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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That fault breccia is the assemblage of broken rock fragments frequently found along faults. the fragments may vary in size from inches to feet.?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for forces (Keyword) returned 22 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 22
Holocene stratigraphy of Cobweb Swamp, a Maya wetland in northern Belize, 1996, Jacob J. S. , Hallmark C. T. ,
We investigated the soils and sediments of Cobweb Swamp, adjacent to the archaeological site of Colha in northern Belize, to adumbrate landscape evolution and the impact of the ancient Maya on a tropical palustrine wetland. The Cobweb section exposes a complex and dynamically evolving landscape, with a rich interplay between natural and human forces. The Cobweb depression probably formed as a karstic doline or polje in interbedded limestone and marl of late Tertiary or Pleistocene age. During the latest Pleistocene, a terrestrial marsh covered most of the depression. Slope wash and colluviation from adjacent slopes impacted the depression during the early Holocene, possibly in response to a drier and cooler climate reported to have occurred in the region during this time. After ca. 5600 B.P., the Cobweb depression was affected by relatively rapidly rising sea levels in the area, and a brackish lagoon filled the basin. By 4800 B.P., a peat filled in the lagoon, probably because precipitation of a marl in the lagoon coupled with decreasing rates of sea-level rise enabled emergent vegetation to encroach the shallowing waters. Humans first began to affect the landscape when this peat was at the surface. Massive deforestation, resulting in increased runoff and rising water levels, is the most likely explanation for a fresh-water lagoon that again inundated the Cobweb depression between 3400 and 500 B.P. The Maya Clay was deposited on the edge of this lagoon as the result of upland erosion, almost as soon as deforestation began, but the bulk of the deposit was coincident with the sudden collapse of the Classic Maya civilization ca. 1000 B.P., suggesting that significant environmental degradation was associated with the demise of the Classic Maya. Peat began to fill the Cobweb lagoon sometime before 500 B.P., probably the result of shallower water levels from decreasing runoff resulting from reforestation after abandonment by the Maya. ------------------------------------------------------

ALGAE: AN IMPORTANT AGENT IN DEPOSITION OF KARSTIC TRAVERTINES: OBSERVATIONS ON NATURAL-BRIDGE YERKOPRU TRAVERTINES, ALADAĞLAR, EASTERN TAURIDS-TURKEY, 1997, Bayari C. Serdar, Kurttas Turker
Travertines are terrestrial, fresh water carbonate deposits formed by karstic springs and associated streams which are saturated with respect to calcite. Field observations form recently travertine depositing arstic springs in Aladağlar, Eastern Taurids ? Turkey indicate that the deposition process is accelerated considerably by the physical and biochemical contribution of algae which are mostly belong to classes of Cyanophyceae (blue-green algae) Chlorophyceae (diatoms), Eugleno-phyceae and Xhantophyceae. Algae conributes physically to the deposition of travertine by means of trapping of inorganically formed calcite micro-crystals by algal filaments and mucilagenous secretions and by providing proper nucleation sites for calcite precipitation. Biochemical activity of algae also forces the aquatic system to deposit travertine due to the photosynthetic removal of free carbondioxide from the solution. Field observations indicate that the rate of physical and chemical contribution to the deposition depends strongly on the hydraullic conditions. Physical and biochemical roles becomes important in high and low /velocity/energy streams, respectively. The effect of algal association over the travertine deposition can be observed apparently especially in streams where the ratio of algal mass to the rate of stream flow is substantially high. Since the climatic conditions (air temperature and insolation) have strong influence upon the abundance of algae, the rate of travertine deposited by algal contribution decreasing during winter months when algal population decreases. Similarly , the biochemical contribution shows a diurnal pattern with a maximum during a mid day because of the higher uptake of carbondioxide via photosynthesis.

Holocene development of three isolated carbonate platforms, Belize, central America, 1998, Gischler E. , Hudson J. H. ,
Locally operating factors such as topography of the reef basement and exposure to waves and currents rather than regionally effective factors such as the post-glacial sea level rise in the western Atlantic explain the different Holocene developments of the three isolated carbonate platforms Glovers Reef, Lighthouse Reef, and Turneffe Islands offshore Belize. A series of NNE-striking tilted fault-blocks at the passive continental margin forms the deep basement of the Belize reefs. Glovers and Lighthouse Reefs are located on the same fault-block, while Turneffe Islands is situated west of Lighthouse Reef on an adjacent fault-block. The three platforms are surrounded by deep water and have surface-breaking reef rims. Significant differences exist between platform interiors. Glovers Reef has only 0.2% of land and an 18 m deep, well-circulated lagoon with over 800 patch reefs. Lighthouse Reef has 3% of land and a well-circulated lagoon area. Patch reefs are aligned along a NNE-striking trend that separates a shallow western (3 m) and a deeper eastern (8 m) lagoon. Turneffe Islands has 22% of land that is mainly red mangrove. Interior lagoons are up to 8 m deep and most have restricted circulation and no patch reefs. Surface sediments are rich in organic matter. In contrast, the northernmost part of Turneffe Islands has no extensive mangrove development and the well-circulated lagoon area has abundant patch reefs. Holocene reef development was investigated by means of 9 rotary core holes that all reached Pleistocene reef limestones, and by radiometric dating of corals. Maximal Holocene reef thickness reaches 11.7 m on Glovers Reef, 7.9 m on Lighthouse Reef, and 3.8 m on Turneffe Islands. Factors that controlled Holocene reef development include the following. (1) Holocene sea level. The margin of Glovers Reef was flooded by the rising Holocene sea ca. 7500 YBP, that of Lighthouse Reef ca. 6500 YBP, and that of Turneffe Islands between 5400 and 4750 YBP. All investigated Holocene reefs belong to the keep-up type, even though the three platforms were flooded successively and, hence, the reefs had to keep pace with different rates of sea level rise. (2) Pre-Holocene topography. Pleistocene elevation and relief are different on the three platforms. This is the consequence of both tectonics and karst. Different elevations caused successive reef initiation and they also resulted in differences in lagoon depths. Variations in Pleistocene topography also explain the different facies distribution patterns on the windward platforms that are located on the same fault-block. On Lighthouse Reef tectonic structures are clearly visible such as the linear patch reef trend that is aligned along a Pleistocene fault. On Glovers Reef only short linear trends of patch reefs can be detected because the Pleistocene tectonic structures are presumably masked by the higher Holocene thickness. The lower Pleistocene elevation on Glovers Reef is probably a consequence of both a southward tectonic tilt, and stronger karstification towards the south related to higher rainfall. (3) Exposure to waves and currents. Glovers Reef, Lighthouse Reef, and the northernmost part of Turneffe Islands receive the maximum wave force as they are open to the Caribbean Sea. Adjacent lagoons are well-circulated and have luxuriant patch reef growth and no extensive mangrove development. By contrast, most of Turneffe Islands is protected from the open Caribbean Sea by Lighthouse Reef to the east and is only exposed to reduced wave forces, allowing extensive mangrove growth in these protected areas. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V

Feeding ecology and evolutionary survival of the living coelacanth Latimeria chalumnae, 2000, Fricke H, Hissmann K,
One concept of evolutionary ecology holds that a living fossil is the result of past evolutionary events, and is adapted to recent selective forces only if they are similar to the selective forces in the past. We describe the present environment of the living coelacanth Latimeria chalumnae Smith, 1939 at Grande Comore, western Indian Ocean and report depth-dependent cave distribution, temperature, salinity and oxygen values which are compared to the fish's distribution and its physiological demands. We studied the activity pattern, feeding behaviour, prey abundance and hunting success to evaluate possible links between environmental conditions, feeding ecology and evolutionary success of this ancient fish. Transmitter tracking experiments indicate nocturnal activity of the piscivorous predator which hunts between approximately 200 m below the surface to 500 m depth. Fish and prey density were measured between 200 and 400 m, both increase with depth. Feeding tracks and feeding strikes of the coelacanth at various depths were simulated with the help of video and laser techniques. Along a 9447 m video transect a total of 31 potential feeding strikes occurred. Assuming 100% hunting success, medium-sized individuals would obtain 122 g and large females 299 g of prey. Estimates of metabolic rates revealed for females 3.7 ml O-2 kg(-1) h(-1) and for males 4.5 ml O-2 kg(-1) h(-1). Today coelacanths are considered to be a specialist deep-water form and to inhabit, with their ancient morphology, a contemporary environment where they compete with advanced, modern fish

From doline distribution to tectonics movements example of the Velebit mountain range, Croatia, 2002, Faivre Sanja, Reiffsteck Philippe

The influence of tectonic forces on karst relief development has been studied using dolines as geomorphological markers. The strain and stress orientations have been calculated from the doline distribution, applying the centre to centre method (Ramsay, 1967; Fry, 1979). 623 local results have been obtained which were later injected into a 2D finite element model created in Castem 2 000 software. As the observed deformations are the consequence of the tectonic displacements, the numerical model tends to simulate the tectonic conditions, which are closely related to the observed deformations. The results were correlated with the GPS measurements as well as with the geological field mapping results and great coincidence was observed.


Comparison of French and Slovene Karstic and Speleological Terminology, 2003, Mrak, Berta

The article compares karstic terminology of the two world Karst forces - Slovenia and France, whose scientists have been collaborating for a very long time. From the etymological point of view, the comparison shows that the two vocabularies exerted mutual influence on each other, which in turn brought about several errors when new terms were being adapted. The article also describes some differences in terminology and deviations in the typology of more specific terms, as well as points out great similarity between general terms. The comparison also deals with different lexical abundance of the two terminologies, and concludes with a presentation of some karstic phenomena unique in both countries.


Geology and models of salt extrusion at Qum Kuh, central Iran, 2004, Talbot C. J. , Aftabi P. ,
Profiles through the summit of a small nearly axisymmetric extrusion of Oligocene and Miocene salt, and simple analogue models of it, simulate the profiles of piles of ductile nappes extruded from convergent orogens. The salt extrudes from a reactive diapir along a major strike-slip fault at about 82 mm a(-1) and rises 315 m above the central plateau of Iran. The salt has the distinctive smooth profile of a viscous fountain in which an asymmetric apron of allochthonous salt gravity-spreads over its surroundings from a summit dome. Curtain folds developed in the source layer extrude from the diapir and are refolded by major recumbent folds with circumferential axes that simulate nappes. Minor flow folds with circumferential axes refold major folds in the top 10-50 m of surficial salt. Master joints > 100 m long indicate brittle failure of dilated salt by regional stress fields. Tuned to the dimensions of Qum Kuh, analytical and analogue models of viscous extrusions constrain the dynamic salt budget and a time of extrusion of at least 42000 years. New analogue models suggest that the number, amplitude and spacing of major recumbent folds within the extruded salt (and ductile nappe piles) record the number, amount and relative timing of fluctuations in the driving forces

Characterizing a coastal karst aquifer using an inverse modeling approach: The saline springs of Thau, southern France, 2004, Pinault J. L. , Doerfliger N. , Ladouche B. , Bakalowicz M. ,
[1] A methodological approach using inverse modeling was used to characterize the functioning of the deep and shallow reservoirs of the Thau karst aquifer system. Three springs were monitored at the convergence of rising saline water diluted with shallow groundwater in karst conduits and unmixed shallow groundwater that behaves as confined groundwater. In such a method, impulse responses of flow and fluxes are combined in order to separate hydrographs. The model explains the salinity and hydraulic head variations of the submarine and inland springs. It confirms and improves the conceptual model of this groundwater system in which mixing of saline and subsurface waters occurs. The different forces driving the upward flowing mixed water into the drainage axis and faults were studied in order to elucidate the springs' functioning. A comparative study of spring functioning is proposed, which clearly shows the very high sensitivity of the groundwater system to changes in recharge and discharge conditions

Weathering, geomorphic work, and karst landscape evolution in the Cave City groundwater basin, Mammoth Cave, Kentucky, 2005, Groves C. , Meiman J. ,
Following the pioneering work of Wolman and Miller [Wolman, M.G., Miller, J.P., 1960. Magnitude and frequency of forces in geomorphic processes. J. Geol., 68, 54-74.] in evaluation of geomorphic work and the frequencies and magnitudes of forces that drive it, a large number of quantitative studies have focused on the evolution of fluvial systems and transport of elastic sediment. Less attention has been given to understanding frequencies and magnitudes of processes in rock weathering, including investigation of rates at which solutes are removed from landscapes under various flow distributions as an analog to Wolman and Miller's [Wolman, M.G., Miller, J.P., 1960. Magnitude and frequency of forces in geomorphic processes. J. Geol., 68, 54-74.] concept of geomorphic work. In this work, we use I year of high-resolution flow and chemical data to examine the work done in landscape evolution within and at the outlet of Kentucky's Cave City Basin, a well-developed karst landscape/aquifer system that drains about 25 km(2). We consider both removal of solutes contributing to landscape denudation based on calcium mass flux as well as predicted dissolution rates of the conduit walls at the outlet of this basin based on limestone dissolution kinetics. Intense, short-duration events dominate. Storms that filled the Logsdon River conduit occurred < 5% of the year but were responsible for 38% of the dissolved load leaving the system and from 63% to 100% of conduit growth for various scenarios of sediment influence. Landscape denudation is a linear function of the amount of water moving through the system, but conduit growth rates, and thus rates of recharge area evolution from fluvial to karst surface landscapes, depend both on the amount of water available and the distribution of precipitation. © 2004 Published by Elsevier B.V

ANCIENT GREEK HYDROMYTHS ABOUT THE SUBMARINE TRANSPORT OF TERRESTRIAL FRESH WATER THROUGH SEABEDS OFFSHORE OF KARSTIC REGIONS, 2009, Clendenon Cindy
This study examined the relationship between ancient Greek texts and the physical possibility of focused, distal flow of ter-restrial fresh water through the seabed, particularly offshore of karstic coasts. The four ancient texts which were analyzed describe powerful discharges from submarine springs in the eastern Black Sea; the local transport of groundwater through the bed of Turkeys Bay of Miletus; alleged subterraneansub-marine connections between coastal western Turkey and the Greek northeast Peloponnese; and alleged connections between the coastal western Peloponnese and southeastern coastal Sicily. The plausibility or implausibility of these legends was assessed in the context of modern reports indicating that seabed pathways can transport continental fresh water up to 60 km offshore. Other reports identify fresh water in the seabed as far as 160 km offshore, presumably due to marine-induced forces. These documented cases validated ancient claims of nearshore groundwater transport and legitimized transoceanic claims as mythologized extrapolations of local karstic hydrogeology. As submarine fresh groundwater becomes increasingly important in understanding material transport and in identifying potentially exploitable coastal water supplies, ancient stories from past civilizations may give clues to offshore sites meriting further exploration.

The genesis of cave rings explained using empirical and experimental data, 2009, Nozzoli F. , Bevilacqua S. , And Cavallari L.
A cave ring is a faint speleothem consisting in a thin circle on the floor symmetrically surrounding a water drop impact point. Two different mechanisms seem to be responsible for cave ring formation: the drop splash at the floor, for the splash rings, and the ejection of a secondary droplet during the fall, for the fall down rings. A systematic investigation of 67 speleothem rings discovered in five different caves in central Italy was conducted. The data show compatibility with a common nature for all the observed rings. For the observed rings, the hypothesis of a falling secondary droplet origin is confirmed and the hypothesis of a primary drop splash is rejected. The trajectory of a secondary droplet has been measured, and the collected data suggest that the secondary droplets originate from a primary drop breakup at a distance y0 5 142.7 6 7.2 cm from the stalactite tip. Assuming this spontaneous breakup hypothesis, the velocities ratio b 5 uy/ux 5 25.5 6 1.6 at the breakup time was measured. Finally, the collected ring data (5-cm- to 50-cm-diameter range) exhibit a negative curva- ture trajectory. The large departure from a gravity dominant parabolic trajectory suggests other forces, such as air friction or lift force, are at work on the small secondary droplets.

The evolution of Appalachian fluviokarst: competition between stream erosion, cave development, surface denudation, and tectonic uplift, 2009, White W. B.
The long and complex depositional and tectonic history of the Appalachians has produced a substrate of folded and faulted sandstones, shales, and carbonate rocks (leaving aside the metamorphic and igneous core). The Appalachian fluviokarst is an evolving landscape developed on the carbonate rocks. The erosion of surface streams competes with dissolutional processes in the carbonate rocks, and both compete with tectonic uplift of the eastern margin of the North American plate. The Appalachians have undergone erosion since the Jurassic and 5 to 15 kmof sediment have been removed.Many karst landscapes have come and gone during this time period. The earliest cosmogenic- isotope dates place the oldest Appalachian caves in the early Pliocene. Various interpretations and back-calculations extend the recognizable topography to the mid to lateMiocene.Much of the present-day karst landscape was created during the Pleistocene. There have been many measurements and estimates of the rate of denudation of karst surfaces by dissolution of the carbonate bedrock and many estimates of the rate of downcutting of surface streams. Curiously, both of these estimates give similar values (in the range of 30 mm ka21 ), in spite of the differences in the erosional processes. These rates are somewhat higher than present-day rates of tectonic uplift, leaving the contemporary landscape the result of a balance between competing processes. Introduction of tectonic forces into the interpretation of karst landscapes requires consideration of the long-term uplift rates. In the Davisian point of view, uplift was episodic, with short periods of rapid uplift followed by long static periods that allowed the development of peneplains. In the Hackian point of view, uplift has occurred at a more or less constant rate, so that present topography ismainly the result of differential erosion rates. Attempts to back-calculate the development of karst landscapes requires a conceptual model somewhere between these rather extreme points of view.

Coupled Thermo-Hydro-Chemical (THC) Modeling of Hypogene Karst Evolution in a Prototype Mountain Hydrologic System, 2011, Chaudhuri A. , Rajaram H. , Viswanathan H. S. , Zyvoloski G.

Hypogene karst systems are believed to develop when water flowing upward against the geothermal gradient dissolves limestone as it cools. We present a comprehensive THC model incorporating time-evolving fluid flow, heat transfer, buoyancy effects, multi-component reactive transport and aperture/permeability change to investigate the origin of hypogene karst systems. Our model incorporates the temperature and pressure dependence of the solubility and dissolution kinetics of calcite. It also allows for rigorous representation of temperature-dependent fluid density and its influence on buoyancy forces at various stages of karstification. The model is applied to investigate karstification over geological time scales in a prototype mountain hydrologic system. In this system, a high water table maintained by mountain recharge, drives flow downward through the country rock and upward via a high-permeability fault/fracture. The pressure boundary conditions are maintained constant in time. The fluid flux through the fracture remains nearly constant even though the fracture aperture and permeability increase by dissolution, largely because the permeability of the country rock is not altered significantly due to slower dissolution rates. However, karstification by fracture dissolution is not impeded even though the fluid flux stays nearly constant. Forced and buoyant convection effects arise due to the increased permeability of the evolving fracture system. Since in reality the aperture varies significantly within the fracture plane, the initial fracture aperture is modeled as a heterogeneous random field. In such a heterogeneous aperture field, the water initially flows at a significant rate mainly through preferential flow paths connecting the relatively large aperture zones. Dissolution is more prominent at early time along these flow paths, and the aperture grows faster within these paths. With time, the aperture within small sub-regions of these preferential flow paths grows to a point where the permeability is large enough for the onset of buoyant convection. As a result, a multitude of buoyant convection cells form that take on a two-dimensional (2D) maze-like appearance, which could represent a 2D analog of the three-dimensional (3D) mazework pattern widely thought to be characteristic of hypogene cave systems. Although computational limitations limited us to 2D, we suggest that similar process interactions in a 3D network of fractures and faults could produce a 3D mazework.


Clastic Sediments in Caves, 2012, Springer, Gregory S.

This article focuses on the natures, origins, and significances of clastic sediments in caves. Clastic sediments are fragments of preexisting rocks that have been transported and redeposited. Streams transport large quantities of clastic sediments through caves, including stream gravels and mud, but clastic sediments also move as gravity flows by slumping and sliding. Sedimentology and stratigraphy offer the means to understand the origins and transport mechanisms behind individual clastic deposits. Together, the two methodologies consider layering within deposits and grain sizes, sorting, mineralogies, and sedimentary structures within individual beds. Facies are recognized where those variables include diagnostic properties tied to particular depositional processes or driving forces. As is shown using examples, stratigraphy and facies analysis make it possible to reconstruct cave or landscape histories, including system responses to disturbances such as climate change and land use. Notably, system responses typically reflect changes in sediment supply, hydraulic gradients, or obstructions. These factors are recorded in passage morphologies, which should always be considered when studying clastic sediments in caves, and examples are cited.


International Scientific Symposium "Man and Karst", 11-14.10.2012, Bijakovići, Međugorje, Abstracts, 2012, Av

International sscientific symposium “Man and Karst”, as it can be seen already from  the title, has a wide karstological conception. It, in line with the current development of  expertise includes karstology, seeks to expand its interests in the former physical geoscientific  and geotechnical, on cultural, economic, historical, and all other issues that are caused by  the fact that one occurring in soluble rocks.  Organizer is recommended that participants should specifically deal with the identity  of our karst: what is this the world recognized and here insufficiently known Dinaric karst?  What does it and how it is determined in geological, geomorphologic, hydrological,  biological and every natural sense, and what gives the social, cultural and touristic  recognition? Also, he reiterated the ongoing importance of protecting the karst environment,  and various aspects of the protection and sustainable development of karst.  The final profile of the Symposium was determined by the participants with their  professional and scientific interests, which are reflected in the submitted papers. Here we  have compiled their titles and abstracts, from which it is visible. Most, as it is expected, are  the themes of physical karstology, then from the karst biology, cultural landscape of karst  and, the most cheerful, the emergence of educational topics. But, the book of abstracts does  not include everythingng that is important for the Symposium: pleasure of mingling,  exchanging experience, site visits, regional and intergenerational bounding and promotion of  new young forces, which are the most important things of the Symposium that must be  personally experienced


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