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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That smithsonite is a cave mineral - znco3 [11].?

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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for geotechnic (Keyword) returned 42 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 42
Geotechnical Engineering Investigation Manual, 1984, Hunt R. E.

Subsidence hazard prediction for limestone terrains, as applied to the English Cretaceous Chalk, 1987, Edmonds Cn, Green Cp, Higginbottom Ie,
Soluble carbonate rocks often pose a subsidence hazard to engineering and building works, due to the presence of either metastable natural solution features or artificial cavities. There is also an inherent danger to the public and lives have been lost because of unexpected ground collapses. Although site investigation techniques are becoming increasingly elaborate, the detection of hazardous ground conditions associated with limestones is frequently difficult and unreliable. Remedial measures to solve subsidence problems following foundation failure are expensive. It would be advantageous if areas liable to subsidence could be identified in a cost-effective manner in advance of planning and ground investigation. Hazard mapping could then be used by planners when checking the geotechnical suitability of a proposed development or by engineering geologists/geotechnical engineers to design the type of ground investigation best suited to the nature and scale of the potential hazard. Recent research focussed on the English Chalk outcrop has led to the development of two new models to predict the subsidence hazard for both natural solution features and artificial cavities. The predictive models can be used to map the hazard at any given chalkland locality, as a cost-effective precursor to ground investigation. The models, although created for the Chalk outcrop, have important implications for all types of limestone terrain. The basis of the predictive modelling procedure is an analysis of the spatial distribution of nearly 1600 natural solution features, and more than 850 artificial cavity locations, identified from a wide varietyy of sources, including a special appeal organized by CIRIA. A range of geological, hydrogeological and geomorphological factors are evaluated to identify significant relationships with subsidence. These factors are ranked, numerically weighted and incorporated into two quantitative subsidence hazard model formulae. The models can be applied to perform hazard mapping

The application of airborne remote sensing to the detection of solution features in limestone, 1987, Edmonds Cn, Kennie Tjm, Rosenbaum Ms,
Airborne remote sensing techniques have been developed for the detection of collapse and subsidence features in chalk and other limestone rocks. The detection of such features in the early stages of an engineering project is of crucial importance if serious geotechnical problems to building construction and public safety are to be avoided. Particular attention is paid to the potential of airborne multispectral scanner (MSS) and thermal infrared (IR) data as a means of detection. Background information is also provided concerning a project to obtain multitemporal thermal IR data over two test sites on the Cretaceous Chalk outcrop of southern England

ROADWAY DESIGN IN KARST, 1993, Fischer Ja, Fischer Jj, Greene Rw,
To minimize costs in conventional roadway design, as much low or valley areas as possible are utilized. In many areas of the eastern United States, these valleys are filled with carbonate rocks. Excavation is used to minimize grades-this removes protective overburden or rock cover over cavities; fill also is used to minimize grades-this can increase loads on marginally stable soil arches or rock cavity roofs. Surface water runoff is directed toward low areas-the low areas are likely zones of weakness or solutioning, thereby increasing the potential for sinkhole development and providing an opportunity for groundwater contamination, and remediation usually consists of blindly filling rock cavities, thus either channeling the still-contaminated surface flows someplace else or perhaps eliminating useful ground water recharge conduits. The authors suggest that the key to proper design, construction, and remediation for roadways planned in karst is to understand the geologic and hydrogeologic setting of the route(s) or locale, perform true geotechnical engineering design, and remediate with an understanding of the overall engineering geologic, hydrogeologic, and environmental picture

Use of hydrologic, hydrochemical and isotopic data in identification of groundwater flow patterns in Lower Zamantı Basin (Eastern Taurids-Turkey), 1993, Bayari Celal Serdar, Gurer Ibrahim
In karst basins where hydraulic structures ARE designed to utilize the existing water potential, determination of the distinct groundwater flow patterns and the inter-relations among them bears great importance from the view point of the geotechnical safety of the structure. The combined use of hydrologic, hydrochemical and isotopic data enables us to identify different groundwater flow patterns prevailing in karst basins. Once the inter-relation among the groundwater flow patterns is established, the decision regarding the implementation of projects will be easier. Hydrologic investigations including analyses of the "stream yield" and "groundwater balance", produce invaluable information that can be used to locate the important karstic effluents along the basin. The study of the hydrochemistry of major karstic effluents reveals reliable information on the "depth" of underground circulation and the "recharge conditions" dominating within the karst system. Evaluation of environmental isotopic data introduces important details pertaining to the "mean recharge area elevations" and "turn-over times" of the karst waters and inter-relation among each other. Sometimes very closely located karstic outflows may have quite different circulation/recharge characteristics. This paper attempts to demonstrate the combined use of hydrologic, hydrochemical and isotopic techniques for the determination of the "deep-regional" and "shallow" groundwater circulation patterns existing in the Lower Zamanti Basin.

Enregistrement des mouvements dun versant par les splothmes de la grotte du chemin du Castelleras (Le Tignet, Alpes-Maritimes, France), 1995, Gilli E. , Mangan C. , Delange P. , Larre P. , Evin J.
The study of speleothems in a subcutaneous cave developed between a scree and its bedrock, shows the slope movements. All the speleothem couples (stalactite facing a stalagmite) are displaced. Among the speleothems, a 50cm long thin stalac-tite (soda-straw type) has recorded the movements that have affected the slope. Every slope movement is shown in a speleothem axis variation. Radiocarbon datings help define growth speed and make clear the movement history over a 30,000 years period. This analysis confirms the possibility of using speleothem as verticality gauges to define an area stability.

Karst et mines en France et en Europe : gtes, grottes-mines et gotechnique, 1996, Nicod, J.
Many ores have been extracted in the karst areas since the proto-historic times. The ores have been trapped in the paleokarsts, according to various processes whose origin is still much debated. Certain metal-rich minerals have been excavated in caves or "mine-caves". Many polymetallic ores in paleokarstic deposits were in exploitation in SW Sardinia, Sierra of Carthagena, Montagne Noire, Peak District, and Upper Silesia... The mercury mines of Idrija (Slovenia) and the uranium deposits of Tyuya Muyun (Kirgizia) are of particular interest. Recent studies have clearly shown the historic importance of numerous pockets of pisolitic iron (Siderolithic, Bohnerz) in the European steel metallurgy, since the Celts and Romans and up to the middle of the 19th century. The siderite ores raise special problems. Most bauxite deposits were found in karstic pockets and paleo-poljes (mediterranean type of bauxites). The studies of the old mines give a better insight into paleokarsts. Both the ancient and modern mines have created artificial karsts, and raise many geotechnical and environmental problems.

Engineering method versus Eraso method of structural analysis in hydraulical study of fractured rock - case stady at Unška Koliševka, 1998, Veselič, Miran, Č, Enč, Ur Curk Barbara, Š, Ebela Stanka

The main goal of the study was to compare the Eraso method and engineering method for determining water drainage. These two methods are based on different principles: the first one is based on microtectonic analysis and is mainly applied on surface outcrops, while the second one was developped with purpose of studying geotechnical and hydraulical properties of the rock. Measurements were carried out on surface outcrops and within underground artificial tunnel in two different seasons (autumn 95 and spring 96). The Eraso method is frequently used in karst area to determine direction of regional drainage (mega scale). The engineering method was developed for studies in macro scale, but from the results is evident, that direction of regional waterflow can be obtained.


Un cas dcole, laffaissement du barrage de Zeuziers (Valais, Suisse) : problmes gotechniques et karstification, 1999, Nicod, Jean
The deformations of the Zeuzier arch-dam (Valis, switzerland). Extraordinary geotechnical and hydrogeological problems and questioning over a possible part of karstification

Limestone ordinances of New Jersey and Pennsylvania: a practitioner's experiences, 1999, Fischer Ja,
Ordinances promulgating land use procedures related to construction in areas underlain by carbonate rocks have been under discussion since the mid-1970s in Pennsylvania and since the mid-1980s in New Jersey. At first, the proposed ordinances only considered ground water contamination then, later included the safety- (or stability) related concerns of constructing in karst areas. The first ordinance addressing both concerns as well as not being so restrictive as to eliminate development is believed to have been passed in Clinton Township, New Jersey in May, 1988. Recently, several other nearby townships have passed ordinances based (either loosely or tightly) upon the 'Model Ordinance' developed by the 'Limestone Committee' of the North Jersey Resource Conservation and Development Council. The Model Ordinance has its roots in the Clinton Township Ordinance. Other ordinances, with little to no geotechnical input, have also been passed (and sometimes repealed) by well-meaning municipalities. As the subsurface conditions are complex and erratic (folded and faulted carbonates), an appropriate site evaluation is difficult to define and generally more costly to perform than a conventional site investigation. With this mix of ordinances, the variability in subsurface conditions and the diverse experience levels of the regional practitioners, the resulting effectiveness of these ordinances is mixed, from the humorous to the very positive. In general, the Clinton Township and Model Ordinance-based legislation, which specify procedures to be used in an investigation, work well. Other ordinances refer to standards which do not exist, have requirements which cannot be met in the real world, or appear poorly related to any realistic geotechnical concepts. This paper will describe some typical examples of projects from the viewpoint of both the reviewer and the submitter. A state-of-the-practice presentation, not necessarily state-of-the-art. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All ri hts reserved

Hazard mapping of karst along the coast of the Algarve, Portugal, 1999, Forth Ra, Butcher D, Senior R,
The engineering geology of the West Algarve coastline between Cape St Vincent in the west and Fare in the east varies considerably, from the high limestone cliffs between Salema and Burgau to the lower but more problematic karstic cliffs around Lagos and east of Portimao. Geotechnical problems vary from toppling failure and rockfalls in the higher, more heavily jointed limestone and sandstone cliffs between Salema and Burgau, to sinkhole collapse, subsidence and gullying within the Miocene calcarenites and Pleistocene sands east of Portimao. This latter area is the subject of this paper. Field mapping was completed on scales of 1:2000 and 1:5000 to encompass geomorphology, geology and vegetation cover. Both sinkhole and sea cliff formation controlling factors are discussed and subsequently nine factors affecting potential hazard location are identified. The relative importance of these ten factors is determined and then each cell, 100 m(2) in size, is assessed for its individual score relative to the presence of, or degree of influence of each of the hazard forming processes. The resulting composite hazard map is aimed at planners and developers as a multipurpose map for general use. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

Une autre approche des problmes daffaissement du barrage de Zeuziers (Suisse), 2000, Wildberger, Andres
New data about the deformations of the Zeuzier arch-dam (Switzerland)

Book Review: ''Geotechnical and Environmental applications of Karst Geology and Hydrology'' by Barry F. Beck & J. Gayle Herring (Editors), 2001, 2001, Bednar D. M.

Engineering-geological problems in the Moravian karst, Czech Republic, 2001, Samalikova M. ,
The Moravian karst belongs to one of the famous karst regions in Central Europe. It is situated in Moravia in the eastern part of the Czech Republic. According to the geology it is of Devonian age and the main rocks are of different types of limestones. The process of karstification is still active. They are many caves with rich stalagmites and stalactites and Macocha abyss, the depth of which is 138.5 m. The underground Punkva River flows through the main part of the karst, forming beautiful underground lakes. Typical karst phenomena, such as sinkholes and deep canyons, may be observed on the surface of the terrain. Because of the karstification, water erosion and frost weathering, many steep unstable slopes and walls originated. To solve the stability from a geotechnical point of view is not easy. This requests a special engineering-geological knowledge and experience

Evaluation of karst hazards for civil and industrial buildings, 2001, Tolmachev V. V. , Neshchetkin O. B. ,
The European part of Russia exhibits highly developed sulphate and carbonate karst. It mostly occurs within river valleys with relatively thin covering deposits. These conditions may induce karst collapses, which appear to be the main danger for civil and industrial buildings. Evolution of karst rocks includes several epochs of karst development, which causes complicated distribution of karst caves in karst rocks and, as the result, irregular distribution of karst caves on the surface. Karst hazards prediction is mostly reliable within the geotechnical system 'Karst-Construction', using probability methods. This approach allows creating 3 types of antikarst protection (alternative design of construction arrangement on a plan, structural protection of a construction and plugging of karst caves beneath construction foundation) and selecting the optimum or the most effective version or their rational combination

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