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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 11 Jul, 2012
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That phreatic rise is the upward movement of the water table [16].?

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Search in KarstBase

Your search for groundwater protection (Keyword) returned 33 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 33
Elements of groundwater protection in a karst environment, 1992, Kresic Neven, Papic Petar, Golubovic Radisav,

The characteristics of karst groundwater systems. COST Action 65 - Hydro geological Aspects of Groundwater Protection in Karstic Areas. Final Report, European Commission Report EUR 16547, 1995, Bakalowicz M. , Drew D. , Orvan J. Et Al.

Hydrogeological Aspects of Groundwater Protection in Karstic Areas, Final report (COST Action 65), Report EUR 16547, 1995,

Hydrogeological Aspects of Groundwater Protection in Karstic Areas; Guidelines, EUR 16526, 1995,

Role of public awareness in groundwater protection, 1997, Ekmekci M, Gunay G,
Scarcity of water, particularly in towns situated along the Mediterranean coast where the main aquifers are in karstic carbonate rocks, necessitates more thoroughness in exploiting and protecting the groundwater resources. Geomorphological and hydrogeological studies have revealed large quantities of the input and throughput features, such as sinkholes, dolines, uvalas and poljes in the recharge areas of many karst aquifers in Turkey. Naturally, recharge areas are generally located at higher elevations and regions remote from the urbanized areas. These features lead the local authorities and persons to utilize the karst features for their own purposes. Dolines and ponors are commonly utilized as injection points for wastewater, while uvalas and poljes are used as solid waste disposal sites. When doing this, the people are unconscious of the connection of such sites with the wells or springs that provide water for their supply. A number of occurrences in Turkey have demonstrated that, no matter how perfect the efficiency of the technical work, protection of the water resources-is primarily related to the consciousness of the local authorities. They must either take proper measures to protect the resources or to educate the public in this issue. To achieve this aim, it is very important to involve the public administrative sector and the technical sector in preparing guidelines for integrated environmental evaluation of karst water resources. The main phase of a study should include locating appropriate sites for disposal of wastewater and various liquid and solid wastes that will satisfy requirements by the administrators as well as providing a water supply of good quality for the public. This paper discusses the issue of how to overcome the public awareness problem. Some examples demonstrate how the technical, achievements failed to be effective and applicable due to the lack of contribution on the part of the local authorities and the public. Some suggestions are made concerning a revision of the currently insufficient regulations

Results of a study about tracing tests transfer functions variability in karst environment, 1997, Doerfliger N.
Artificial tracing tests are often used to simulate migration of a point-source contaminant under various hydrological conditions in karst hydrogeological impact assessment or to define groundwater protection zones. Due to economic reasons, it is rather difficult to carry out adequate tracing tests to determine what are the possible recovery curves over range of discharges at the outlet, are the tracer test results representative of the spring watercatchment being protected ? Our objective was to characterize the tracing-systems in a karst environment by a mean transfer function; such transfer function may be used to predict the breakthrough curve of a point-source contaminant taking into account an error factor. A Jura mean transfer function with + and -95% interval confidence functions can be established and differentiated from the Alps mean transfer function. The use of this transfer function to predict the response of a point-source contaminant requires considerations of water catchment size, thickness or the aquifer and discharge at the outlet. The results of this variability analysis confirm that the transfer functions by themselves may not be used to protect the whole karst spring water catchment, as this one is affected by the heterogeneity of the physical parameters. At the scale of a water catchment, transfer functions are not the major tool to protect the groundwater. But with a multiattribute approach of vulnerability mapping, transfer functions contribute to the development of groundwater protection strategy.

EPIK, methode de cartographic de la vulnerabilite des aquiferes karstiques pour la delimitation des zones de protection., 1997, Doerfliger Nn. , Zwhalen F.
The EPIK method is a general multiattribute method used for the karst aquifer vulnerability mapping and to provide a base to assesss the groundwater protection zones in the karst environment. The goal of this method developed with the support of the Federal Officle for Environment, Forest and Landscape is to produce some vulnerability maps for karst spring watercatchments. According to the selected attributes, the obtained vulnerability zones can be a base to outline the groundwater protection zones. After having determined the spring watercatchment borderlines, we proceed in four steps: 1) mapping of the epikarst (geomorphological approach), 2) protective cover mapping, 3) infiltration conditions mapping and 4) characterization of the karst network development. Each of this attribute is subdivided in classes that are weightd by a theoretical coefficient. The four attributes maps are overlayed using a GIS and for each zone vulnerability degree is calculated; the resulting map is the vulnerability map. This method was tested in Switzerland on several sites .whose some results are here introduced.

Mapping groundwater vulnerability: the Irish perspective, 1998, Daly D, Warren Wp,
The groundwater protection scheme used in the Republic of Ireland since the 1980s had not encompassed the vulnerability mapping concept. Yet internationally, vulnerability maps were becoming an essential part of groundwater protection schemes and a valuable tool in environmental management. Consequently, following a review of protection schemes world-wide, the scheme used in Ireland was updated and amended to include vulnerability maps as a crucial component of the scheme. The approach taken to vulnerability assessments and mapping in the Republic of Ireland has been dictated by the following fundamental questions: Vulnerability of what? Vulnerability to what? Which factors determine the degree of vulnerability? What is the appropriate scale for map production? How can limitations and uncertainties be taken into account? How can vulnerability assessments be integrated into environmental and resource management? The following decisions were made: (i) we should map the vulnerability of groundwater, not aquifers or wells/springs; (ii) the position in the groundwater system specified to be of interest is the water-table (i.e. first groundwater encountered) in either sand/gravel aquifers or in bedrock; (iii) we should map the vulnerability of groundwater to contaminants generated by human activities (natural impacts are a separate issue); (iv) as the main threat to groundwater in Ireland is posed by point sources, we should map the vulnerability of groundwater to contaminants released at 1-2 m below the ground surface; (v) the characteristics of individual contaminants should not be taken into account; (vi) the natural geological and hydrogeological factors that determine vulnerability are the sub-soils above the watertable, the recharge type (whether point or diffuse) and, in sand/gravels, the thickness of the unsaturated zone; (vii) based on these factors, four vulnerability categories are used (extreme, high, moderate and low); (viii) map scales of 1:50 000 and 1:10 000 are preferred; (ix) limitations and uncertainties are indicated by appropriate wording on the maps and a disclaimer; (x) vulnerability maps should be incorporated into groundwater protection schemes, which should be used in decision-making on the location and control of potentially polluting developments. Vulnerability maps have now been produced for a number of local authority areas. They are an important part of county groundwater protection schemes as they provide a measure of the likelihood of contamination, assist in ensuring that protection schemes are not unnecessarily restrictive of human economic activity, help in the choice of engineering preventative measures, and enable major developments, which have a significant potential to contaminate, to be located in areas of relatively low vulnerability and therefore of relatively low risk, from a groundwater perspective

Evidence for rapid groundwater flow and karst-type behaviour in the Chalk of southern England, 1998, Macdonald A. M. , Brewerton L. J. , Allen D. J. ,
With the growing importance of groundwater protection, there is increasing concern about the possibility of rapid groundwater flow in the Chalk of southern England and therefore in the frequency and distribution of karstic' features. Pumping test data, although useful in quantifying groundwater resources and regional flow, give little information on groundwater flow at a local scale. Evidence for rapid groundwater flow is gathered from other, less quantifiable methods. Nine different strands of evidence are drawn together: tracer tests; observations from Chalk caves; Chalk boreholes that pump sand; descriptions of adits; the nature of water-level fluctuations; the Chichester flood; the nature of the surface drainage; geomorphological features; and the presence of indicator bacteria in Chalk boreholes. Although the evidence does not prove the widespread existence of karstic features, it does suggest that rapid groundwater flow should be considered seriously throughout the Chalk. Rapid groundwater flow is generally more frequent close to Palaeogene cover and may also be associated with other forms of cover and valley bottoms

Water vulnerability assessment in karst environments: a new method of defining protection areas using a multi-attribute approach and GIS tools (EPIK method), 1999, Doerfliger N, Jeannin Py, Zwahlen F,
Groundwater resources from karst aquifers play a major role in the water supply in karst areas in the world, such as in Switzerland. Defining groundwater protection zones in karst environment is frequently not founded on a solid hydrogeological basis. Protection zones are often inadequate and as a result they may be ineffective. In order to improve this situation, the Federal Office for Environment, Forests and Landscape with the Swiss National Hydrological and Geological Survey contracted the Centre of Hydrogeology of the Neuchatel University to develop a new groundwater protection-zones strategy in karst environment. This approach is based on the vulnerability mapping of the catchment areas of water supplies provided by springs or boreholes. Vulnerability is here defined as the intrinsic geological and hydrogeological characteristics which determine the sensitivity of groundwater to contamination by human activities. The EPIK method is a multi-attribute method for vulnerability mapping which takes into consideration the specific hydrogeological behaviour of karst aquifers. EPIK is based on a conceptual model of karst hydrological systems, which suggests considering four karst aquifer attributes: (1) Epikarst, (2) Protective cover, (3) Infiltration conditions and (4) Karst network development. Each of these four attributes is subdivided into classes which are mapped over the whole water catchment. The attributes and their classes are then weighted. Attribute maps are overlain in order to obtain a final vulnerability map. From the vulnerability map, the groundwater protection zones are defined precisely. This method was applied at several sites in Switzerland where agriculture contamination problems have frequently occurred. These applications resulted in recommend new boundaries for the karst water supplies protection-zones

Groundwater protection zone delineation at a large karst spring in western Ireland, 2000, Deakin J,
Pouladower Spring is a large karst spring in County Clare, Ireland which is being considered for use as a public supply. Groundwater protection zones have been delineated as a water quality management strategy for the spring. The Irish national groundwater protection scheme methodology is adapted to take account of the hydrological and hydrogeological complexities of the karst regime. The catchment area for the spring is large (approximately 380 km2) and comprises the zones of contribution for two major outlets of water, the spring and the River Fergus. The actual zone of contribution to the spring varies with different water level conditions and the risk to the source from any point within the catchment, at any given time, is less than that for a conventional groundwater source. The catchment area is highly vulnerable, but dilution and sedimentation occurring in the lakes up gradient of the source, the high throughput, and the contribution from fissures outside the main flow conduits have helped maintain good water quality at the spring. The source is considered to be a combination of both groundwater and surface water as they are intricately inter-linked throughout the catchment. An Inner Protection Area is delineated which does not provide the 100-days travel time to the source required by the national scheme, as this would be impractically large and over-protective. Rather, it delineates the area of highest hydrogeological risk to the source and should allow the local authority sufficient time to act in the event of an accidental spill. A certain degree of microbial contamination is inevitable in a karst regime and treatment is essential, as it would be for a surface water source. The remainder of the catchment is classed as an Outer Protection Area. These protection areas are then combined with the vulnerability in a GIS to give groundwater protection zones which will be used by the planners, in conjunction with groundwater protection responses, to control potentially contaminating activities

Groundwater protection in a Celtic region: the Irish example, 2000, Misstear Bruce D. , Daly Donal,
One of the key environmental objectives of the proposed EU Water Framework Directive is that Member States must prevent the deterioration of groundwater quality. A national groundwater protection scheme for Ireland has been published recently. This scheme shows certain broad similarities to the groundwater protection policy for England and Wales, incorporating the concepts of groundwater vulnerability, source protection zones and responses to potentially polluting activities. However, the Irish scheme is different in several important respects, reflecting the different hydrogeological conditions and pollution concerns in Ireland. Some of these hydrogeological conditions and pollution concerns are common to the other Celtic regions. A major feature of the Irish scheme is the importance given to subsoil permeability in defining groundwater vulnerability. At present, the subsoil permeability is classified in qualitative terms as high, moderate or low. For the protection scheme to be defensible, it is essential to adopt a systematic and consistent approach for assigning subsoil units to these permeability categories. In mapping groundwater vulnerability, it is also useful to take account of secondary indicators such as groundwater recharge potential, natural and artificial drainage density and vegetation characteristics. Another important issue in Ireland is the protection of groundwater in karst areas, since these areas are especially vulnerable to contamination

Ecological incidents in Northern Adriatic Karst (Croatia), 2000, Geres D, Rubinic J, Ozanic N,
In spite of growing efforts to preserve the quality of groundwater resources, accidental pollution is becoming increasingly frequent, resulting in long-lasting impact on the groundwater status. The consequences of ecological accidents are particularly expressed in karst regions, which are caused by the geological properties of the area where the groundwater aquifers are situated, as well as by hydrological circumstances which also influence the dynamic mechanisms of water flow and transportation of pollution in the karst environment. The paper stresses the hydrological component of karst aquifer function and the related role of hydrology in assessment of the hazards caused by accidental pollution and, once the accident has happened, in monitoring the situation and forecasting the possible impact on water resources. The analysis of ecological accidents in the karst has been made, based on the actual examples of accidents involving fuel substances recorded in the Northern Adriatic karst area in Croatia in the period from 1990 to 1998. The basic characteristics of the mechanism of water movement in the karst are presented from the hydrological standpoint, as well as the related risk of rapid transportation of pollutants into the parts of the aquifers used for water supply. The paper also contains proposals for possible approaches to protection of particularly valuable water resources in the karat from accidental pollution occurring in road transport

Geological Engineering in Karst: Dams, Reservoirs, Grouting, Groundwater Protection, Water Tapping Tunnelling, 2000, Milanovic P. T.

Geological Engineering in Karst. Dams, reservoirs, grouting, groundwater protection, water tapping, tunneling., 2000, Milanovic, T.

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