the outside. The results show that the numerical model to predict condensation works well. Given that rock-surface temperature in the cave does not vary much, condensation is essentially a function of cave air temperature and the processes that affect it, mainly, air exchange with outside. The results show that condensation can be controlled by controlling ventilation of the cave.


Temperature as a marker for karstic waters hydrodynamics. Inferences from 1 year recording at La Peyrére cave (Ariège, France), 2005, Genthon P, Bataille A, Fromant A, D'hulst D, Bourges F,
We present temperature measurements recorded at a 15 min time step between October 2002 and April 2003 inside the La Peyrére cave (Baget karstic system, Central Pyrenees) on six 0.01 °C sensitivity sensors distributed on the whole recognized cave, down to a depth of 57 m. Rainy events are associated to a steep signal of a few hundredth to a few tenth of degrees in amplitude starting 1 h to one day after rain, and with a sign depending mostly of the outside temperature. The temperature signal does not correlate well with the rainfall, while the water level does with a maximum water rising rate 2.5 h after rain. The spectral density of the temperature signal displays one peak at a period of 3 days, which is also present in the rain signal and which is likely to be related to climatic parameters, and a broad smooth zone of spectral energy close to a 1 day period.By comparing a 'superficial' and a 'deepest' group of sensors, we note that the flood signal is more pronounced on the deepest sensor group whatever the outside temperature, and that the annual temperature variation is also larger on this sensor group. This could indicate that rain water flows in the cave through its base and explain the development in depth of the cave. Due to the arrival of water with different temperatures and mineralizations at different levels, double diffusive convection is likely to be triggered in the cave. We suggest that the onset of convection could be associated to the oscillations observed on the temperature signal at the onset of the flood

Temperature as a marker for karstic waters hydrodynamics. Inferences from 1 year recording at La Peyrere cave (Ariege, France), 2005, Genthon P, Bataille A, Fromant A, D'hulst D, Bourges F,
We present temperature measurements recorded at a 15 min time step between October 2002 and April 2003 inside the La Peyrere cave (Baget karstic system, Central Pyrenees) on six 0.01 degrees C sensitivity sensors distributed on the whole recognized cave, down to a depth of 57 m. Rainy events are associated to a steep signal of a few hundredth to a few tenth of degrees in amplitude starting 1 h to one day after rain, and with a sign depending mostly of the outside temperature. The temperature signal does not correlate well with the rainfall, while the water level does with a maximum water rising rate 2.5 h after rain. The spectral density of the temperature signal displays one peak at a period of 3 days, which is also present in the rain signal and which is likely to be related to climatic parameters, and a broad smooth zone of spectral energy close to a I day period. By comparing a 'superficial' and a 'deepest' group of sensors, we note that the flood signal is more pronounced on the deepest sensor group whatever the outside temperature, and that the annual temperature variation is also larger on this sensor group. This could indicate that rain water flows in the cave through its base and explain the development in depth of the cave. Due to the arrival of water with different temperatures and mineralizations at different levels, double diffusive convection is likely to be triggered in the cave. We suggest that the onset of convection could be associated to the oscillations observed on the temperature signal at the onset of the flood. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved

Monitoring of active tectonic structures - Project COST 625, 2005, Š, Ebela Stanka

For Western Slovenia moderate historical to recent seismicity is characteristic. The principal aim for Slovenia to join the COST 625 project was to exchange the experiences and methodology and in this way to determine the activity or non-activity of selected faults in Western Slovenia. Within the project frame we decided for several years of monitoring, and in this sense four TM 71 extensometers were installed in Western Slovenia. In the first half of the 2004 two TM 71 instruments were installed in Postojnska Jama on the Dinaric oriented fault that is situated about 1 km North from Predjama fault. The third instrument was installed on Raša fault on the SE slope of Vremščica and the fourth instrument in Učja valley on Idrija fault. The fifth instrument TM 71 will be set up on Kneža fault that is situated south from Ravne fault. The first results from Postojnska Jama are showing the small horizontal movements for 0.05 mm in one year.


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