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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 11 Jul, 2012
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

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That cation is an ion having a positive charge and, in electrolytes, characteristically moving towards a negative electrode [6].?

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Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Geochemical and mineralogical fingerprints to distinguish the exploited ferruginous mineralisations of Grotta della Monaca (Calabria, Italy), Dimuccio, L.A.; Rodrigues, N.; Larocca, F.; Pratas, J.; Amado, A.M.; Batista de Carvalho, L.A.
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
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Your search for georgia (Keyword) returned 28 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 28
The Invertebrate Cave Fauna of Georgia, 1971, Holsinger John R. , Peck Stewart B.

Karst Geomorphology of the Bruce Peninsula, Ontario, PhD Thesis, 1976, Cowell, Daryl William

This is the first detailed examination of the karst geomorphology of the Bruce Peninsula. It attempts to review all aspects including pavement phenomena and formation (microkarst features), surface and subsurface karst hydrology (meso to macro scale) and water chemistry. The latter is based on over 250 samples collected in 1973 and 1974.
The dolomite pavement is the best example of its kind that has been described in the literature. It covers much of the northern and eastern parts of the peninsula and can be differentiated into three types based on karren assemblages. Two of these are a product of lithology and the third reflects local environmental controls. The Amabel Formation produces characteristic karren such as rundkarren, hohlkarren, meanderkarren, clint and grike, kamentizas and rillenkarren on glacially abraded biohermal structures. The Guelph Formation develops into a very irregular, often cavernous surface with clint and grike and pitkarren as the only common recognizable karren. The third assemblage is characterized by pitkarren and is found only in the Lake Huron littoral zone. Biological factors are believed to have played a major role in the formation of the pavement. Vegetation supplies humic acids which help boost the solution process and helps to maintain a wet surface. This tends to prolong solution and permit the development of karren with rounded lips and bottoms.
Three types of drainage other than normal surface runoff are found on the Bruce. These are partial underground capture of surface streams, complete underground capture (fluvio-karst), and wholly vertical drainage without stream action (holokarst). Holokarst covers most of the northern and eastern edge of the peninsula along the top of the escarpment. Inland it is replaced by fluvial drainage, some of which has been, or is in the process of being captured. Four perennial streams and one lake disappear into sinkholes. These range from very simple channel capture and resurgence, as shown by a creek east of Wiarton, to more mature and complex cave development of the St. Edmunds cave near Tobermory. Partial underground capture represents the first stage of karst drainage. This was found to occur in one major river well inland of the fluvio-karst and probably occurs in other streams as well. This chapter also examines the possible future karst development of the Bruce and other karst feature such as isolated sinks and sea caves.
The water chemistry presented in Chapter 5 represents the most complete data set from southern Ontario. It is examined on a seasonal basis as well as grouped into classes representing water types (streams, Lake Huron and Georgian Bay, inland lakes, swamps, diffuse springs and conduit springs). The spring analyses are also fitted into climatic models of limestone solution based on data from other regions of North America. It was found that solution rates in southern Ontario are very substantial. Total hardness ranges from 150 to 250 ppm (expressed as CaCO3) in most lakes and streams and up to 326 ppm in springs. These rates compare with more southerly latitudes. The theoretical equilibrium partial pressure of CO2 was found to be the most significant chemical variable for comparing solution on different kinds of carbonates and between glaciated and non-glaciated regions. Expect for diffuse flow springs and Lake Huron, the Bruce data do not separate easily into water types using either graphical or statistical (i.e. Linear Discriminant Analysis) analyses. This is partly because of the seasonality of the data and because of the intimate contact all waters have with bedrock.


Origin of the epeirogenic uplift of Pliocene-Pleistocene beach ridges in Florida and development of the Florida karst, 1984, Opdyke Neil D. , Spangler D. P. , Smith D. L. , Jones D. S. , Lindquist R. C. ,
Marine fossils of Pleistocene age are known to occur in beach ridges near the border of northern Florida and southern Georgia at elevations of between 42 and 49 m above mean sea level. No evidence exists for a massive melt-off of glacial ice, which would be required to raise sea level to these elevations. Florida, therefore, must have been uplifted epeirogenically during the Pleistocene. Measurement of dissolved solids in Florida's springs demonstrates that the karst area is losing a minimum of 1.2 X 10 6 m 3 /yr of limestone through spring flow, the equivalent of 1 m of surficial limestone every 38,000 yr. This loss has led to an isostatic uplift of the north-central part of the Florida peninsula of at least 36 m during the Pleistocene and Holocene, which agrees with observed elevations of marine terraces.--Modified journal abstract

Two new genera of cave-dwelling millipedes (Diplopoda), with remarks on the millipede fauna of West Caucasian caves, 1985, Golovatch Sergei I.
Two new genera and species of the Diplopoda from Caucasian caves are described: troglobitic Caucasodesmus inexpectatus n.g., n.sp. (family Macrosternodesmidae) from a cave in North Osetia, North Caucasus, and troglophilic Ratcheuma excorne n.g., n.sp. (family Antroleucosomatidae) from a cave in Racha, Georgia, Transcaucasia. Millipedes of the western Caucasian cavernicolous fauna are reviewed as regards their distribution, relationship with caves and zoogeographical connections.

Paleoenvironmental data for N.W. Georgia, U.S.A., from fossils in cave speleothems, 1987, Brook George A. , Keferl Eugene P. , Nickmann Rudy J.
Pollen grains and gastropod shells in two speleothems from Red Spider Cave, Georgia indicate that ca. 10,000 yr B.P. the vegetation near the cave was Mixed Mesophytic Forest. Conditions were cooler and moister than today and a shallow pond existed in the doline above the cave. As these findings support palynologic evidence from nearby pond sites it is clear that cave speleothems are a potential source of paleoecological data to ca. 350,000 yr. B.P.

Wheres the Histo? Histoplasma in Chillagoe Caves area, North Queensland, Australia., 1988, Carol, Eileen M.

Ideal climatic and ecological conditions in many caves in the Chillagoe area suggest the existence of Histoplasma capsulatum. A study in progress proposes to identify those caves that may be reservoirs for the organism, thus presenting a potential health risk for cave visitors. Soil samples collected from caves containing bat and bird (swiftlet) populations are being processed by the Division of Mycotic Diseases, at the Center for Disease Control, Atlanta, Georgia. Preliminary results from 15 caves have been negative, thus a more precise technique will be utilised in further collections. Intradermal histoplasmin skin testing of cavers intends to identify the possibility of cave exploration as one source of Histoplasma capsulatum exposure.


DOUBLE FOURIER-SERIES ANALYSIS OF COCKPIT AND DOLINE KARST NEAR BROWNS TOWN, JAMAICA, 1991, Brook Ga, Hanson M,
Double Fourier series models of two doline and two cockpit landscapes in northern Jamaica, each 2 x 2 km in area, explained 92% and 90%, and 73% and 58% of the variance in the topographic data. The ten most significant waves accounted for 74% and 76%, and 61% and 58% of the variance in each model. The greater importance of frequency pairs of longer wavelength in the doline karst models suggests that there are fewer horizontally and vertically persistent bedrock fractures controlling topographic development in the doline areas than in the cockpit terrains-a fact confirmed by fracture-trace mapping. Frequency pair orientations and powers indicate that northwest- and northeast-trending fractures exert a major influence on topographic development in the cockpit terrains and that east-trending fractures are relatively more important in the doline areas. Further studies are needed to determine if Fourier models of the doline, cockpit, and tower karst styles differ in a consistent fashion and to find out to what extent these differences are related to the bedding, fracture, and relief characteristics of the karst bedrock

GEOMORPHOLOGY AND HYDROLOGY OF UPPER SINKING COVE, CUMBERLAND PLATEAU, TENNESSEE, 1993, Davis Jd, Brook Ga,
Upper Sinking Cove, dissecting the eastern escarpment of the Cumberland Plateau, is characterized by a multiple aquifer, predominantly vadose hydrologic system with minor surface components. There is a central trunk channel along the axis of the cove and a network of independent tributaries. Aquitards within the limestones, particularly Hartselle Formation shales, have influenced both cave and surface landform development by perching ground waters and slowing the vertical growth of closed depressions. Long-term solutional denudation in the portion of the cove underlain by limestones (40 per cent) is an estimated 56 mm per 1000 years, suggesting that karst development began 15-16 million years ago. Despite lower soil CO2 and spring water hardness, 61 per cent of annual denudation occurs in the six winter months when 76 per cent of yearly runoff occurs. Landform development in Upper Sinking Cove appears to have begun as stream erosion carved a valley first in the sandstone caprock of the escarpment and later in the underlying Pennington Formation limestones containing numerous shale layers which promoted surface stream flow. Eventually stream erosion exposed the massive Bangor limestones which allowed deep ground water flow. Surface streams were pirated underground with the eventual formation of the chain of three closed depressions which constitute Upper Sinking Cove

TEMPORAL CYCLES OF KARST DENUDATION IN NORTHWEST GEORGIA, USA, 1994, Kiefer R. H. ,
Time patterns of karst denudation in northwest Georgia (U.S.A.) were investigated at three spring sites for 12 months and at five stream sites for 10 years. Rainfall was evenly distributed and showed no significant seasonality. At the springs, as well as the streams, water hardness was largely controlled by discharge. At the springs, Soil PCO2 and water pH were strongly correlated (r = -0.69 to -0.83). Solute transport in spring waters was highly seasonal, with two conduit flow springs removing more limestone in the winter, and the diffuse flow spring removing more during the growing season. At the stream sites, most denudation occurred during the winter and spring seasons, and least during the summer. Fourier analysis showed that variations in denudation occur on deterministic (long-wave) as well as stochastic (short-wave) time scales. As contributing variables, discharge varied in short-wave and long-wave cycles, whereas soil PCO2 showed only a long-wave cycle. The 12 month deterministic cycles were the most important, with changes in discharge taking precedence over Soil PCO2. Time series regression explains up to 69 per cent of changes in denudation through rain and soil pCO2. Time cycles in available water are the key controlling factor of denudation, and amounts of available Soil CO2 may not be as important in the temporal patterns of karst downwearing as has been believed previously

PC-based two-dimensional discrete Fourier transform programs for terrain analysis, 1996, Harrison J. M. , Lo C. P. ,
A two-dimensional Fast Fourier Transform (2D-FFT) program written in C language was developed for the personal computer with the specific purpose of extracting periodicities from digital elevation model (DEM) data. The program generates the individual frequency pairs, the coefficients representing the amplitudes of the cosine and sine waves, the angle the wavefront makes in the terrain, the wavelength, the power of the wave, the percent contribution the wave makes to the overall landscape, and finally the overall percentage of variance accounted for by the model. The landscape can be reconstructed based on the number of significant waveforms extracted. Generalizations on the spatial trends of the terrain therefore can be made. The Fourier analysis provides insight to the nature and complexity of the terrain. An application of the program to the karst landscape of Manati, Puerto Rico is illustrated. Copyright (C) 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd

Distribution and morphology of sinkholes triggered by flooding following Tropical Storm Alberto at Albany, Georgia, USA., 1996, Hyatt J. A. , Jacobs P. M.

Petroleum geology of the Black Sea, 1996, Robinson A. G. , Rudat J. H. , Banks C. J. , Wiles R. L. F. ,
The Black Sea comprises two extensional basins formed in a back-arc setting above the northward subducting Tethys Ocean, close to the southern margin of Eurasia. The two basins coalesced late in their post-rift phases in the Pliocene, forming the present single depocentre. The Western Black Sea was initiated in the Aptian, when a part of the Moesian Platform (now the Western Pontides of Turkey) began to rift and move away to the south-east. The Eastern Black Sea probably formed by separation of the Mid-Black Sea High from the Shatsky Ridge during the Palaeocene to Eocene. Subsequent to rifting, the basins were the sites of mainly deep water deposition; only during the Late Miocene was there a major sea-level fall, leading to the development of a relatively shallow lake. Most of the margins of the Black Sea have been extensively modified by Late Eocene to recent compression associated with closure of the Tethys Ocean. Gas chromatography--mass spectrometry and carbon isotope analysis of petroleum and rock extracts suggest that most petroleum occurrences around the Black Sea can be explained by generation from an oil-prone source rock of most probably Late Eocene age (although a wider age range is possible in the basin centres). Burial history modelling and source kitchen mapping indicate that this unit is currently generating both oil and gas in the post-rift basin. A Palaeozoic source rock may have generated gas condensate in the Gulf of Odessa. In Bulgarian waters, the main plays are associated with the development of an Eocene foreland basin (Kamchia Trough) and in extensional structures related to Western Black Sea rifting. The latter continue into the Romanian shelf where there is also potential in rollover anticlines due to gravity sliding of Neogene sediments. In the Gulf of Odessa gas condensate has been discovered in several compressional anticlines and there is potential in older extensional structures. Small gas and oil discoveries around the Sea of Azov point to further potential offshore around the Central Azov High. In offshore Russia and Georgia there are large culminations on the Shatsky Ridge, but these are mainly in deep water and may have poor reservoirs. There are small compressional structures off the northern Turkish coast related to the Pontide deformation; these may include Eocene turbidite reservoirs. The extensional fault blocks of the Andrusov Ridge (Mid-Black Sea High) are seen as having the best potential for large hydrocarbon volumes, but in 2200 m of water

Spatial and Temporal Variation of Groundwater Chemistry in Pettyjohns Cave, Northwest Georgia, USA, 1999, Mayer, J.
A longitudinal study of water chemistry in Pettyjohns Cave, Georgia, reveals a wide range of major ion water chemistry at different sampling points within the cave, and pronounced seasonal water-chemistry variations at some locations. The cave occurs in the Mississippian Bangor Limestone on the east side of Pigeon Mountain in the Appalachian Plateaus physiographic province of northwest Georgia, USA. Four sampling points within the cave were monitored at approximately 2- to 3-month intervals for 22 months: a major conduit stream; a small conduit tributary; water dripping into the cave through a small fracture; and water dripping from active speleothems. Other waters, including surface water, were sampled as available. Samples were analyzed for temperature, pH, specific conductance, alkalinity, and major ions. Most spatial water chemistry trends within the cave appear to be the result of rock-water interaction along distinct subsurface flowpaths. Temporal variations, most pronounced in conduit streams, result primarily from mixing of distinct waters in varying ratios, although seasonal changes in CO2 partial pressure may account for some variation. Results illustrate the inherent spatial and temporal variability of water chemistry in karst aquifers and point to the need to design sampling programs carefully.

New Faunal and Fungal Records from Caves in Georgia, USA, 2000, Reeves, W. K. , Jensen, J. B. , Ozier, J. C.
Records for 173 cavernicolous invertebrate species of Platyhelminthes, Nematoda, Nemertea, Annelida, Mollusca, and Arthropoda from 47 caves in Georgia are presented. The checklist includes eight species of cave-dwelling cellular slime molds and endosymbiotic trichomycete fungi associated with cave millipedes and isopods.

Uncalculated impacts of unsustainable aquifer yield including evidence of subsurface interbasin flow, 2000, Bacchus St,
Unsustainable withdrawals from regional aquifers have resulted in adverse impacts considerable distances from the point locations of supply wells. In one area of the southeastern (SE) Coastal Plain, conservative estimates for repair/replacement of some residential wells damaged or destroyed by unsustainable yield from the Floridan aquifer system exceeded $4 million. However, a comprehensive assessment of damage/economic loss to private property and public resources due to unsustainable yield from that regional karat aquifer has not been made. Uncalculated direct costs to home-owners from damage attributed to those withdrawals are associated with destruction of homes from increased sinkhole formation, devalued waterfront property, and removal of diseased and dead trees. Examples of other uncalculated economic burdens resulting from unsustainable aquifer yield in the SE Coastal Plain include: (1) irreversible damage to the aquifer matrix and concomitant increased potential for groundwater contamination, (2) large-scale wildfires with subsequent degradation of air quality, debilitation of transportation corridors, and destruction of timber, wildlife habitat and property, and (3) destruction of 'protected' natural areas. This paper provides a general background of the regional Floridan aquifer system's karst characteristics, examples of known impacts resulting from ground water mining in the SE Coastal Plain, and examples of additional damage that may be related to unsustainable yield from the Upper Floridan aquifer. Costs of these impacts have not been calculated and are not reflected in the price users pay for ground water. Evidence suggests that the classic watershed management approach must be revised in areas with mined regional karst aquifers to include impacts of induced recharge from the surficial aquifer, and subsurface interbasin flow. Likewise, associated impacts to surface water and interrelated systems must be calculated The true cost of groundwater mining to this and future generations should be determined using a multidisciplinary approach

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