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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 11 Jul, 2012
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That cement slurry is liquid cement suspension [16].?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

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Karst environment, Culver D.C.
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Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
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Your search for feeding (Keyword) returned 70 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 70
The role of tributary mixing in chemical variations at a karst spring, Milandre, Switzerland, , Perrin J. , Jeannin P. Y. , Cornaton F. ,
SummarySolute concentration variations during flood events were investigated in a karst aquifer of the Swiss Jura. Observations were made at the spring, and at the three main subterraneous tributaries feeding the spring. A simple transient flow and transport numerical model was able to reproduce chemographs and hydrographs observed at the spring, as a result of a mixing of the concentration and discharge of the respective tributaries. Sensitivity analysis carried out with the model showed that it is possible to produce chemical variations at the spring even if all tributaries have constant (but different for each of them) solute concentrations. This process is called tributary mixing. The good match between observed and modelled curves indicate that, in the phreatic zone, tributary mixing is probably an important process that shapes spring chemographs. Chemical reactions and other mixing components (e.g. from low permeability volumes) have a limited influence.Dissolution-related (calcium, bicarbonate, specific conductance) and pollution-related parameters (nitrate, chloride, potassium) displayed slightly different behaviours: during moderate flood events, the former showed limited variations compared to the latter. During large flood events, both presented chemographs with significant changes. No significant event water participates in moderate flood events and tributary mixing will be the major process shaping chemographs. Variations are greater for parameters with higher spatial variability (e.g. pollution-related). Whereas for large flood events, the contribution of event water becomes significant and influences the chemographs of all the parameters. As a result, spring water vulnerability to an accidental pollution is low during moderate flood events and under base flow conditions. It strongly increases during large flood events, because event water contributes to the spring discharge

Observations on the evolution of caves., 1964, Cavaille Albert
In this note, which results from a paper published in France, the author defines the "karst system" formed by several successive levels, at the heart of a limestone mass: joints of surface feeding, vertical chimneys, galleries which are alternatively dry and full of water according to the season, a network of continually drowned clefts. He then studies modifications in this system resulting from internal causes, corrosion, filling and sedimentation, concretion. Then he shows how this evolution of the karst system may be modified by general conditions: geology, tectonics, geography with the losses, resurgences and the role of surface formations. The deepening of the river level may create a structure of differing levels in the various karst system, but their positioning is always slower than the streams erosion and it comes about later. In any case, the caves in a dried karst system undergo an evolution on their own. Finally, the author gives the definition of the terms used to explain the evolution in the karst system: "embryonic galleries" in the network of clefts, "young galleries" in the zone which is alternately wet and dry, "mature galleries" where the concretion and the erosion are balanced, "old galleries" where the concretion is becoming more and more important, "dead galleries" where the cave is completely filled by the deposits and concretions. This classification will easily replace the inexact terms of "active galleries" and "fossilized galleries" which are too vague and lead to confusion.

Material on the ecology and biology of Sphaeromides bureschi Strouhal., 1966, Angelov Angel.
The acquatic cave Isopod Sphaeromides bureschi Strouhal was discovered by I. Buresch in the underground water of two caves in western Stara-Planina. In this paper the author describes a new station, a spring, in the same region and then exposes the results of ecological and biological observations on this species (biotope, temperature, sex-ratio, feeding regime, locomotion).

A preliminary study on the effects of organic pollution of banners Corner Cave, Virginia., 1966, Holsinger John R.
Four pools were observed in Banners Corner Cave, Russell County, Virginia, over a 28 month period from November, 1961, to February, 1964. Three of these pools were visibly polluted with sewage which had seeped into the cave from septic tanks located on the hill above. All four of these pools, at one time or another during the study, contained large populations of planarians, Phagocata subterranea Hyman and isopods, Asellus recurvatus Steeves. Physicochemical and microbiological analyses of the pool waters indicated that oxygen tension is a low as 2.8 mg./l. in one pool and that coliforms and other forms of bacteria (probably saprophytic) are abundant in the contaminated waters of the cave. Microscopic examination of the pool waters revealed a rich and varied microfauna, especially protozoans and rotifers. In addition, the polluted pools contained large amounts of colloidal materials which are believed to be rich in organic content. The influx and accumulation of sewage rich in organic matter is believed to be the basic trophic input in the contaminated pools. It is suggested that this material serves as an important food source for saprophytic bacteria as well as for much of the aquatic fauna, including both micro- and macroforms. Precise trophic relationships between the larger aquatic organisms have not been worked out but several significant feeding responses have been observed.

Analysis of the feeding behaviour of the blind cavernicolous fish Anoptichthys Gen. and hybrids F1 (Astyanax x Anoptichthys) and F2., 1967, Soffie Monique, Thins Georges, Vandenbussche Erik
The feeding behaviour of the blind cave fish Anoptichthys is characterised by two phases, an initial short chemioreceptic one and second one in which the fish explores the bottom systematically for a longer period. The whole process last approximately 30 seconds, both in adults as in youngsters.

Analysis of the feeding behaviour of the blind cavernicolous fish Anoptichthys Gen. and hybrids F1 (Astyanax x Anoptichthys) and F2., 1967, Soffie Monique, Thins Georges, Vandenbussche Erik
The feeding behaviour of the blind cave fish Anoptichthys is characterised by two phases, an initial short chemioreceptic one and second one in which the fish explores the bottom systematically for a longer period. The whole process last approximately 30 seconds, both in adults as in youngsters.

Food and feeding habits of the troglobitic Carabid Beetle Rhadine subterranea, 1971, Mitchell Robert W.
Food and feeding habits of a population of the troglobitic carabid beetle Rhadine subterranea inhabiting Beck's Ranch Cave, Williamson Co., Texas, were investigated. Observational and experimental data demonstrate that a primary food source of this beetle is the eggs of cave crickets (Ceuthophilus spp.). The beetles locate eggs by selective digging into substrata where cave crickets have oviposited. Chemoreception and mechanoreception are important in the location of oviposition sites.

Distribution and dispersion of the troglobitic Carabid Beetle Rhadine subterranea, 1971, Mitchell Robert W.
Intracave distribution and dispersion patterns within a population of the troglobitic carabid beetle Rhadine subterranea were studied. Distribution was markedly heterogeneous, the beetles being almost entirely restricted to substrata of deep, uncompacted silt. Dispersion of the beetles on the silt substrata did not depart from random expectation. It is shown, however, that this is a functionally emergent pattern resulting from an intrasex repulsion related to feeding which tends to produce regularity counterbalanced by an intersex attraction related to reproduction which tends to produce contagion.

Food and feeding habits of the troglobitic Carabid Beetle Rhadine subterranea, 1971, Mitchell Robert W.
Food and feeding habits of a population of the troglobitic carabid beetle Rhadine subterranea inhabiting Beck's Ranch Cave, Williamson Co., Texas, were investigated. Observational and experimental data demonstrate that a primary food source of this beetle is the eggs of cave crickets (Ceuthophilus spp.). The beetles locate eggs by selective digging into substrata where cave crickets have oviposited. Chemoreception and mechanoreception are important in the location of oviposition sites.

Distribution and dispersion of the troglobitic Carabid Beetle Rhadine subterranea, 1971, Mitchell Robert W.
Intracave distribution and dispersion patterns within a population of the troglobitic carabid beetle Rhadine subterranea were studied. Distribution was markedly heterogeneous, the beetles being almost entirely restricted to substrata of deep, uncompacted silt. Dispersion of the beetles on the silt substrata did not depart from random expectation. It is shown, however, that this is a functionally emergent pattern resulting from an intrasex repulsion related to feeding which tends to produce regularity counterbalanced by an intersex attraction related to reproduction which tends to produce contagion.

Cooleman and Right Cooleman Caves, Kosciusko National Park, and the Shift of Risings, 1971, Jennings, J. N.

The Cooleman-Right Cooleman system is an abandoned, nearly horizontal outflow cave of shallow phreatic nature, modified by breakdown. It lies just inside and parallel to a gorge wall of Cave Creek. This relationship, and others like it here, are attributed to a greater water input into the limestone along the lines of dissection of Cooleman Plain rather than to the mechanical effects of slope retreat such as Renault has favoured. This outflow cave has been replaced as the major rising of this karst by the Blue Waterholes a short distance down valley; shallow incision of the valley has accompanied the shift of the rising. This down valley movement does not seem to be explicable by removal of overlying impervious beds in this direction to expose more limestone but by a displacement of the main artery feeding the risings in the course of the deepening of underground karst development as a result of incision. However, this displacement is not more favourable to the emergence of the underground drainage of the Plain as a whole. The downstream shift of the rising therefore remains problematic. Discussion favours interpretation of Cooleman Cave entrance as a secondary breach into the outflow cave previously emerging at Right Cooleman entrance, aided by lateral erosion of the surface stream, but it is recognised that the evidence is far from conclusive.


On the food and feeding habits of Lepidomysis longipes (Pillai and Mariamma) (Crustacea Mysidacea)., 1972, Nath C. N. , Pillai N. Krishna
The amount of food available to the subterranean mysid, Lepidomysis longipes (Pillai & Mariamma, 1964) in its habitat has been calculated and analysed. Lepidomysis appears to feed mainly on decaying vegetable matter. Lepidomysis shows many modifications in its external morphology. Consequently, the mode of feeding has undergone some marked changes from that of its epigean relatives. L. longipes is a discontinuous feeder.

Comparative study of the feeding habits of two cavernicolous fishes., 1972, Thins Georges, Wissocq Nicole
whose dominant vertical orientation is determined, in Anoptichthys, by the type of feeding material used during the pre-experimental period. This does not hold for Caecobarbus, who shows a definite preference for the substrate in these conditions. It is remarkable that, in spite of the more rigid polarisation on the substrate shown by Caecobarbus, the preferential orientation to the lower level is not followed by an active exploratory behaviour as in Anoptichthys. This dissociation between substrate polarisation and exploratory behaviour is to be interpreted, once more, as a sign of deeper phyletic degeneration in the ethology of Caecobarbus. In Anoptichthys the effects of the group seem to favour the preferential reaction for the vertical level at which food is present, whereas in Caecobarbus , the presence of specific mates is rather inhibitory.

On the food and feeding habits of Lepidomysis longipes (Pillai and Mariamma) (Crustacea Mysidacea)., 1972, Nath C. N. , Pillai N. Krishna
The amount of food available to the subterranean mysid, Lepidomysis longipes (Pillai & Mariamma, 1964) in its habitat has been calculated and analysed. Lepidomysis appears to feed mainly on decaying vegetable matter. Lepidomysis shows many modifications in its external morphology. Consequently, the mode of feeding has undergone some marked changes from that of its epigean relatives. L. longipes is a discontinuous feeder.

Comparative study of the feeding habits of two cavernicolous fishes., 1972, Thins Georges, Wissocq Nicole
whose dominant vertical orientation is determined, in Anoptichthys, by the type of feeding material used during the pre-experimental period. This does not hold for Caecobarbus, who shows a definite preference for the substrate in these conditions. It is remarkable that, in spite of the more rigid polarisation on the substrate shown by Caecobarbus, the preferential orientation to the lower level is not followed by an active exploratory behaviour as in Anoptichthys. This dissociation between substrate polarisation and exploratory behaviour is to be interpreted, once more, as a sign of deeper phyletic degeneration in the ethology of Caecobarbus. In Anoptichthys the effects of the group seem to favour the preferential reaction for the vertical level at which food is present, whereas in Caecobarbus , the presence of specific mates is rather inhibitory.

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