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Enviroscan Ukrainian Institute of Speleology and Karstology


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Community news

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That bedding joint is a joint in rocks that runs parallel to or on a bedding plane [16].?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms


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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for genetics (Keyword) returned 10 results for the whole karstbase:
Morphogenetics of Karst Regions: Variants of Karst Evolution, 1977,
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Jakucs L.

Evolutionary genetics and morphometrics of a cave crayfish population from Chiapas (Mexico), 1988,
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Allegrucci Giuliana, Baldari Fabiola, Cesaroni Donatella, Sbordoni Valerio
The recently explored Cueva de Los Camarones, in the remote village of Constitucion, Chiapas, Mexico, houses a unique highly variable population of Procambarus crayfish (Crustacea, Decapoda). Morphologically, a more or less clinal variation is revealed at several features such as the degree of rudimentation in both pigmentation and eye, and the elongation of body and appendages. Extremes are quite different, ranging from typical dark, thick, eyed individuals to light, elongated, microphtalmic phenotypes. Evolutionary relationships among individuals were investigated electrophoretically (25 structural gene loci) and morphometrically (12 characters) by means of multivariate analyses. Results from analysis of individual allozymic multilocus profiles indicate that the "light" phenotypes belong to a distinct gene pool with respect to the "dark" ones, but some level of introgression is hypothesized. Results from analysis of individual morphometric profiles also show a discrimination between light and dark samples, chiefly determined by the shape of the rostrum and chela. The existence of such a discontinuous variation both in morphometric and allozymic characters presumably reflects a history of allopatric divergence followed by secondary contact of the two species.

Construction and growth properties of a yeast strain defective in sterol 14-reductase, 1992,
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Marcireau Christophe, Guyonnet Daniel, Karst Francis,

Gemorphogenetics of the Classical Karst - Kras, 1998,
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Gams, Ivan

Between Eocene and Pliocene, erosion of flysch strata on the top of Cretaceous limestone anticlinorium in the central and western part of the Kras plateau and the Kozina-Podgrad anticline uncovered and widened - and simultanously lowered - the karst plain in the conditions of dammed karst. The largest portion of Kras plateau is covered with karst plain, its oldest part. In Pliocene, the karst plain was fractured and subsided towards the NW regardless of older folded structure; during this process, several zones of elevations were formed through slower subsiding or uplifting. Due to faster lowering of the Vipava syncline, water streams stopped running over the Kras plateau before the flysch, damming the waters from the Kras plateau to the south was removed due to the subsiding in the northern Gulf of Trieste. Thus, no fossil blind valleys or poljes are found on the Kras plateau. However, there is considerable density of dolines and the surface is stony, giving the karst its original name. Both phenomena are typical of deforrested, densely populated and cultivated Submediterranean Dinaric karst plains.


Parallel microgeographic patterns of genetic diversity and divergence revealed by allozyme, RAPD, and microsatellites in Triticum dicoccoides at Ammiad, Israel, 2000,
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Li You Chun, Fahima Tzion, Krugman Tamar, Beiles Avigdor, Der Marion S. , Korol Abraham B. , Nevo Eviatar,

Relationships between morphology, genetics and geography in the cave fruit bat Eonycteris spelaea (Dobson, 1871) from Indonesia, 2003,
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Maharadatunkamsi, Hisheh S. , Kitchener D. J. , Schmitt L. H. ,
Morphological and genetic analyses of Eonycteris spelaea from 15 islands along the Banda Arc, from Sumatra to Timor and including Kalimantan and Sulawesi, revealed considerable divergence between islands and geographical patterning. On the basis of both morphology and genetics, the populations on the large islands of Greater Sunda (Sumatra, Java, Kalimantan and Sulawesi) are generally distinct from one another and from those on the islands in Nusa Tenggara (Lombok to Timor), which form a more cohesive cluster. These differences may be the result of the Nusa Tenggara populations having been colonized more recently than those on the Greater Sunda, and probably from a single source. All biological measures of the relationships between island populations are positively associated with the extent of the sea-crossing between them, indicating the sea is an important barrier to movement. Multivariate analyses show the presence of a marked trend for body size to increase from west to east. However, individuals from Kalimantan are not consistent with this trend, being smaller than predicted, and on the two outer Banda Are islands of Sumba and Timor animals are a little larger than predicted from the longitudinal trend. These differences could be due to the relative isolation of these populations or differing environmental conditions. There is also a negative relationship between body size and island area, but this is confounded by the longitudinal trend. No significant longitudinal trends in the genetic data were detected and the trend in body size may be an adaptive response to an environmental cline that is known to occur in this region. (C) 2003 The Linnean Society of London

Adaptation: Genetics, 2004,
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Culver D. C.

Benchmark Papers in Karst Science, 2007,
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A collection of benchmark papers in karst science: The Decade 1971 ? 1980 13. The Geochemistry of Some Carbonate Ground Waters in Central Pennsylvania, D. Langmuir 14. Genetic Interpretation of Regressive Evolutionary Processes: Studies on Hybrid Eyes of Two Astyanax Cave Populations (Characidae, Pisces), H. Wilkins 15. Cavernicoles in Lava Tubes on the Island of Hawaii, F.G. Howarth 16. Evolutionary Genetics of Cave-Dwelling Fishes of the Genus Astyanax, J.C. Avise and R.L. Selander 17. Deducing Flow Velocity in Cave Conduits from Scallops, R.L. Curl 18. The Origin of Maze Caves, A.N. Palmer 19. Foraging by Cave Beetles: Spatial and Temporal Heterogeneity of Prey, T.C. Kane and T.L. Poulson 20. Considerations of the Karst Ecosystem, R. Rouch 21. Diffuse Flow and Conduit Flow in Limestone Terrain in the Mendip Hills, Somerset (Great Britain), T.C. Atkinson 22. The Development of Limestone Cave Systems in Dimensions of Length and Depth, D.C. Ford and R.O. Ewers The Decade 1981 ? 1990 23. Magnetostratigraphy of Sediments in Mammoth Cave, Kentucky, V.A. Schmidt 24. Uranium-Series Ages of Speleothem from Northwest England: Correlations with Quaternary Climate, M. Gascoyne, D.C. Ford and H.P. Schwarcz 25. Analysis and Interpretation of Data from Tracer Tests in Karst Areas, W.K. Jones 26. Evolution of Adult Morphology and Life-History Characters in Cavernicolous Ptomaphagus Beetles, S.B. Peck 27. Ecology of the Mixohaline Hypogean Fauna along the Yugoslav Coasts, B. Sket 28. Fractal Dimensions and Geometries of Caves, R.L. Curl 29. Regional Scale Transport in a Karst Aquifer. 1. Component Separation of Spring Flow Hydrographs, S.J. Dreiss 30. Morphological Evolution of the Amphipod Gammarus minus in Caves: Quantitative Genetic Analysis, D.W. Fong 31. The Flank Margin Model for Dissolution Cave Development in Carbonate Platforms, J.E. Mylroie and J.L. Carew 32. Sulfuric Acid Speleogenesis of Carlsbad Cavern and Its Relationship to Hydrocarbons, Delaware Basin, New Mexico and Texas, C.A. Hill The Decade 1991 ? 2000 33. Origin and Morphology of Limestone Caves, A.N. Palmer 34. How Many Species of Troglobites Are There? D.C. Culver and J.R. Holsinger 35. Annual Growth Banding in a Cave Stalagmite, A. Baker, P.L. Smart, R.L. Edwards and D.A. Richards 36. Natural Environment Change in Karst: The Quaternary Record, S.-E. Lauritzen 37. Pattern and Process in the Biogeography of Subterranean Amphipods, J.R. Holsinger 38. A Chemoautotrophically Based Cave Ecosystem, S.M. Sarbu, T.C. Kane and B.K. Kinkle 39. Rhodopsin Evolution in the Dark, K.A. Crandall and D.M. Hillis 40. Climate and Vegetation History of the Midcontinent from 75 to 25 ka: A Speleothem Record from Crevice Cave, Missouri, USA, J.A. Dorale, R.L. Edwards, E. Ito and L.A. González

The impact of host rock geochemistry on bacterial community structure in oligotrophic cave environments, 2007,
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Barton H. A. , Taylor N. M. , Kreate M. P. , Springer A. C. , Oehrle S. A. , Bertog J. L.

Despite extremely starved conditions, caves contain surprisingly diverse microbial communities. Our research is geared toward understanding what ecosystems drivers are responsible for this high diversity. To asses the effect of rock fabric and mineralogy, we carried out a comparative geomicrobiology study within Carlsbad Cavern, New Mexico, USA. Samples were collected from two different geologic locations within the cave: WF1 in the Massive Member of the Capitan Formation and sF88 in the calcareous siltstones of the Yates Formation. We examined the organic content at each location using liquid chromatography mass spectroscopy and analyzed microbial community structure using molecular phylogenetic analyses. In order to assess whether microbial activity was leading to changes in the bedrock at each location, the samples were also examined by petrology, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX). Our results suggest that on the chemically complex Yates Formation (sF88), the microbial community was significantly more diverse than on the limestone surfaces of the Capitan (WF1), despite a higher total number of cells on the latter. Further, the broader diversity of bacterial species at sF88
reflected a larger range of potential metabolic capabilities, presumably due to opportunities to use ions within the rock as nutrients and for chemolithotrophic energy production. The use of these ions at sF88 is supported by the formation of a corrosion residue, presumably through microbial scavenging activities. Our results suggest that rock fabric and mineralogy may be an important driver of ecosystem function and should be carefully reviewed when carrying out microbial community analysis in cave environments.


CLASSIFICACI MORFOGENTICA DE LES CAVITATS CRSTIQUES DE LES ILLES BALEARS, 2011,
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Gins J. , Gins A.

A typological classification of the caves and shafts in the Balearic Islands is presented in this paper, with the aim of update the knowledge on the morphogenetics of endokarst in the archipelago and incorporating the explorations and discoveries carried out during the last decades. After a brief overview about the classificatory attempts of subterranean cavities in our islands, a systematization on the basis of hydrogeological and speleogenetic criteria is proposed, establishing four main categories as follows: 1) vertical shafts in the vadose zone, 2) caves of the vadose zone, 3) inland phreatic caves, and 4) caves of the littoral fringe. Within these categories, up to ten cavity types corresponding to well-differentiated genetic modalities are distinguished, together with five additional subtypes that designate specific morphological singularities branching from a given typology. The geographical distribution of the diverse cave types in the different karst regions of the archipelago is analyzed, being worth to mention the richness and variety of subterranean forms in the mountain karst of Serra de Tramuntana, in Mallorca island, as well as the abundant and variegated littoral caves occurring in the Upper Miocene postorogenic carbonates of Mallorca, Menorca and Formentera islands. The hypogene speleogenetic processes recently documented in the karst areas of southern Mallorca contribute to supply new insights on the high diversity of subterranean environments represented in the Balearic archipelago


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