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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That cement grout is cement slurry of pumpable consistency [16].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for groundwater monitoring (Keyword) returned 13 results for the whole karstbase:
A ground water monitoring study was conducted for the triazine herbicide simazine at 11 sites in the United States. The study used carefully selected, small-scale sites (average size: about 33 acres) with documented product use and sensitive hydrogeological settings. The sites selected were Tulare County, California (two sites); Fresno County, California; Sussex County, Delaware; Hardee and Palm Beach counties, Florida; Winnebago County, Illinois; Jackson County, Indiana; Van Buren and Berrien counties, Michigan; and Jefferson County, West Virginia. These sites satisfied the following criteria: a history of simazine use, including the year prior to the start of the study; permeable soil and vadose zone; shallow depth to water; no restrictive soil layers above the water table; and gentle slopes not exceeding 2 percent. A variety of crop types, climates, and irrigation practices were included. Monitoring well clusters (shallow and deep) were installed at each site except in California and West Virginia, where only shallow wells were installed. Simazine was monitored at these sites at quarterly intervals for a two-year period during 1986-1988. The results of the study showed that out of 153 samples analyzed, 45 samples showed simazine detections. A substantial majority of the detections (32 out of 45) occurred in Tulare, Fresno, and Jefferson counties. The detections in these areas were attributed to mechanisms other than leaching, such as drainage wells, karst areas, surface water recharge, or point source problems. An additional 11 detections in Van Buren County were apparently due to an unknown upgradient source. Only one detection (in Palm Beach County, Florida) near the screening level of 0.1 ppb was attributed to possible leaching. The results of this investigation support the hypothesis that simazine does not leach significantly under field use conditions

Laquifre de la source du Lez : un rservoir deau et de biodiversit, 1997, Malard Florian, Gibert Janine, Laurent Roger
The Lez spring is the main source of drinking water for the inhabitants of the city of Montpellier. This spring has been exploited since the eighteenth century but the amount of groundwater pumped has markedly increased over the last 30 years. This karst harbours an extremely diversified community of groundwater species (at least 37 species) that is a several Million-year-old heritage. Overpumping induces a loss of habitats by lowering the water table during periods of low groundwater recharge. It also results in an artificial fragmentation of mesohabitats by increasing the hydraulic disconnection of different regions in the saturated zone. Thus, overpumping may strongly affect the groundwater fauna but few data are available yet to evaluate the potential loss of biodiversity. There is clearly a need to integrate studies of groundwater fauna within the framework of interdisciplinary groundwater monitoring, management and/or protection programmes.

Risk assessment methodology for karst aquifers .1. Estimating karst conduit-flow parameters, 1997, Field Ms, Nash Sg,
Quantitative ground-water tracing of conduit-dominated karst aquifers allows for reliable and practical interpretation of karst ground-water flow. Insights into the hydraulic geometry of the karst aquifer may be acquired that otherwise could not be obtained by such conventional methods as potentiometric-surface mapping and aquifer testing. Contamination of karst aquifers requires that a comprehensive tracer budget be performed so that karst conduit hydraulic-flow and geometric parameters be obtained. Acquisition of these parameters is necessary for estimating contaminant fate-and-transport. A FORTRAN computer program for estimating total tracer recovery from tracer-breakthrough curves is proposed as a standard method. Estimated hydraulic-flow parameters include mean residence time, mean flow velocity, longitudinal dispersivity, Peclet number, Reynolds number, and Froude number. Estimated geometric parameters include karst conduit sinuous distance, conduit volume, cross-sectional area, diameter, and hydraulic depth. These parameters may be used to (1) develop structural models of the aquifer, (2) improve aquifer resource management, (3) improve ground-water monitoring systems design, (4) improve aquifer remediation, and (5) assess contaminant fate-and-transport. A companion paper demonstrates the use of these hydraulic-flow and geometric parameters in a surface-water model for estimating contaminant fate-and-transport in a karst conduit. Two ground-water tracing studies demonstrate the utility of this program for reliable estimation of necessary karst conduit hydraulic-flow and geometric parameters

Review of groundwater pollution and protection in karst areas, 1999, Kacaroglu F. ,
Karst groundwater (the water in a karst aquifer) is a major water resource in many regions of some countries. Water requirements for most of the settlements in the karstic regions are supplied from karst aquifers. Karst environments are also used for the disposal of liquid and solid domestic agricultural, and industrial wastes, which result in karst groundwater pollution. Karst aquifers have specific hydraulic and hydrogeologic characteristics that render them highly vulnerable to pollution from human activities. Karst groundwater becomes polluted more easily and in shorter time periods than water in non-karstic aquifers. Thus, protection measures are required to preserve the quality and quantity of karst groundwater that specifically consider the vulnerability of the karst environment. In order to preserve karst groundwater, the geological, hydrological and hydrogeological characteristics of the karst area must be investigated and information on polluting activities and sources must be collected. Then, a comprehensive protection and control system must be developed consisting of the following six components: (1) develop and implement a groundwater monitoring system, (2) establish critical protection zones, (3) develop proper land use strategies, (4) determine the reasonable development capacity of the karst aquifer, (5) control and eliminate when necessary sources of pollution, (6) increase public awareness of the value and vulnerability of karst aquifers

Results from the Big Spring basin water quality monitoring and demonstration projects, Iowa, USA, 2001, Rowden R. D. , Liu H. B. , Libra R. D. ,
Agricultural practices, hydrology, and water quality of the 267-km(2) Big Spring groundwater drainage basin in Clayton County, Iowa, have been monitored since 1981. Land use is agricultural; nitrate-nitrogen (-N) and herbicides are the resulting contaminants in groundwater and surface water. Ordovician Galena Group carbonate rocks comprise the main aquifer in the basin. Recharge to this karstic aquifer is by infiltration, augmented by sinkhole-captured runoff. Groundwater is discharged at Big Spring, where quantity and quality of the discharge are monitored. Monitoring has shown a threefold increase in groundwater nitrate-N concentrations from the 1960s to the early 1980s. The nitrate-N discharged from the basin typically is equivalent to over one-third of the nitrogen fertilizer applied, with larger losses during wetter years. Atrazine is present in groundwater all year; however, contaminant concentrations in the groundwater respond directly to recharge events, and unique chemical signatures of infiltration versus runoff recharge are detectable in the discharge from Big Spring. Education and demonstration efforts have reduced nitrogen fertilizer application rates by one-third since 1981. Relating declines in nitrate and pesticide concentrations to inputs of nitrogen fertilizer and pesticides at Big Spring is problematic. Annual recharge has varied five-fold during monitoring, overshadowing any water-quality improvements resulting from incrementally decreased inputs

Karst groundwater basin delineation, Fort Knox, Kentucky, 2002, Connair Dp, Murray Bs,
Evaluation of karst groundwater quality concern at Fort Knox Kentucky has required the development of a sitewide karst groundwater flow model and basin delineation investigation. The karst aquifer underlying Fort Knox is developed within approximately 60 m of the St. Louis Limestone and is bounded on three sides by surface streams that represent the local base level. The underlying Salem Limestone acts as a regional aquitard and provides a lower limit to karst aquifer development. The study area covers over 130 km(2) and contains over 200-inventoried karst features. As a part of this investigation, innovative multiple dye trace events were conducted throughout the study area using up to six dyes per event with a total of eight dyes used to conduct 14 dye traces during three seasonal events. Dye trace results, structural and topographic controls, spring characteristics, and normalized base flow were used to establish groundwater basin limits and boundary zones and to develop a conceptual sitewide groundwater flow model. The primary finding of this work indicates sitewide groundwater flow is controlled directly or indirectly by local stratigraphy, geologic structure, and changes in stream levels in the geologic past, and that two groundwater basins dominate the study area, accounting for approximately 80% of measured sitewide groundwater discharge. The findings of this investigation will be used to assess the groundwater contaminant contribution from source areas in individual basins, develop an effective groundwater monitoring program, and guide future groundwater management strategies. (C) 2002 Published by Elsevier Science B.V

A groundwater tracing investigation as an aid of locating groundwater monitoring stations on the Mitchell Plain of southern Indiana, 2002, Wanfang Zhou, Barry F. Beck, Arthur J. Pettit, Brad J. Stephenson,

Cross-formational rising groundwater at an artesian karstic basin: the Ayalon Saline Anomaly, Israel, 2006, Frumkin A, Gvirtzman H,
It is proposed that a geothermal artesian karstic system at the central part of the Yarkon-Taninim aquifer creates the 'Ayalon Saline Anomaly' (ASA), whose mechanism has been under debate for several decades. A 4-year-long detailed groundwater monitoring was carried out at 68 new shallow boreholes in the Ayalon region, accompanied by a comprehensive survey of karstic voids. Results indicate the rising of warm-brackish groundwater through highly permeable swarms of karstic shafts, serving as an outflow of the artesian geothermal system. The ASA area contains 'hot spots', where groundwater contrasts with,normal' water hundreds of meters away. The ASA temperature reaches 30 degrees C ( similar to 5 degrees C warmer than its surroundings), chloride concentration reaches 528 mg/l (50-100 mg/l in the surrounding), H2S concentration reaches 5.6 mg/l (zero all around) and pH value is 7.0 (compared with 7.8 around). Subsequently, the hydrothermal water flows laterally of at the watertable horizon through horizontal conduits, mixing with 'normal' fresh water which had circulated at shallow depth. Following rainy seasons, maximal watertable rise is observed in the ASA compared to its surroundings. Regional hydrogeology considerations suggest that the replenishment area for the ASA water is at the Samaria Mountains, east of the ASA. The water circulates to a great depth while flowing westward, and a cross-formational upward flow is then favored close the upper sub-aquifer's confinement border. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved

Overview of the WIPP groundwater monitoring programs with inferences about karst in the WIPP vicinity, 2006, Hillesheim M. B. , Beauheim R. L. , Richardson R. G.

Reconnaissance study of active sulfide springs and cave systems in the southern part of the Sulaimani Governorate (NE Iraq), 2010, Iurkiewicz Adrian A. , Stevanovic Zoran P.

A fairly important number of springs with H2S degassing were identified in all three structural compartments of northeastern Iraq, namely the thrust, high and Low Folded Zones. The speleogenesis process is active for some of these systems and the sulfuric acid dissolution is partly documented for the initiation and actual progress of the process. Apart from carbonic acid dissolution of carbonate rocks, the speleogenesis process can also be activated and sustained by sulfuric acid dissolution. Caves genetically based on the oxidation of H2S have been described in a continuously increasing number of sites distributed worldwide. Presence of sulfide springs in the northeastern part of Iraq is normal rather than exceptional. It is assumed that H2S from deeper oil/gas structures, or only resulting from hydrocarbons existent in caprocks or in
carbonate layers, is entrapped within the anticline plunge. Groundwater monitoring and intensive mapping activities exploiting UN-FAO program research data (2001–2003) support the preliminary hypothesis concerning the understanding and analysis of the most relevant sulfide spring. Specific to these karst systems is the combination of chemical/dissolution processes leading to mixed karst morphology features heaving as starting point occurrences of gypsum layers and possible hydrocarbon solutions inflows.

Origin and evolution of a salty gypsum/anhydrite karst spring: the case of Poiano (Northern Apennines, Italy), 2010, Chiesi Mauro, De Waele Jo, Forti Paolo

Poiano is the largest karst spring of the Emilia Romagna region (northern Italy). It drains an aquifer of unique properties composed of anhydrite with halite lenses at depth and gypsum at the surface (both with high NaCl content). Hydrogeological research has been undertaken using automatically recorded hourly data on temperature, electrical conductivity, and water level. Water feeding the Poiano spring is restricted within the gypsum/anhydrite outcrop between the Lucola, Sologno and Secchia rivers.

Karstification in the Upper Secchia Valley only concerns the gypsum rocks mainly present along the border and in the shallower parts of the sulfate outcrop and does not appear to occur at depth. Data strongly support the hypothesis that the salt content in the spring water derives from active halokinetic movements. For the first time, the fundamental hydrogeological importance of the anhydrite part inside the sulfate rocks is demonstrated. If gypsum prevails over anhydrite the karst drainage network can extend deep into the rocks following a network of fractures and fissures. Instead, if in the deep parts of the aquifer anhydrite prevails over gypsum, the karst evolution cannot take place at depth and the structure of the underground drainage paths only follows near-surface paths in gypsum. 


Engineering Issues on Karst, 2011, Zhou Wanfang, Beck Barry F.

The design and construction of engineering structures in karst regions must deal with such challenges as difficulty in excavating and grading the ground over pinnacled rockheads, instability of ground surface, and unpredictable groundwater flow conditions. Detailed subsurface investigation using boring exploration, geophysical techniques, tracer testing, and groundwater monitoring helps optimize foundation designs and minimize uncertainties inherent in their construction. Based on the maturity of karst landscapes, depth and dimension of karst features, and vulnerability of groundwater contamination, methods that have been established to control surface water and groundwater and minimize sinkhole development include relocating structures to a safer site, filling voids/fractures with concrete, soil reinforcement, constructing deep foundations, and remediating sinkholes.

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